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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 8, September 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 8, September 1955 - File 069. 1955-09. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. August 3, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/489/show/488.

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Facts Forum. (1955-09). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 8, September 1955 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/489/show/488

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 8, September 1955 - File 069, 1955-09, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed August 3, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/489/show/488.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 8, September 1955
Alternate Title Facts Forum News, Vol. IV, No. 8, September 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date September 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript BAY •.• - .......... - ln this Issue: The Bricker Amendment BRICKER and LEHMAN • Racial Segregation WARREN and EASTLAND • Our Agricultural Economy BENSON SENATOR JOHN J. SPARKMAN DEMOCRAT Of ALABAMA '· t dare 1101 u111lertake lo as.\llfl' you that you r librrtfrs and your ha[J[Ji;1t•s.1 mar not /,e lost 1 ... 11£11 IR£ .1 11£ cJL T IO[ ,! ) Oil han• ('L('f\/ /ung lo lose! ... fre lll·e in the 011 /_) go1ern111e11t that ei·er e.tisted llhich 1rns framed by the deliberate consultations of tlu' [JeO[Jle. l/ iracles do not cluster. 7 hat llhic!t has happened bu t once in 6,000 years can not be expected lo happen often. S uch a gor· ern11ie11 /. 0111·e gone, might h'at•e a void to be filled fo r aw's n ith rt'i·olution and l11111ult, riot and despotism!., - D\'\ IEL \\ J ll'i'H~ll July I, 1802 ' ·The idea of impo.1ing restrictio11.1 on a f ree eronom\· to as.,ure freedom of comprlitwn is Iii.I' i1Tl'al:i11g a man·s leg to make him run fas ter." - \! 0 1rn1s R. S.n HE " A gt1i11st 1/11' i11.1idious 1riles of fo reign influence. the jealou.1/y of a fr1'1' peo[Jle ought to br co11sta11tly mcake; since his· tory and l't[JNiencr J!fOL'I' that fo reig11 injluenrc is one of thr most baneful foes of Republican Got·em mr111." CEOl\GE \\ \ SIJJ '\GTO:\ '·Peace is not made b)' co111promi1e. It does not {!TOil Olli of rx[Jrdil•ncr. Peacr is not a .flolll'f (!,TOil in(!, in the ll'Or/d's fo rmal {!(trdrn. It i.1 ra th er a pror/111·1 of the blacksmith ·s /or{!e hammrrrd out on the am·i/ of sacri.ficr and wffering . .. heated in the {ifl's of d('t'o lion to ri{!hteousness ... /l•111 perrd in the oil of mercy and goodness . . . Peace is a costly thin(!,." " ThNe are things that are dl'l'ply and rlanp,erous/1 11 rong 11 ith !f111 rrira, and the true patriot i.1 he 11 ho .11•es them, re· grels th<•m. and trh•., to rt•mon• tlu'm : · -F110~1 P ETEii \1 \HS ll ,1.1 ·s. unJO'\ ''Tlw \ mrriran Drt>am"' .\ \Ian Calle<I P<ter P e r.,.On "i .;; uhmittin~ quota t ion .;; nhich arf' u"'etl in tl1i ... (•o lumn ni ll r("n•iH• one ­~ C"ar ... ulJ.,4_-rip t ion ... to Fnr t .~ FortHn I\ e ff.~ . Jf alrf'ady a "'Hh"'(' ri h t"'r. thf' <·ont ri lm lor ma) de .. i:,:-rrntc anotl1C'r p <•r..,011 to \\hom the a\H1rd i.uh .. t·ri p tion "i ll he '-f' n l . or he m a ~ "j.,Ji to t', lend li i"i pre ... e111 "'llh­: o.t'f'iption. Be .. ure to li ... 1 tlic a uth o r ., and 'ioun·c~ of a ll quotation.,. Help Resto re, Preserve and Improve I· r11m \ornrnn I omhanl. prt' .. itlent of tht• In­... fitul!• of \ pplit•d ( iti11•11-..hip. l.lO Fifth he., \t'\\ ) nrl :u1. \. ) . .. , nott-' )flUr n·que .. t that n•aclt'r"' inform you of their anti-C:ommuni .. 1 at·ti' ilit> .... \\ t' ''ould appn·l'i.ltt' it ir )OU ''ould C'arry a paracraph .. U!!!!t• .. tin!! that \1111r rt>a•ln ... "ritt' 11 ... for a rop) of our lolcl<'r, '\\ II \T YOl ( \ '\ oo· to help rr ... 111rt', prt'""t'nt', and imprmc our \ nwriran !'y .. tt·m. " ) ou ''ill -.re that \H' art' oppo ... inp; commu­ni ... rn hul art• pror1·t•di111! ::don!! linf' .. -.onH'\\hal difTert>nt ... in that \\t' uq!e intel l i).!enl. h1- fnrmed. and pal riot ie \ merican-.; to μet into politic-. '' hrrr. ii i ... our thf' .. i-.;. the final enμaμ:t'­ment in thf' current pha"'C' of the ideo lnidra l war of tlw indh idual aμuin ... t tlw power complex "ill ht> fnu~ht ... Wis hing fo r Self-Destruction ? \ _raduale I''"'' l'holoμi ... t. F Xt'fUliH' Secretary Frann"' B. f .11(\l"'. \atJt•nal Drfen-.;r. '\.C.:..D. \ .H .. f('t·I .. thr "-O·fallt•d " \\ i .... hin~ \X ell"' tf' .. I"' a:iH•n to diildn·n in .. omf' .... c11ool .. "·undermine thr -.;1·1f-<·onfidt•n<'P of \ nwrican children "' anfl a ... k ... ·· 11a ... thi .. lt' .. t lwrn μiH•n to YOl H chil­dren'/ .. \ -.amplf' of '-fHlH' of lih· '· \\ j ... hinμ: \\ t>ll"' rf'marJ.. .. "hich d1iltlrt•n ha'" been a-ked to dlf'fk a .... heinl! un111n).! tlwir pn .. ona l prob lem ... : l. I \\ i-.h our fomi lv had more money <..O we tlidn't l rnH~ to μo "it hout .. o many thinμ--. 2. I \\ j .. h my \Ott' n·a lh <·ountt'< l. ~ - J ,,j ... Jt 1 knew \\hy IH'oplt• !'"a} that evny. onr j .. f''lua l "lwn .. ome pt'OJ•le ha\ e more money than other .... I. J "j .. h 111) p;.nent .. cli•I thin;.r .. that would makt• mr ff•t•l mnrt• )me l1t\\anl them. .~ . I "j .. h <..omrone \\ot1ld help me to 5ec the plan· of rrlil!ion in m~ lift". Plaudits to the Press Prai .. f'\\flfth) 111dt•t>d an· llP\\ .. f13Jll'r rlippinp:s .... rnt lo 11 .. fr11111 n·1.11l1·r .. at·ro .... the countrv .... }10,, inμ pal riot ic prt• ... t•nlal ion ... in I hrir lo<·al pre-.. .... \ 11111111! pap1•r ... applaud1·1 l: 1he 1~1 !'aw Timt·.~ an1l 1he Oma/111 lforfd. // 1•rald for their lull· pa!!f' ·· P rinwr for \ mrrif'an-.: ., 1 lw llanchrster ( \. // .) ( nion /i1•arl1•r for it._ fnl l -pa~e repro· tlurtion of llw l}(•f·laralion of IJH!t'pendt•n<'e, and the \ elt' llt-dlord ( 1/a.\.,,J Standard-Time.\ (or it- rolol!ra,ur.r fl'aturt·. ''Fi:.. d 1t fnr the l nion." O' er the Home of the Brave In thr Clf'\f·land. Ohio. public !--ljUare. the \ nwrit·an Ila!! 1111\\ flir ... at a hi: .dwr le,f'I than tlw ( 11it1·d \ati1111-. fl.1~ 4Jiw to 1111' efTori-.. of J11hn (,, ( '11Jli .. lt"r. In a .. uil fllt>tl a \t'ar a1•11 ( "olJi ... ft•r C'har!!t•d that. t·o11tra1~ to fetirral l;w: l \ fla~ ... \\t'l"f' !will!! flo\\ n al tlu• "'i.llllf' lu·i~ht a ... \ mni<·an Ilaμ .. in lht• pnhli(' .. quan-. ll C' tlt- ... n1lwd thi .. art ion a ... an <Jlla('k 1hat weakt•rl-. the .. mt•rri!!llly of tlw :,!11\t'rlllllt'lll or the l nited "'lalf• .... Tht• mat11·r "a ... 11°1 .. 1•1tlt·d unti l n·1·t•n1 h ,d ll'n 1111 judμt>. allornr\ .. , and .:1 f1111rlroo111 a111liP rH'f' irwludin;.! a croup of palriotif' \\Olll('ll had \\alkt••I l\\fl·thinl .. or a 111il1· in IJ~·dr:,!rt•(' h1•1.11 In liw "-flll:lrf' und h.1d .11;.!111"d th1• 111,111n at lt·n;:?.th "hilt> lookin!! 11p al tht· flullt•rin;..! ban ner .... \ laH1r \ 11th1111\ { 1·li·Ju,·11r• .. rrtlrd t lw i-.-.;ut• by ordnin:.: th.it \ nwril-an fla;.qHllt·:-; in Of, by, and for facts forum News readers !ht' -.quart' Iii· 1ai .... t'tl forl;r inche ...... 11 thert> \\Ot1 ld lw no doubt hu t that Old Glory topped all ot her Ila~ .. fh inc 1warl1y. So Proudly Hailed \l 1·a rnd1il1· in \t>\\ llamp .. hire, Ycterans of 1-oreicn \\ ar ... I \landw .. tf'r Centra l f>o,t '\11. ·1 t? 1) haH' pa ...... t•d a n· ... olulion a .. kinl! the -.;talc lt>μ:i-.; lat urt• to prodaim J une 11 of t•ach year 3"' Fla)! Du) and IO makt• it a IP;,ra l ho lida' in \e" llump ... hirt'. It j-.; lh<' hopt· or 1he \ F\\ pn ... t that -.11d1 ac· tion \\1111td rt•..,u lt in a fu ll t'r oh .. enanre or Flaμ Day \\it h al l ci1i11• 11 -.; jo inin l! H•l('ran-.. c· i\ic. and pal rio lic· oq.~an i 1.at i 1111-.; in pu) in)! re .. pN'I to 1hc \ nu.•r iran fl al!. Patriot ism Stems from Grass Roots Ho\\ l,!ra-..., roo t' idea-. can :rn1\\ to national proporliun-. j-.; exempl ifi1·d h' a Ill"''' 111 (;rant! Hapi1!.... \l it·hi;.ran. lo t>nC'cH1ra:,!t• ''id1• ... prea1I apprt•ciatinn of the Con-.t itutit111 or 1ht' l nitrd Stall'" th rouJ.!:h nn (.• .. -.ay ronw-.1. T ho11-;.111d ... of \Ollll.!! \ mniean ... t hro1q ..d 1u11I thf' rnun ln now for u" 1hrir altt•n tion 011 1h1 Con .. 1ituti1111 t h roul! h t lw r ...... ay compe1i1io11 -.;pon .... ored hy thr \ationa l \ ........ o(' iation of Hf'1.tl 1-: ... 1att' BoanJ-.;. The ide-a horn in \1 ichil!an ha .. μ: rm'n to indwlt• more parl i<'ipatinl! .. ('} 1 00 1 ~ and -.1udt•11 t-.; t•a1·h H'ar. La-.1 \ear mon· than l.100 t• ...... u\-.; \\l'rt' t•;1tt•n·d. . The natio nal \\ i111w r wa-.; \nn T urrwr. h o 11 0 1 !--lt1dt• nl al ' l.honrn' J efTer ... on 11 iμ-h ~<· h oo l. Hir h· mond. \ iri,! inrn . I In winn inμ: r ...... tn ... \\hut tl u· Bi ll of Hii..d1t-.; \I ran ... lo \l e,'1 opt' n"': •· ( arn tht• Bill of Hi μ;ht-.;. I n· p rr-.;rnt \ 111t•r ir.1. I d\\Pll in her rhurdit• ... hrr <'011r1-.. lwr Ill'" .... papPr ... I 11n1tt·t·t lu·r pt>oplr. l .1111μ: aμ:o Ill) ' ' ''' wa ... Jli.l\l'fl. Ill) dt• .. fim e-.tahli .. twd. I hold tht· rig:ht .. of all \ 111rrica11 ... I am l lli'ir \\aldrnor•I. their lwli1•f ..... lhf'ir -.1111111-! holcl. ""'n long: ~i-. I 11H1\ rin~ thr \\OrtJ .. of frt•t•dom. I am the Jia .. j-.; nf their liH· .... anti in me re ... i... tht• la\\ of a nation." Your Thanks - Our Spurs C(~lllllH'llf-.; J1kt' Ilic fo lfl)\\ ill ;,! !--Jlllf tJ1 j -.; ('OJ' umn <.; dT011 -.: \fr,,.. II. \ . Cnadt• or \ "kJ,., , lo"n, '"·i11· ... , •·1 \\Hiii to addrt•-.;-.; 1hi -. portio1l of my l1·11t•r to 'H1·adn..; H1·port' <'On tlw \ Int" f'n lumn of F af'l.'I F ofltfll \ 1·1n I. Th i .. ro lumn appt•ar-.; 111 ht• a .. or! of i,!i..lt h t• r in~ !-. l atio n for 1hin p:­\ 11H'rit'a11." Operation Die s• Appendix l\1·il E. \\'c·w·rman, prt•..,id1•nt of Tlw Prott·rl \ merica l .1·ag:11t', l1u· .• '-t'111J .. thi-. i11f11 r11iatioil: .. Planninl! lo rt•prndtlf't• 1!11• long .... 011~ '1 1 ~tftt'.r \ fart in l> i1· ... • \ ppendi, 1 \ . Th i .. i .. .i nonprnhl projnt in \\hid1 -.ufli('it·nt fina1wt• .. \\il l h1 ' rai ... pd h) .:uhum·t• .. ub .. niplion fo r 1hi· -.;1•\t'LI~ \0!111111• .. pl. \\ !' ft'P I ii \\ill ('Ollfr il111tt• 111twh 11' t ho .. 1· \\ho un• μi\ i n~ of ri!f'ir ti rnt• lo pn· ... t'I"'' our \ 11wric;111 \HI\ of lift' il"' :--t•I fm th in .our Con-.1i1 11 1ion arl( i" !h t' D<'r larati1111 of Jn11t'· 111· 111lt• 11 1·t·.·· For fur lhn information. conl a<'I liH' l .t•;tJ.!lil al Hu, H. Oakln ""'talion. Cincin nati 9. OhiP· ( 0 '\ 'J ll E \l.EllT- Kt·1·1' 11i;, '"'"""" i11for111t>d of p a t rio t i1· a1 ·ti,iti(' "' in ,.,ur a rt•a h~ "ri l i11,: H B t • aclt~ r.., lh ·p ort," Fad'" Forum, Da lla ... I , Tt''-U"'.) Volu Ortic ·Jttrksot •n the ritht•r-11 .\ny ar may b rr~-.i~·~ BOA Pre,.idf• i\. Gill l\t ra. E U. Gosi ADV f'hairm David Rian tor • 8\"&(rf', McQuil: ~. We<! McNid(' rr ye [ fl1 'SJ I f>o1 'I Tin, I 0 1 II I· In 1 C l1n I Q1 1\1 (l H11JJ0 lJOJ>J 1' 100 1 '>U.HF ( \\ II \1 h \\Il l.I l I.\\()' \ [·01 LO \ !\I LB · BooK llo1n;. lu1 I \\ill II Tin I· \(\HI' Co,n Ltni: II l i'J i'ou i'ou. l. ()(,\ ers lwrr \\otild •d all other eteran.., of I Po ... t \o. 1g: the .. tale J{'h year a.., la' in \t<" at :--11d1 ac· ·1n• of Flaμ: ;, ci\ ic. and pt•«t to the 1ots to national ~· in (.rand '' idt· .. prrad tht· l ni1t·d thro11μl111ul ion on 1111 ~ompetitiorl 1111 of lfr;.il d1i:.rnn Jia .. 111• .. ('}1001- l~(ff(' than rner. honor ·hool. Hirh· ··\\hat the 11 \merica. . her IH..,, ... 1μ:0 Ill} "a' I hold tlw \\;.lll'h\\Orf!. 1" J'- I llH•' h~ IJa._j.., of fa nation:· 1r tlii"' col· \Hl, \\ritt' .. • 11' lt·ltrr 111 (:O]Ulllll (I( appt'lH"' ltl for thinμ:- i'h<' Prott•rl 1f11r111atio11: ·flUJ,.dll affl'.f a nonprc1fll i' .. ,,jll lit tili' .,e,t·U· tit' llHIC'it Jtl lo pn· ... 1•1' 1' 111th in .011r 11 of l1ult•· ll1P I .rnμ:11t' ll i CJ. Ohi11· j .., ("0111111 11 .., in ,011r 1rt," Farl .. FACTS FORUM NEWS Volume IV SEPTEMBER, 1955 Number 8 Official public-ntion of Fact.a Forum. fnc., 1710 .. JackROn StrC'd. Dnllns l, Tt·xns. Publi14h(·d monthly •n the inter(·St~ of FRcts Forum participants and 11thl'r" C'oncern('({ witb dispC'lling public apn.thy \ny arli<'h• orisdnnting in FACTS FORUM NEWS may be frE't·ly rC'produccd. Sccond-clnss mailing PrivilN!' authoriud nt Dallas, Tl'xnR Printed in lJ S.A. Forum, nddrC'sM Joe Nash. Treasurer, Facts Forum. Dallas 1, Texas. Such contributions carry a tax­dcductiblc status. FACTS FORUM is a nation-wide public educa­tional venture dedicated to arousing public inter<'st in important current cvenlA and stimulating indi­vidual participation in the 1'4haping or public policy. BOARD OF DIRECTORS, Rob<•t H. Dedman. Pre~idt·nt : .Tohn L. DnlC', Vice-Pr(>Sidcnt; Warren A. Gilbt"rt. Jr., SC'crC'tary, Joe Na11h, TrN1.surC'r l\.f l'I. E. P Lamb<"rth, Mrs. Sue M<'Crnry, RobC'rt U. Gossett. ADVl ORY BOARD: Major Il. A. Hardey, f'hnirman; Or. Arthur A. Smith, Lloyd E. Skinner, David P. StricklE'r, Hnrry E. Rogier, William N . Blanton, Mra. H. N. Ru11scll. Jr., Mr8. Wallace ~a,·ag(', W. G. Vollm('r, Doak Walker, E. E. McQuillen, Governor Allan Shiv<'r8, General Albert C. WedemeyC'r, Gcn<·rnl RobC'rt E. Wood, Hanford McNidcr, John Wa)·ne. Fncts Forum is nonprofit and nonpartisan. sup­porting no political candidate or party. Facti­Forum's activitieA are designed to pr<'&ent not just one view or a controverAial i88ue, but all views, bC'liC'ving that it is the right and the obligation or thC' American people themsl'kea to learn all thE' fact.II and come to their own concluAion". TO SUBSCRIBE, ~ct• Pagc_•e 46-46. IC you wish to makC' a contribution to Facts CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Send old addrMie (C'xactly af' imprinted on mailing labC'l or your copy of FACTS FORUM NEWS) and nc_·w addr~s to FACTS FORUM NEWS. Oepartmt•nt CA, Dal· lne l, TexaA. Please nllow thrl'c weekA !or chang£'­ovl'r. IN TH IS ISSUE ll1 ss1 \'s l "\I \ t.HS tT IES cu H t. \ 0 1.l'T ICl"\. In f,1. Comdr. Honlf!.111111•rr \f. C"'''"- l .VVR Pot \t. In Of!.dl'11 '1 11.,/, T11 E I 1 \I, 01 Tll t. l .!-->.A .. hi U1nd 1111d /,,.i/a II hi111ey 01 11 I 1 \I.. hi Rrif!.. C1'11. Bo11111•r F1•1fn,. l S I ( fl'lirl'd) l 111 ( O"\~ rt n TIO"\ \s A F t Ht h s1H\"1. l'ot t< '. hr Cl.t,,1•nc1• \111111011 '1111 llHt< 1,1 H \ \JL"\IJ\IE"\ r lut1•nit•11 of. 1•11. John If . Br1ckt'f I i1•11"1 of S!'nator II l'fbt'ft IT. /,i•hm1m l m1•1ulm1'11l N1•c1'.\.lll ry to \ fai11 t11i1L lfo.,ic Freedoms, by Sid lfa rdin Qt 1\10\-\[ \TSl STt LI. E\1'1 Ost \! , hy .·!'no/ors John f .• porkman and IT il/i11 111 /~. fewu•r H \1>10 "n TV Sc11 rn1 t.Es 22, '{2, ll ot>f Is "icJT Evn c, 11, by John R. 4/i.1011 1' 1 oon 01 Sr t l.:\C E F1 n 10\, by Vi11ce11t Sh1•ectn '>f.(,tlf:(; \ TIO"\ I"\ T ll E P l Ill.IC S< 11 001.S Opinimi of thr Supfl'lllt' (011rt, hy Clurf ]u.,tice l~arl rl arren \\ 11 H·s Tllf STonv B 1:11 1"\D T ii t. Su;HH.\TtO"\ " Al'T 11 0 111T11::" hi· .~ erwtor f ames 0. Eastland \\ 11i.1T .\"\D Orn Acmcu1.n·n 11. Eco,m1r, by , ecrelary of ·l f!.riculturt' f:=ra Taft llrnson l,\\D\I \HKS 01 Ltnrnn. by Bradln / •. \ fori.\011 \ Fouc.on 1' W 111, by f... afl'l ]. I . I\ ikijuluw !.0\1\11 "\IS\I \l\O Eu1;c 1T IO"\, b) II illia111 F. R11.1sl'll Sui ·cn1t>T tO'\ Fo1n1 s llooK Btll'\l"\G 1Jm 1 T II L L1 m1 1Bt\"\S Do IT. hy l'iclor f,aslc} Boo" H 1.11E11s I 111 hlt'OllT\"\! l CH B \ t \\( "'· 1 11 1. Bl t><.ET. h) .~c11ator llarn Flood Iii rd \\ 111.111 \ tu. TltL l' \TR toTs":' hi l /i>nri /Jrodrflck Tin I· ls-, Amil T l'Ht <. t S1 Pl'<;Ins. h~ l~arl !J,.111/ \[\Hl"\t ()II II LI \H iii( \ T IO"\ . !.o\n ST B1 11.> Ltn1.11s To TH 1 L1>1 IOHs . II in111•r; Fir.1/ 1/11/f of 111:)) (111L/1•.1/ l Pl IK JOH llE\10( H\( '·ii) ( 11thcr1111• b th<'f St)lt•\ l'o1 L Qt 1.sno's 1\1> Pou Qi 1.>1 '"' \\ !"\\I.Its Pou. H ESt 1 TS nm L \ST \ loYrn ">t.o<.1"\ 1011 TIIL l\ loYrit l'lwro lrrdct, Pugc 7. Flag, C,ridcriwod & l.,rid<'rttvod 2 (> 7 7 0 " 11 11 15 :w :n. in 2:~ 21 25 27 :n :{8 10 n 15. 16 19 51 5 1 50 l) 59 (>() (1 l (1] (11 (>I (15 65 (15 0 \ OLH LOVEH- The llonoruhlc John J . Spnrkmun, (D,), distinguished l.'. S. enotor o f Al abama i'i t: urrcntly 11u rti ciputing in th f' "<'" F:wl"! For11n1 rudio ~rr i f'~ "iith ~ t" nut or \\'illiam E. J e n11 c r , ( IC .), of I ndi a n:,, F' ,\('TS FOHUM NEWS, Scptrml>er, 111 ... 1 What the v're s(1y ing ;;;J =;.;'-; / ~I~'>--,, labout FACTS FOR UM I takt" tinw on thi .. Flal! l>a~ to '''!lit"·"' I nl) appredation in rt•rf'i' inl! /- m ,, Fm 11111 \cu:s: it j .. out .. tarulinJ! in it ... fwld and I i..inrerely hopt• \\ill find it ... \\;:t\ 11110 1·H·n f'itizen · ... horn1· '"' \\. \\ lllTI 1720 B1·ra '-t (:on alli .... On• I am a ... uh .. nil1t·1 to yo111 11Hlj.!a1.1rn· think it i..hould ht' in l'H'r\ homt' in \1rn.:rica I •hall 110 nn part to help \tn ..... Gtt.m ttT \. HA1...,10'\ 1 l305 11 u•ton ~tre<'t ~lwrman Oak .... Calif. I han;· lwt>n a roni..tnnt lii..t1·rwr to )Ollr forum on Radio :-1ation h. ll'I\. llill•ltmo. Orep;on, and fin1I it H'n 1•njmnlil1· and 1·d11· rational \In. \ l rH"" \\ . .11111'\'o' P.t1·ifi1· t ni,r1 .. i1~. \pt. ( -S Fon· .. 1 (.nl\t'• ()n I tlunk tlic.• ... t' pol/ ... li11111-t 0111 th1· opinion-. of all tnw lmt'r ... of llH' lilw11u· ... lll141n 1lw Con~titution of rlll" l r11tl'd ~1a11• .. . I'. \ , ( ollt (.II ·>116 L 6th '-t \lont~onwn, \la. fat.I\ Forum ,'\fu.\ llh\1.1~-. puhJi ... llt'-. tlit truth ahout our 't'n in• nwn and \\Omen thal did wondnful \\Ork in l\. on•n. tlw tmtun• and hard-.hip they wt•nt throu1.d1 a-. pri ... onpr ... of war. and tlwir rni .. tn•atnwnl a... P.O \\ · .... \ H TOH \II -.If\, P 0. Jln, Bl2 Fent Worth. Te, a- I wi .. h that \'our n•adn-. \\ho .. Jrnn· m\ hi1 . .d1 reganl for Fan., Forum \ cu·., \\(HJ)~! ai..k tht'ir lihraric·-. to ~uh ... C'rilu• to it. 11 1'.:ttl hr dont• h) t'ithn makin~ tlw wq1u· .. 1 on a ... lip of papn .at tlll' lihran, 01 h~ \\litin·· tlw Chit'f Lihrarian ,... f>\ 11111 I\ ~ff))ll'\Ol Gil ·~:; 1\ lonro1• Pinn Tlrookhn. '\ \ Fan.\ forum Ynt' ha ... in ... pin·d l'fHllt•mpln lion in nw and in man) ntlwr ... of nn a1 quaintanrf' on mat11·r .. \\1 \\1111ld not 1u·rhap ... han• f'H'll 1·on .... 1dn1·d .1011:\ \\.\Tl ... s~ 17 I a'''ni1·\\ l 01 pti... ( hri .... ti . Tt·\a ... ' fan ll "it· r i JJ I "' ~ u hm i t I <'cl t o Facts F o rurn 1\'eu's ;;;; li o ulcl h (' ut·­con1 r>a n ied by i.uldr<' ... -.t•d <'IH <'­lope1' a nd rt'lurn JlO"'l a g <'. Puh­l i" h e r u 1oo'."lum e~ n o rt~ ...,r>on..,ihilit ) for r e turn of un ... o li r it C'd 111:11111 · M'r ipt ... . I Page 1 Russia's Universities of Revolution by Mo ntgomery M. Green LT. COMMANDER U. S. NAVAL RESERVE PERHAPS the moot closely guarded secret of world communism, cut off from view by the Iron Curtain and -hrouded in unbelievable security pre­caution•, is the system of colleges for profe,•ional revolutionaries that annu­ally turn out thou•and of skilled agita­toro to bede,·il the free "orld. Although this educational program has been in action for thirty year,, and has gradu­ated political •ahoteur' e,timated to num­ber a minimum of 100 thousand, its wn existence is unknown to mo't prople i~ the West. Such Communi,t cold war leaders as I-lo Chi :\linh, Klement Gottwald, Josip Broz (Tito). Jomo Kenyatta (head of the \!au \Iau) and many more have attended the,e college' centered in \fo,cow. Other Communi,t big •hob from all over the 11orld are kno\\n to have lectured at the•e •chool, during Yi•ib to the l. .. S.R. and to have •at in on numerous conference, with the Kremlin leader•. The-e foreign ,·jsitor, ha\e included \1ao Tse-tung, Li Li-san and Chu Teh of China, Palmiro Togliatti of Italy. W. Pieck of Germany. Otto Kuu•inen of Finland. Earl Browder and William Z. Foster of the l .:,. The rea,;on for the super-secrecy with which the,e schools haw been sur­rounded is that they constitute the mo,t successful cold war weapon vet developed hv worl<I rommunism How did the Page 2 Chine,e Communists learn how to de­moralize and disintegrate the superior \'ationalist forces and take China with little fighting? H01' did they know how to organize hina in four years to a point where they could fight the linited "tales to a stand-till in Korea? Where did they learn the negotiating techniques \\ith which they outwitted first Gen. :\1arshall. and later our people at Pan­munjom? The ans\\ er is that for twenty­fi, ·e years they had hren studying thesr thin!!' at the East!'rn l'niversitr. also known as the J nstitutr for the Toilers of the Orient, in Moscow. Where did the Communist leader> of Poland. Ea-,t Germany_ Czechoslovakia. and the Ball..an countries learn how to purge and keep enslaved thc•e nations that were •eizrd for them hy the Red \rm1? The1 learned at the International Leni~ l ni' rr,ity or at thr Western l'ni· wr•ity in \In-co". Where did the \merican Communiob learn ho" to organize fronts to do their bidding? Where did they learn the trich of propaganda through which they often can induce capitali't newspapers and lih. era\ scientists ancl 'rholar' to echo their 1 i ne? They learned all of th is at the Lenin l ni~rr,ity in 1\Ios!'ow. By the waging of political 11 arfare tlw Communists ha\'f' rxpandr<l th('ir rralm from I!'"' than 200 nullion people in 191S to a total of over 800 millions ten year. later. Is it any wonder that they do their best to keep the•e methods •ecret from their enemies? \Tevertheless, partial information ha• filtered out. The writer has talked or co1· responded with a half-dozen former stu· denl5 of the Lenin chool who attendee! cluring the early thirties and have loniz since renounced communism. Additional information has heen derived from othr1 sources 11 hich will he identified he lo\\. \ s far as i'i knmrn by leading authori· ties on communism in this country no Lenin chool students have come for· ward to re\eal their stories in the post· war years. There is e1idcnce, however. that the school program continued until the war, and that it has heen resumed •ince the war. There are three principal type;, of schools teaching political or subversiw suhjerts in the , oviet Union. These arr. ( l) the schools for domestic aclministra· tion, (2) M\ D-MGB or Serrrl l'olic<' -,chools, and i:'l) school of political warfare. The fiN of thrsc trains 'oviet and satellite hureaunats and administrator, Thr second trains saboteurs, terrorist,. •pies ancl couriers for foreign opera tions, and the third specializes in foreiizn propaganda and organization. or politi cal warfare~ The hasic difTerencr hr· tween lhC' MVD-MGB and the political warfare courses is that the former deal• mainly with physical things like assassi nation, torture, and secret communira· tions, "hi le thr latter deals principalh with mattrrs of the mind such as throf) · agitation, labor union infiltration lactic-. and radio and newspaper work. <\II three of the•e types of schools ha' r partially OYerlapping curricula. Thus, thr MCB student learns some Marxist-Lenin ist theory, while the political warfan' schools inducle some work on serrC'l po· I ire •uhjects and on go,·ernment aclmini•· tration. The MGB college at Leningrad usualh had :'lO per rent Russians and 70 per !'ent fon•ignrrs. Lenin {Tni\Prsity had 10 per cent Hussians, heing trained for for eign senice, and 90 per crnt forrignrr' There are certain other schools ahout which little is known heyond the fact of th!'ir existence. One such, descrihrcl in the non-fiction "ritings of Arthur Koe-I· lcr, is the '\!'\pol'" "hich •land, for po· litical 'ex. i\t this in,titulion student· "ere trained in ahnormal sex practice· lo hi' used in espionage and political hlarkmail work. \ t the time of the rarly thirtie" 1d1irh i' the prriod ahout whirh we ha1t' th1' 1nosl information, the known , oviet Jl'" litical warfare s!'hool •C'lup "as a' fol l1rn s: International f,enm {., nivers1ty, in \10,1·0\\. For students from "r•tern Fu FAC'TS FORUM NEW .. ,<;, 11fr111h1·1·, 1•1.\ rope, •\ mer Em hine east A We stude1 rian c kans, ran C• Ti/ East. Tas Krc that p Japan AcG cow.' tical" for tc rists. is mo! to the for a the fat are "I f,en ~1GB for W latter and ~ Asia ti ve1 trainir The list ol the te1 that th West I at all! have 1 Jlerts. wonile Bec1 lege at in the lion a· the otl accour drawn gradm fed er \Vi11i~1 gro, b1 a Cana Winni gives , lllinori Comm Kon 10 joir \fo•co• help 1 tooted lo com garian ·is a cl 11a. the that pi ~f •ev+ ole in 19 IS ; ten year• •y do their •cret from nation ha• <eel or rot· ormer slu· o attended have lonir Additional from otlwr J helm'- 1g aulhori· ounlry no come for­t the post· , however. nuecl until , rr,umecl types of ubversin· These arr. clministra· rel Police r politiral ioviet and nistrator­terrorisl' ­gn opera· in for<'ip:n or politi ·rcnrc hr· c politiral ·mer deal• . e assassi· •mmunica· >rincipalh as thcon­on tartir•. c. 1001 han· . Thus, thr cist-Lenin 1 warfan· errel po tadminir.. ad usualh 1cl 70 per iti had ln ·ci for for· orrignrr-­> ols ahoul he fact of ;crihccl in rnr Koe•!· cJ, for po· student· practirr· political ir" 11 h ich hair th•' 'iovirt P"" as as fol •rsity, in ''tern Fu lw,- , I 11.1 rope, \orth America, and parts of outh •\meriea. Eastern universay, in Moscow. For Chine~e students, and those from outh­east Asian countries. Western University, in Moscow. For students from agrarian and semi-agra­rian countries; Eastern Europe, the Bal­kans, the more backward South Ameri­can countries. Ti/Lis. For students from the Middle East. Ta hkent. For India and South Asia. Krasnoyarsk (or some nearby city in that part of eastern iberia). For China. Japan, and outheast Asia. Academy of Red Professors, in Mos­cow. A jfre· to seven-year course on poli­tical warfare and Marxist-Leninist theory for top-hole foreign and Russian theo· rists. The length of the course of stud) is most significant since it is equivalent to the training time ofTerecl in the West for a scientist or a physician. Most of the faculty members at the Lenin chool are "Red Profe sors." Leningrad and Vladivostok. MVD­~ 1GB (or G.P.U.) schools. The former for Western and Russian students; the latter for hinese and outhern Asians and ovict students from the eastern iatic regions of the U.S .. R. verdlovsk University, at Moscow fo1 training oviet bureaucrats. The above is, no doubt, only a partial Ii t of oviet subversive schools. But the terrifying thing about the picture is that the nited Stales and the re t of the West have no political warfare chools at all! For thirty years the Communists have been training political warfare. ._ pert.. e have trained none. Is it anv won Cler we are lo ing the cold war? Becau•e Lenin l1niversily is the col­lege attended hy most American tuclcnt' in the U ... R., there is more informa­tion available concerning it than about the others mentioned. There follows an account of the operation of that school drawn from the experiences of three graduates. They are Joseph Zack Korn­feder, an American born in Slovakia; William Odell owell, an American c­gro, born in Georgia; and John IIladun. a Canadian of kranian extraction from ~innipeg. The origins of these men gives a significant clue to the kinds of tninority group citizens on whom thr Communists like to work. Kornfedl'r was the fir;,t of the three lo join the party, and the first to go lo h \1o cow for special training. Jlis stor) elps explain why so many people, up­rooted by the first World War, turned lo communism. Born in the Austro-llun­garian empire on a tenant farm hl' went 'I. a child to the lums of postwar Vien­na, the ame breeding ground for trouhlP that produced Adolf Hitler. At the age ~r se1enteen lw lwiran drifting around VArTs FORUM EWS. ,<;, 1>lfl11l>f r, I 11.1 :. -Wtde World Photo The main bultdlng of Moscow's "old" State University on Revolution Square opposite the Kremlin. Now houses what the Soviets call "humanities" studies. Europe, living on hi trade of tailoring. and picking up various languages, Ger­man, French, Italian and panish. Jn 1916, already a Socialist, he came to this country and lived in the Yorkville section of cw York. In 1919 he joined the newly formed Communi't party of the U. . A. After surviving the custom­ary party feuds and changes of leader­ship, and achieving the rank of Central Executive committeeman he wa elected in 1928 by the Soviet General Gussev, then the resident underground Comin ­lern boss of U. . communism, to go to Mo cow for special political training. He filled the requirements in force at the time by having been a party member for 01er five years, an1l being in good health and under 35. Also required wa' ap-proval from the \merican Politburo. George Mine, a G.P.U. agent, furnish­(' cl the citizenship papers of one amuel f o~. and 11 ith the-c and a comrade 11 ho 'igned a false affidavit, Kornfedcr ob­tained a pa•sport in that name. Inciden­lall). this George Mine was later thought to ha1e played a key role in the assassina­tion of Trotsky and was to a hieve addi­tional notoriety 11hen he drunkenly tried to rape a chamhermaicl in a Copenhagen hotel. With his faJ,r passport and assumed name, Kornfeder sailed on a Hamburg­.\ merican liner to Germany. In Berlin the 01 ict Consul quickly granted him a 1 isa which wa• stamped on a eparate •heel of paper >O that his pa•sport would -how no cndence that he had gone to Russia. When the train cros>ed the Pol­ish- o\iet horder under a huge sign reading "Proletarians of the World Lnite:· the Communists among the pas­' engers ecstatically chanted the "Inter­nationale:' Although the to\\ ns along the railroad were in adrnnced stages of de­(' ay. and the people ragged and emaci­ated. the exaltation induced by the ap­proach to ~lo-cow, the Holy City of communism, blotted out these impres­• ions. \t the '\loscow station he hired a droshkv and directed it to 15 Ulice \ orov•ka'} a, the address of the Lenin Lnil·ersity. 11 here he found that he was expected. He was assigned to a dormi­tory room along with two Latin Ameri­rans and an Irishman. The uni,ersity buildings and grounds .iccupied a quare block surrounded by a wooden fence. The main building, "hich bore no out1rnrd sign as to its nature. was the columned former man­- ion of a hallerina. said to haye been the fa,·orite of the Czar. Iler bedrooms were 11011 clas-room' and her ballroom the lecture hall. The school had opened in 1925. and in l ')27 a •econd building was put up. a ix-story brick structure with dormitorie, up,tair-, rlassroom>, librar) and office.; on the ground floor and a ('afeteria in the ba•cment. The dormiton room> held from two to four beds with •traw mattre,scs oYcr board•. There 11erc central heating, showers, and flu•h toilet-. The uni' ersity accommodated 300 -tudenb living on campus and 300 more Iii ing outside. Ten per cent of the stu­dent' 11ere 11omen and if a couple could -how that they had a liaison before en­tering the -rhool the} were a•signed a pri1·ate room together. (The Western l'nirnr,it1 numbered as many or more •tudent,. ~nd the Eastern l"nilersit1, also known as the Institute for the Toiiers of the Orient, tool.. up to 1200. The enroll­ment at the schools in other parts of the L. . ~. R. is not definitely kno11nl. The re.t of the campus was taken up by a 11 2 acre drill ground, and a building for 11capons training where uniformed Reel \rmy in-tructors taught the mechanics of a dozen type of machine guns. and of hand grenades, rifle,. pistols and homemade homb•. Off campus there was a ,hooting range (shared with the G.P.L.1 and an abandoned railroad sta­tion and siding" here lessons were given in derailing trains and exploding loromo. tiYe boiler-. Lenin l mnrs!ly students were al· lowed lra\cl expenses to and from Mos· cow, and .50 rubles (about 13.00) a month pocl..et mone). Also subsistence allowances were paid to dependents left at home. Much of the 50 rubles went into '"1oluntan" contributions to various "n1iet patriotir cau,es The rurrirulum was rxtrcmrlv ardu-l'ai: e 4 oU> lo an extent 1d1ere the ,1uderrb 11 ere left little time to circulate among the Hus ian population. Students were up at 6 a.m. for thirty mirrutes of calis­thenic under a Reel Army instructor. Breakfast was at 7 a.m. of black bread and red caYiar. Classes were from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. wi th an hour's break for lunch. Then there was lots of homework for the eyenings. On aturdays classes 11ere out at 3 p.rn., hut the load of homework allo11ed lillle time for outside activit1. There 11crc six-month. one-year. and three-year course,. It 11as determined during an initial three-month probation period whirh students were qualified for the longer courses. Perhaps the most significant thing about this college was the faculty. The regular teachers 11 ere mostly Russians with a few Central and Western Euro­peans. But the special lecturers were the top hierarchy of world communism. Kornfecler heard talin lecture once, ~IolotoY three time,, military men such as Tuckarhevsl..y. Vasilicv and Budcnny; and all of the Comintern brass including DimilrO\ . \lanuilsk \ _ Kuusinen. Bela Kun. . Loso1sky and Toglialli. There could be no clearer proof than this of thr importance of thi politiral warfare col­lege in , oviet eyes. When a prominent lecturer 11 as talking the entire student body would listen b) earphones with simultaneous interpreta­tions. The five languages used were Rus-ian, English, German, French and Span­ish. In routine classes, the students were divided up into their language groups "ith interpreters 1d1ere needed. The five principal subjects taught at the Lenin Univer,ity were: Leninism. This included conspiratorial operating techniques. agitation and prop­aganda. and llnitecl !Popular) Front strateg} Party tructure. Organizing for civil war, and the party's function in direct· ing same. Polithuro, and district commit­tees. Labor, factor} and armed forces fractions and cells; even thing modeled on oviet pattern. 11aruan Economics. Das Kapital. and other textbooks excerpted from Man and Engek ome bourgeois economic theoq taught for purposes of argument. l/1sto,-; of the oi·iet l;nion. The o­ciali• t mo1emenl in Czarist times. \ihil ­i- m, Anarchism. Decembri,ts, 190.5 Rei olution, and histon of the Bolshe\'il.. Civil War. econdan subject> of instruction were: Agriculture. The peasant in backward countries. Labor (J n1011 Organtzatwn. "trike strategy. Local strikes as the prelude to the general trike and more advanced form of civil insurrection. Front r>r{!,nni.:ntion< lllow the I.om -Wide World Photo Joseph Zack Kornfeder, American grodu· ate of the Lenin School in Moscow, wh• renounced communism in 1934. muni't tail can wag large segments of the Capitalist clog). llilitary Training. ahotage, guerrilla taC"lics, bomh-thro11 ing, demolition. 11eapons handling. Thi' aboYe has heen greatly condensed from notes taken hy Kornfecler 1d1ile at the Lenin Lniversity. It may he \aluahlr however to reproclure the follo11 ing note ve rbatim: Precondition for Successful A m1l'd Insurrection: 1. Economic collapse and chaos. 2. Demoralization and di-s<'nsion rr governing circles. 3. Defeat of the gO\ ernrnent in a for eign war or its inability to keep thinl!' going as a result of exhaustion follo11 in!! the war. 4. Ability of the party to take aclvar1 tagc of the situation. lt is submitted that the above io a per· feet capsule description of China in 1915· And, thanks to th' training recei1·ecl h1 ChinC'se Communist party cadres in o· 1ict schools, the party was able to "takr advantage of the situation." Among the principal textbooks u•rd al the L1•nin sC"hool were: 011 /Par, by Clausewitz. Coustructwn of !he Red A rmi IJurrrrF The Revolulion, by A. Ousenko. The Civil /Par, Military Problems A111 Civilian, by Rubnov, Kamenev, and £1 cleman. Red Army And Civil /Par Po!t11cs, h1 .. T. Gussev. The Class IP ar, by Tuckaclw"J.. ~. Civil IP ar Politics And I nsurrect1oll· (Excerpts from Lenin's writings). A glance at this list ought to comi11r• <'\'en the most "liberal'' educator or go' FACTS FORUM NEWS, Srptemlia, t9.l l'flllll( liken The 'IUO\C 11hole pracli1 As pa dents •if the Intern rlenc<' laC"he<I lariat. lll'.'-O (') •Jther radio l1eanw origin <If II ri \ t t \\(\f(' I '"' th< as n•lt But in >luden 'lit11lP1 ing fr. clean r rster o It II \Janui '·p<'ar Yori.. \ lanui flllll a hie stro1 11ill Toi suq lo h h) I pea!" II ill unhc ist < 11ill des! oth<' as t "'IHai Th(' Ii) l . Friur I \\rote c Jlrcdict an arl ErPnt.1 front 1 lo re11 '!Uotati llorks Congn l'rol "as hu krl<111 t "l'Pear <11 iet 'hil'[ l llPatJ) l·ArT: e World Photo rlcan gradu· oscow, who !gments of e, guerrilla <lemolition. condeno.ed er 11 bile al be 'aluahlr owing nolr /ul Armed ·haos. .. ~~nsion ir1 nt in a for· <eep thinl(­n followinP .ake adrnll' ve is a per­na in 19·l5· recei,ed h1 dres in So· Jle to "wkr ·11q Dunn! ko. Jblems 4n" ,v, and f) Poltt1cs, h' •he, sky. 1surrectioP· ngs). lo con\'iur 1tor or go' t·111111t•nt olhcial in the West of the war· like nature of communism The formal college course de~cnbed al.io,c does not however present the \\hole story, since the students were given pra!'lical a' 11ell as classroom training. As part-lime activity the three-year stu­dent- \\t're attached to various branches of the Comintern or Profintern (Labor International I for work that took prece­dence "' t•r cla"es. Kornfeder was at­tached to the Anglo-American secre­tariat. I le and man) other students were al,o cnrouragrd to write for Pra1·da and 'llher official organs and lo conlrihule radio 'cripts for propaganda broadcasts l1camcd at the countries of the student-, origin. E\tra pa) wa given for this kind '>f 11riting. \1 the end of the course most students 11cn• required to write a thesis, usually '>n the suhject of their home countries •1' rl'ialed lo some revolutionary theme. llut in the cases of certa in unusually apt 'ludenb. private coach ing would be sub­' litulPd. l\.ornfeder received such coach­ing from Dmitri Z. Manuilsk), then the dean of the college (later Foreign l\tin­i, tcr of the lkraine). It wa' during these prirnle talks that \lanuil'k) laid down the dictum on "peace" that recently has had the New York Dail) Worker in a froth. Whal \fanuif,ky told Kornfeder was this: '·War 10 the hilt, between com­muni~ m and eapita lism, i:s int)\ it­ahle. Toda), of cou rse, we are not 'lrong enough to attack. Our time 11 ill come in twenty or thirty years. To win 11e olutll need the clement of 'llrJlri,c. The hourgeoisic will ha\'C lo he put lo slcqi. So we hall begin hi launching the most peclacular peace 1110\'emenl on record. There 11 ill he cleclrif) ing O\'erlures and unheard-of concessions. The apilal­i't c·ountries, stupid and decadent. ''ill rejoice to cooperate in their 011 n clc,lruC'lion. They will leap at an­other chance lo be friends. As soon as lhC'ir guard is down, 11 e shall '1na,h them 11ilh our clenched fist!" llw \c11 'l ork Dail; News, ala1 mrd Ii,} l . ~- acquicst•ence to the projected four 1'011er conference "al the i;ummit;' \\ ro11• an editorial around this Manuilsky Jirediction 1diich had been published in an article in tht' periodical, lfumun CtPnt.,, in l 95:t The Daily Worker, "ilh fr<mt page fanfare, challenged the eu•s lo n•1 eal ib source, claiming that the 'IUolation did nol appear in the published 11 •irh of i\1anuilsky in the Librar} of r.onp:re--. l'rohahh the alleged librar) n·;eare_l1 11 as humbug, a'> an) Communist would k11011 that such a statement 11 ould nel'er 1flf!l'ar in lhl' P\porled "orb of a high \r11 iet ol11l'iaL \t an) rate the Ne11·s' 1 hid Pdilorial 11 rilcr put the Worker nea1I) in ii' pla<'I' hy suggesting that if 1"A<~TS FORUM EWS, September, 195.S the quotation was missrng 11 110 doubt had been remoYed hy "the Ministry of Truth" as in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four. The significance of the out­burst in the Communist press howe\'er is that the Communists are clesperateh anxious to discredit any intelligence that has leaked out of their n'rnlutionan command center. Kornfeder had a short private inter­view with Stalin backstage at the Bol­shoi Theater during a ballet. landing in a liLtle bullet, from which the bartender 11 as dismi•sed before the con\'ersation hegan. they talked through an interpreter for a half-hour over hlack rayiar. smor­gasbord and vodka. Stalin a,ked ques­tions about a factional fight in the Ameri­can Communist party. The imprc•si\'C' thing about the episode is the interest displayed by Stalin in a foreign student and in the politics of the American party. During his two-month snmnwr 'aca­tions Kornfeder lra\'elcd in south Hus­sia and the Caucasus with several other students. On one of these trips, "hile in the Kuban, the student. "rre startlC'd "hen the local party ecretari \\as 1..illrd by a sniper. A few weeks later at Kisl o­rndsk, in a primiliYe region of the au- 1·asu>, lh<') llt're awakened in the night by gunfire. Jn the morning it de1eloped that the resident G.P. . chief and his '\o. 2 man had been lured into a moun­tain ambush and shot. r II MosCC)\\ Korn­feder reported on his trip to S. l.osovsky. a high Comintern official, and de•criherl these incidents with some puzzlement. Losol'Sk) at once became \'CT) impatient and superior. "You Amerieans are chil­dren in these matters," he snapped . ''There is nol a single da) that from -Wide World Photo William C. Nowell, American Negro who attended Lenin University, testified as a prosecution witness in the Communist con­spiracy trial that a 1930 Communist party convention supported setting up a Negro nation in the U. S. He also told of Red activities In the labor movement. three lo t11l'hc °'O\ld nllicial, are 1101 a~sn~:-o.inale<L The rla.~.'i rrar '' gning on ,,11 tire time·· The experiences of John I lladun and "'illiam Odell \owell at Lt'nin GniYer­' ily were roughly parallel to Kornfrd · !'r's, though they allrndcd •1•1 rral war­later. llladun, a Canadian of l kranian ,.,_ traction, was drawn into the parl~ through a Greek church social dub that anadian Communist' had penetratecl. \n intere.ting facet of his -iory is that "hen he •ailed for Fu rope on the wa\ lo l\fo•C011 he was instructed to talk lo fellow pas•engers in tlH' mo-I rea!'lionan language he could de' i,e, i\nother part of his slor) that al-o illustrates the precautions taken to keep the Lenin school 'enel "as the handling of his passport. l t 11 as taken up b) " "special section" of the Cominlcrn upon his arri,·al, and he 11 as assigned I he co\·<'r name of John Logan lo ti'(' 1d1ilr in \Toscow. The point 11 as that no student was supposed lo l..no11 llH' lruc nanH'' of his clas•male•. Illadun says that then• were 6.000 foreign sludenb being trained 11 hen he was in Mosco11 in 193 L l\owell is one of the Lenin l ni1er-il\ \ egroes "ho has long sin!'<' hcconH' a;1 anti-Communist. Others are Leonard Pat­terson and \lanning Johnoon, both of 11 horn haw testified before congrcs•ion· al committees. Another, Claude Light­foot, is still a ommunisl and was re­cent ly a defendant in a Smith Art trial. and the ohjecl of oceans of crocodile lear in the Communist pre,.., \~- hilc at tlw school. l\owell had tht extraordinar) gall to huck a pet idea of Comrade Lalin "s. This '<IPJH>'edly all­kno11 ing "leader and teacher of the 11 ork­ing cla>s'' had deli\ered himself of the brilliant theor) that \merican \e"roe• must be encouraged lc111ard "national­ism.'' This meant that, come the rl'\'l>lu ­lion in America. there "ould he e-1ah­li;, hed a "black helt" republic· l'omprisin!( all the southeastern 'late' from South Carolina through Texas, the 1>hi1c popu­lation lo he C\lcrminaled or tra11'porlPd lo ola' e labor camp' el,e1d1ert'. The \e­groc' in the northern stalcs were to he l'ollecled into enda'e' apart frnm thl' 11 hi1e, ;,o that they could diclalc llwir o\\n affair~. · \ owclL n>· spoJ..c,man for mo'l of lht Amrrican :\C':rrot).., then in \Io-.co\\. ar· gued that \nwrican \ egroc' 11c•n• Ir) in!( lo get a11ay from 'ep:regalion. nol c\ag· gerale ii, and that therefore thi, 11 a' a poor wa} lo allracl llH'm lo <'ommunism '\ eedle°' lo 'a)', "the p:rPat I \m," Stalin. rejected thio heres). \ 011ell wa;, lucky hi get home a Ji, e, and there is e' idence that the "black belt'' theoq is still Kremlin polic). It is al'o thought that a certain prominent Communi'L \cgro >inp:er ha• heen promi•ed the Commi"ar•hip of 'uch a black •·.;;miet "'•irialisl Republic" Page.) t \\ith the \\ eol Inches thro1>11 in as a sweetener). Another cheering revolt by l\egro _\mericans against oviet dogma hap· pened omewhat earlier. On the assump­tion that American , egroes were an exploited Colonial cla s, they were as­oigned not to Lenin Universitv, but to the Institute for the Toilers of the Orient. The living condition> among the Orien­tals, the skimpy food, the bug-ridden barrack , were so far below the standard of the American Negroes, that they staged a strike, perhaps the only suc­cessful one in oviet histor)', and were reassigned to the Lenin Uni\'ersity. ome of the tudents "ho "ere •ent lo Lenin lJniversity for the short course after 1930 had only nominal experience in the Communi"t party. This relaxation of entrance requirements, it is assumed, was due lo the coming of the depression and a oviet belief that the time for re\'­olution was near. It was largely these short term. depres,ion-moli\'ated Com­munists who later broke away and told the story of their re1·olutionary school­ing. The 1Hiter in ten ie\\ed one •u<"h for­mer student, a man of lavic origin, who now is a successful small busines-,man in Pittsburgh, and whose name is omitted for that reason. When sent lo Moscow. he was 20 years old and had only a little secondary education. When interviewed he gave the impression of being not very interested in politics. Probably the party considered him worth the trip to '.\1osco" because he belonged lo a minority group and becau e he was a ~lcelworkcr and thus inside a key indusln. At an} rate the period of quick and comparatiHly nonselective training at Lenin Lniversity seems to have ended in 1933 "hen this countr) recognized the Soviet Cnion. Part of that deal was that Russia 11 ould cease trying to subvert our government. Of course the . oviets haJ not the slightest notion of keeping the agreement. but the o<·casion did cau•e them to tighten securil}, al lcm,,t where \merican students were roncerned, and the school wa moved out of Moscow so that foreigner in the capital could no longer •ec it. The new •ite. housing th,. entire Comintern, was some 20 mile­• outhea-t of :\Io .. row deep in the fore-. on a side road off a main highway. Igoe Bogolepov. a former 01 iet Foreign 0 f1ce coun•cllor who e•caped lo the We-t. visited the place in earh 1910. He ck­• cribes it as surrounded by a high wood­en fence enclosing an area of at lea-t a square mile. The single gate wa­flanked by guard lo"crs, and the sccuril1 check upon entering unusually strict. At the rear of the compound were two lar;r•· one-story buildings housing Comintern offices and classrooms. The remainder of the area wa taken up with a central pa­rade ground. surrouncli>rl hv twn-•lon Page 6 barracks in diagonally slanted rows. Eu­< locio Ravines, a Peruvian ex-Commu­nist. also describe a visit to this Comin­tern center in 1938 in his book The Yenan Way. Incidentally, Ra,incs was the recipient in 1931 of the type of special revolution­ar} training given to foreign Communist leader considered too important and busy lo go through one of the colleges. His teachers were l\1ao Tse-lung, Chu Tch and Li Li- an, top Chinese Commu­ni, ts, "ho were quartered in a dacha several miles ouL,idc l\1o•cow where their pre•enre could not be detected by West­ern diplomats or ne11 smen. The latter precaution was of the greatest assistance to Left Wingers in the United tales and else11 here who were still rlaiming as late as 1919 that the hinese Communists had no connection whatever with the oviet Union. These Chine e worthies coached Ravines for two weeks on how to set up a "popular front" movement, which he later ucceeded in doing in Chile. There is evidence that Lenin Univer­sity was in business up lo the beginning of the war. John Lautner. an important U. . Communi t who left the party since the war, •late that lo hi personal know­ledge American students were sent to :\Ioscow as late as 1937. This means that the three-year students would have stayed into 191-0. However, the school was definiteh clo ed when the oviet Union was in­vaded in 1911. Bogolepov tells of meet­ing several faculty members on a train to Tashkent in that year. ince Tashkent is the site of a political warfare college for Indians and others it seems possible that at least this outlying institution tayed open through the 11 ar, but thi is conjecture. It is known. howev~r. that many Com­inlern per onnel were utilized during the war for training prisoner of war. Hein­rich von Einsieclel. a grandson of Bis­marck and an ace G rman fighter pilot, bears witness to this. In his book, I Joined The Russians, he tells of the ":'la-l1onal Committee for Free Germany and League of German Officers" which he joined after being shot down at talin­grad. The supposed leaders of thi not very successful committee were high­ranking German generals, but it was ac­tually organized and run by German Comintern leaders Wilhelm Pieck, Wal­ter Ulbrechl and Olio Braun. ince Hungarians, Rumanians, Ital­ians, Spaniards, and Finns also fought on the eastern front, it is likely that other Comintern personnel from Lenin llniver­sity also worked on prisoners of tho-,e nationalities. ince the war the secrecy cloaking these schools has been very dense. We know that American are being sent for 'horl term training to Prague, Czecho­; lovakia. Matt Cvetic, former F.B.J. counterspy in the Pittsburgh area, de­scribed lo the writer the "holier-than· thou" air about the returning students. Whether this sort of decentralization ha• diminished the importance of the Mos· cow-situated schools we do not kno11. We do know that the oviets olliciall) "abolished" the Comintern in 1913 as n gesture in return for American war ma­terials. Thi wa strictly a gesture how­ever, and the functions of the once semi­autonomous Comintern were merely al· tached to the Kremlin apparatus. The only logical conclusion that can be drawn from the entire picture i that such a success[ ul operation must be con· tinuing. To date our reaction to thr Kremlin's political warfare offensive. staffed by these Moscow-trained shock troops, has heen about as effective a• spears against tanks, or bows and arro11- againsl airplanes. Let u hope devoutly that the recenth propo ed three-billion-dollar-a-year " arnoff Plan." which includes an Amer· ican political warfare training prograill for a cold war countrrattark a1?nin,1 communism, will be adopted by Presi· dent Ei enhower, and that it will rever-r the tide that so long has run against th<' rausr of freedom. One From One Leaves Two• by OGDEN NASH Higgledy piggledy, my blark hen. . he la.rs eggs for gentlemen. Gentlemen come etery day To count what my blark hen doth lai If perchance she lay• too many. They fine m)· hen a pretty penrn , fl perchance she fails to lay The gentlemen a bonus pa1 . Mumbledy pwnbledy, mr ri·d cou. he's coopt•ratin~ note At first sht> didn't umlnsta11rl That milk produrtion must bP μlar111ed, She didn't undrrstnnd at first She either had to plan or bur.II, But now, the Cor crnment report\. '>he's gii ing pints instead of quarr1. Fiddle.de.dee, my next-door neighbor.1, They are giggling at their labors . First they plant the tiny seed, Then they water, then they weed, Then they hoe and prune and lop. Then they raise a record crop, Then they laugh their sides asunder. 1nd plow the ichole kaboodle under Abracadabra, th us we learn Tlie more you create, the less you eflm. The less you earn. the more you're ~i1•e11. The less you lead, the more you're drfrt•11 The more destroyed, the more they feed, The more you pay, the more they need, The more you earn, the less you keep, And now I lar me dou·n to sleep. Included in the addre•s gi1en by J. Howard Pew at the Women's Patriotic Conference "" '.;ational Dtft>n'-r in Wac;hington ancl reprintrd hv Guardianf 0/ Our Ameriran TleritaRe. FACTS FORUM NEWS, September, J955 * It thr R it ha• Jl<'Oplt and h But this, I b(·~an U>; lhr P1i-hri upwnr It i •lrracll \Ii nut r·ord 1 and h lani1 Washi Phil ad promo tnan. Chi!'f tnent 11roodi llation ft i thp !'01 hand Way l \ew E the Al lhe Gr Rorkie nation lrirncll lnent l• a lrihu •·rnmr1 <·onsicl< lllan, 11 111 him for the do1q•c] many and which he at Stalin· f this not ere high­it was ac­' German ieck, Wal-ians, Ital­o fought that other in l'niver· of tho,e cloaking lense. We g sent for ', Czecho· er F.B.L area, de· olier-than· ; students. zation has the Mos· 10t knO"· • official!) 1913 as a 1 war ma· lure how· mce em1· merely at· JS. 1 that can 1re is that 1st be con· m to thr olTensivr. 1ed shock Teclive a> nd arro\I' e recenth .r-a-year an Amer· ; progra!ll k airnin•t by Presi· ill rever•r gains! tlw - \bon. 'er. ier earn. e μii•en. e drit·t•!I r feed. need, keep, nference 0 11 age. ~ber, 1955 * * * * * * Tiu· FLAG of Th t' UN ITED STATES of Am(•ri ca n, l.LOYO \ '\D LEIL.\ \\ lllT '\E) It has heen \ll'll called the ''Flaμ; of thf' Hainhow, Banner of Star,"' bl'cat1'1' it ha. hl'f'll tlH' symhol of a dynamil' P<'ople who pinned their hopt' on faith. and hitched thrir wagon lo a star. But the Amrriran Flag is more than this. for of all the nags since the world hPgan. tlwn• is none so full of meani11μ­a:; the. tar, and Stripe» It emhodif's and f'nshri1w' fi,f' thousand yPa1' of man', upward -trugi;dP for lil){'rl). It is tlw Pilp:rims dyinp: in that fi1,t clrf'aclful '' intPr al Pl) mouth. It is tlu· \Iinutc \Ian holding his ground al Con­r ·orcl and Lf'\ington. It i' \'rashington and his army al \'alley Forge, 'iick, lan ing. and frpezing in rags. It is Washington. Jefferson and Franklin al l'hilalh•lphia in their common cksire lo promotl' and prolert the \ltlfare of l'\Cry lllan. It is John '\larshall laboring as Chi!'f ]1hticf' lo establish this go,ern· lll<•nt of laws. It i Abraham Lincoln hrooding O\ er a broken an cl di,ided nation, with charily for all. ft i' the rnurage and persewranrc of llw c•arh H'ltler, who, with only his hare hands a.ml a few crude tools, hacked his \vay through the primPrnl fon-sls of \ew England, pioneering hio way across the Alleghenil's and Appalac·hian,, into the Creal Plain. and across the greater Rorkie,, until tlwrc "lood forth a might)' nation huilt by pcr,onal iniliali\e, a friendly challeng<' lo the ''oriel; a monu· lll\•nt to what free men can ac-!'omplish; a lrihutc to the American form of go'· •·rnmenl that, in its inception, gav first tonsidPration lo tlw indi\ iduality of lllan, his hungl'r for freedom, his faith 111 hinN•lf and his God, and his desire for lhf' C\Pfl'"ion of this divinely en­rlowc• d impul-e. 'it * * * * * * ~·ACT FOHUM NEWS, September, 1955 Our FLAG II ~ llHI G. GE'\ . 110'\ '\EH FEl.l.EHS, l .S. \ .. ( llt•1in•d) Our Flap:, like our n·liiri0th faith. i, •oml'lhinμ; to \\hid1 \\('all tu111 in lime· of trouhl1-. Lc-t ml' μ;i"' an illu•tration of \\hat tlw flag means to 'oldiers. Durin" thl' dark. tla1, of Bataan. \\ lwn the surrf'nder of \Iac­\ rthur\,...forces \\Us iniminent, a handful of spiritf'tl l'nitecl lat(', cm alr)lnen ckcided that tlwy "ould not •urrenckr. It would mean c-ertain dPalh if thPy were caught. but somehow thn managf'd. lo psrnpe inlo the great Zamhall's mountain range of Luzon, w h1ch parallrls tlw ,hina . pa. Tht're they hid out for three long year•. Loyal Filipinos, al tlH' ri,k of torture and ckath. p:me warninμ; when fops c·ame near. And "hat did these ca\'alri men tak.c• \\ ith them into the Zam hales mountain fasllwss? Tt was th<' \mrriran Flag thr colors of the 26th m air). On "1nlohiny days "lwn tlw mountain pa"c·s W('H' dPar of the· 1•nem), these l\nwrican patriots unfurll'd their c•mhlcm of freedom into the hn•l·ze, and they la) there h) tlw hour feasting on its glory. While l\Ianila was lwini: liherated. the,e hH1' matlc their wa\ throui:h tlH' hallklines and proudly 1ircsentl•d their honored flag lo Cc1wral \lac \rthur. Throup:houl the Japanese occupation. the color, of thP 26th Lnalry had n<'\l'r been hauled do\\n. I >houlcl lik.e lo !war sonw of our promiscuous inll'rnalionaJi,ts tell these• hard-hiuen rarnlrynwn not lo wa\'!' the Star- and Stript's! ~hortl) after Japan's surn•ndn, the "riler. togl'lhl'r "ith ll'» than a dozen offiec·r, and a 'mall color p:uarcl, stood al the Ameri­can Emha"'' in Tokyo and Gent'ral \lac \rthur. \ isihh mond, ordnl'd Lhe ·star, anci' Stripl's rai-ed O\l'r the Emhassi. ft was th<' Pnd of a Ionμ; and fni,,lrating and lwarlhreak.ing and hloocli trail. \nd a' our bc•autiful flag unfurled in th!' hlue O\er Toho, f'motion ,hook t'\C't\ on!' of us lo tlw marrow of hi., bo1ws. I tell you our flag doc' hmc a meaning. \nd if it ('\l'r loses it' meaning, it \\ill not only hC' the 1•nd of fn'l'dom in 'lmnira. it will he the t'nd of frt'edom e,·rrvwhrre Page 7 The Constitution as a Fire Insurance Policy by Clarence llcmio11 ~oted l...e('IUr('r :mrl Former Oean. ' otr(' Dante ~whool or Ln\\ \ r ):, Ji\l Ill a c·ounlf\ of tight!) ·organ· J ized ancl 1•xperth-directecl speci31 intcre-h. Therl' has ne\ er heen a Lime in the hi-ton of the 11orld when there 11 a- grouped. together in one country so marn 11ell-linanced. 11ell-oriented. and lighih -organized sprdal interests of men and \\Olll<'n. and all of the,e 'pecial inter e-t-. kno11 11 hat they "ant. The farmer• in Seattle kne1• 1dial the\ 11 anted and the' resohed in farnr of it. The doctors in ·Chicago knew what the) 11a11ted and they re,olved in fa,·or of it. \nrl -o did tlw lin·1H•r, al \cw Orleans and the manufaclur!'rs 111 Boston. and -o all mer the counln 111 all of the l nited "llalt'' I ha'e not lound an) group of p<'ople united and 11rga11ized 11 ith determination in the gen­nal inten·-L of thi-.. countn. and it i· prel'i'el) becau-r of lad, of (irganization in the general inlere-t of the l nited "late-. that it i- rritiealh late in tlw his­lor) of the l nited ~tall''. 0ffa•ionalh. th e r(' are chilling re­minder- in tlw lwadlines in the ne11s ac· <·ount-.. It ha-. lll'('ll "('\('ral \l'ars 11011 -inr·p 1·011 r!'ad al1011l tlw ~01c·rnnwnt of Cualt·;nala. -11ddt•11l) and pn<'mploril) •<'itirrn: 2:10 thou-and <lf'f('' of land he· lon!!ine: lo llw l'nitl'd Fruit Compan). 1'11~' hundred thirl~ thou-and an<'• nf land i- quite a gob of g<'o~raphy. \'"'· 1drnl did the l nited Fruit Cum· pam do about iU The) didn"t do an)­thing about it. There i-.n't an) thing an)· l1och ran do about a •l'iwr!' of that L1 p(' in Guatemala or an1 other counln of the world except the l n itcd ::-italt» .. \\ e had a -.imilar ,t•iwre in thi-. coun­lr) a f('11 months aft('rnard. Th!' then Prr-.idenl o[ thr l 'ni l('d Stall's s('ill'd th(' -teel mill- in 1diat he undouhtedh hl'­lie1ed 11a- a justifiinp: enwrgen!'): The ..a-e 11ent to lhl' court. l ltirnateh the " upremc Court of th(' l nited ::ital!'' quite ra-ually dt·rir!Pd that lhl' 1'1e,id('11l ''ould ha\e to gi'e the properl\ ha1k hccau-e he had 'iolat('d -orncthing called th<' Co1Hilutio11 of thl' l 11itl'cl ~late-.. Tlw Con-lilutio11 i- tlw g1•npral inlPre·l of thi-. <·ou11ln. Thi' Co11•titulio11 i, th!' rpal hu-ine·' of th!' farn1t'r-.. tlH' 111erdianl•, the nrnnufa!'lurl'r ... the doctors and tlw ltrn ypr-.. If tlwn 11 n,n'L any Constitution of the L nitt·d ~late,, ther(' 11ouldn 't Ill' .1 farmPr in 1·attl('. or a dodor in Chi- *Thi ... artid1· ""' Jll 1·d1lt-d copy of a ... peeth ,:.!1H'n Lefore tht- l.oui ... i.wa -..,tatt• Bar \ .... <wia 1inn and rnp\ r ~htetl II\ I hf' I oui~inna Bar Journal. Page 'ago lht·u· 11otdd11'L he a111 prnalt· husine..- in this 1·ountri. We 11oulcl all be "orking for the stair. The Constitution of thi, counln is the differene!' liet11een Guatemala a·nd the l nited ~late,. That ;, the measure of diffrn•n1·e bet\\ ec11 the I ran Curtain and the free 11 oriel. J\nd there isn't any free 11 oriel outside r1f the geographical limi­tation' of our counln. Plrase under­-. tand that. \nd the thing that makes our eounlr) free i' not its geograph), not its gloriou' histon, not its traditions. The thing that make;; the country free is the constitu­tional limitations that are placed upon the gmernmenl of this counlf). Without tho-.e limitation,. Ill' would all be sla\'es. llo\\ did we happen lo ha\'e a consti­tution? What i' it. genesi,'! Recently 'OnH' Poli'h la11} er ran pa>L tlw arml'd guards of his l, ~ delegation into th<' freedom of \e11 'r ork Cit). For· lunate!), he was a hie to break loose, be­cau• e he had no i.ife or child in Poland 11 ho 11 ottld he a hostage in such an event. This Polish lai. ycr ha; been telling us e\'er sinee as a preface to all of his radio and teJe, i'io11 in ten ie11,. "America," he -ay•. "i-. the Ja,l rrmaining hope of man kind." Do \\C ha1c lo ha1e an e'capee Iro111 th!' Iron Curtain lo It'll us that lo under­- core the fact of it? ·Th!' l nil!'d tat!'-. of AmPrira i' LhC' hH f('maining hope of mankind." uppos!' the l nited tale' di-.appeared from the fact• of the earth tonight a-. \tlanlis is suppo,rd lo hm c disappeared into the sea in th(' a11cienl days'! \tlanli, "as a prosperous. health). -cirntific conLinC'nl. Loo. but it di•ap· prnr('d from tlw face of th(' Parlh. If the l nitcd ~tatcs of \rncric-a di" ,1ppean·d tonight, the r!''l of mankind 11 ould i111mediateh lie subjected to a torlun• •o ll'rrihle. •o demoralizing that tht• p<'ople 11lrc1 sun i11·cl it 11011ld <'1111 II• 11J1t1 did11't '11rl iH• it. fhat i- 1dial th(' l 11ilt'd ~tall'' mea1r­\..., Jong 3'"' \\t' t'\i"'l a-. a [n•t•. indPpe111J. t'lll. and pro:-.pt-nnJi... prople, cornmuni-.111 nrn attain no p<·rnw11t•11t 'if'lon an\ \\hen· on 1·arth. L!'l mt· rqwal that. The fact of our !'\i'l('llC'l' gi1t•• th<· lit• to the Communist prelen-.ion that 011h in a "late of la\'Cf) can men he fed and clothed and housed. Thal is the lit• the~ '-ell to the million ­" lw bu1 it all around th(' 11orlcl. \\ell, a' long "' pt•opk liH· in a ii<·• prosperous, strong. and indep('ndPnt l nilecl Stales of \ merica. the world """ look and spp in us tlw refutation of th• fommunist claim \ nd "' I It'll 1 ou that 11 <' IHI\ e a """,ii ohligalion, nol only lo our children. hut lo our brothers and oisler> around tlu "oriel. lo keep the l nitrd • tales fre<' and strong and indt>prndenl. \"\ e need, in other words, to reinculeatc in our mind· and lo reestablish in our yocahularit·· the word and the meaning of J\mcrican patriotism. That word has droppPcl out of AmcriC'a \ lexicon. It net•ds lo he re,ivcd, hccatN' \ m1·11 can patriotism is the best hope of tht world, just as \ merica\ '-eC'uril) and i11· dependence are the best hopP of t ht 11orld. The l nilt'd Stalt•s of \ merirn lo "hi<'h the \\oriel looh hopeful!) and rmioush is the incarnation of four basic faC't,. and here is 11 here our edueation ha• fallen do1\li. I don't mean education mercl) on the eampus. I mean tlw adult t'duca lion that ough t to hr going on all the lime. l\merica, through our dereliction, and perhaps through our forgrtfulnr". hn· forgotten the four basic· facts upon 1d1ich the whole glor), grandeur. and futurP of this ounlr} logiC'ail} swing. What are the four facts of \ 111erira11 life 'r Well. it so happens that tht') "en spoken "ith the fir,l breath of the ne11 life of tlw r('puhlir. Tlwre 11as a tinll 1d1en thP l nitrd Stal('s \las not the hop•' and th!' !'my of th!' 1rnrld al all. The rt' "a' a time wh!'n the l 11itrrl Stat('s "~' a rnC'anl lot and 011 to that opaC'e canll a group of d('tcnnin<'d, pa triotic 11H'fl· , lll('ll 1d10 11en• passionate!) dc\'Ot!'d 111 lil)('rh and independence. There 011 th" meant lot that 11 a' \ meriea in l ii«­th!'' c 111('11 "rolt• a document !'ailed Tht' Ikdaration of \ nlt'rican lnclependenr< \, a matter of fact. ''inclrpenclence" 11 a' the la-.L and ll'ast important thi11f d!'clart'd in that document. ThP) did11 .t rnll it a ''dt•daration of ind!'pt•nd!'nl't" Tht·) called it a ''dt'<·laration,'' and 1hr1 IH·gan that ckclaration 11 ith a ringinf 'talenwnl of truth. of fac·t. Thri callt'd tlwm 1-l'lf-cvidl'nl truth-., and there 11efl ju-.l four of th!'m. l tell )OU that 1d1c11 tho-.!' four hasic facto art• denic~lj douht1·d. or discountl'd, Amnica 11 ii <·ollap,<'. ddiniLcly. "lu•tlwr ""an· o,,., run militaril) or 1101. "\\ r hold thi' truth to hr -.pJf.t•\ i<lcnl- FACTS FORUM EWS, :-;, Jifnnhu, lf1 th('\ ,·real Cod God IOU I that la11s1 "'rn of c of Jn \1 e' ide 'ill n pn·ci lllHfl Th ""' "' -eliin Lht• 11 th(' Ill t•1er) .i111l1< \\ 1 it1? ll .. 1-la .ill rm "'Ju al and f for" 1 lra1p llw la \f•ar .... llri, In a proj ht•fon and 111 l'(•i,al fac·t i1 Tht• Pro,ic <lental Tlw laratic ''anre Y<•ars. f·iali~t· l'-1 Oil{' ·•nd th lion: I llw l"rnal i tJi,., g• 'O on. \\el 11f that Jlost!'ri lo 111• ' \o. by th(' lliJI of l11<'ir I ti~ht ... : 1.n1ong 'tgnifi< ~Jlrllrd 1' just ''t[\ i-. '11•1-·um ) 011 J1·a11 Ii licy in ;.1 fil.'t ep!'ndt>nl \\oriel n11 on of th1 ea rnor .. d ldren. hul round the " free and need, in our mind· cabularit'· American oppcd oul l""C \111 1·11 ope of th1 l\ and i11 p;• of 1111' a Lo 11hich enviou..,h asic facl•· ·alion ha, education 1 the acluil dnp: on all ction, and dnes-. ha· pon 1d1ich 1 f ulurP of Americt111 the} 11cr<" >f the JlCI' •as a tinll' >L the hop<' all. Ther<' Stale' 11a· paer ca11tt iotic 1ncll· Je,oted I•' , en• on thl' in Lill•· called The ep<'ndenrl' pendenrl' .. tanl thin~ he\ dicln:1 per;denc<'· " and the' a ri11gin~ 'ht•) called 1here 11erl' that 1dr<'11 • dt•n ictl· ll'rica "ill «'an• o,1·1 lht·1 •aid I act \o. l: .. Thal all men an· '"reatecl."' There is a God. in other worcb. c:od ;,., the \o. 1 fact of American life. Cod exi,b: nol as a mailer of faith. if 1ou plea•c, hut as a mailer of fart. \'ow. lhat i' a 5LipulaLion that got•s into cvcr1 la1ht1il that i' tried in this counln. 1·1 t>ry right that is protected. The fa(·1 of God is stipulated in thP Declaration of lndependenre. \o. 2. '"\\ e hold thio lrulh to he self e1 idenl," the1 'aid. This is a fact: "Thal •rll nwn arc crrated rqual." l\ole that prt·ci<!' '''!""''''""'- ""nt•aled !'CJual .. : hn· 111a11 Pqualit1. rlwt i' the nHJ'L bede1iling phra..,c i11 .r111 hocl1 \ language. The Hus..,ian' an· •Piling a hra11d of human equalil) around the 11 oriel and people are buying it h1 lhe million> under the false preten;e thal 1•1er) hody !'an he made equal lo ju'I an) h11d1 !'lst'. They like that idea. \\hat is tll<' fa!'l ahoul human equal. it) [ li en• is the stipulation. here in the f)pdaralion of lndepcnden!'e, it "'l' thal all n11•11 arl' created equal. i\ II men an• "qual in Cod\ sight. in other words: and for that n•a,011. the1 are equal he· fun· the la11 of the lan;I, hccause if I Ira,(' IPanlt'd an1thing ahoul lhe la11 of llw land in 1111 hru>h with it for ma111 11•ar•. I hme 1·011cluded that the la11 ,;f !his land. if iL is any la11 at all, is men•!) " projeclion of lhc la11 of God. Equality hl'forp Cod and equality before the lm1, arrd h1·1 ond that inequalil) in cver) C'Oll· «·iuil1le 11a1. Thal is the slipul alion of fa1·t in thP I°kdaralion of I ndPp1·11dc11c1·. Th!' inequalil) of human nature i' J>rm iclenlially de:.igncd; it is not acci­rfental. IL is a part of the nalural law . Tlw 'lipulation of this fact in the Dec laration of lndependenC'P has a ..,ignifi. '"anre that all of us ha1 e m erlookccl for )Pars. lferP is lhe refutation of the So­r- ialisl·Communist contention, and here Is ont• of lilt' cornl'r>lones of the republic. ·•rrd 1h1·11 1 ou -kip on to the other stipula lifJn: human rights. f"lw1 han• heen 11 rcslling with an in · l1•rna1i«u1al rmpnanl in the l ever sine!" th1·1 got together. Whal rip;hl• 1111'11 ha, P. 'O on. and '" forth. \\ell. the Founding Fathers dis111»1·d •Jf that. Factual Ii. for thp n·cnrd and for l"»IPril1, th!'\ ..,aid. "\\'1· hold thi.., lru1l1 lo llf' ,.,lf·t'\ idcnl.'" \o. ·): That all men an· 1·11clow1·cl. not lov tlw !--lalt• or the Conolilulion or tlw llill of Hi«hb. \II mt'n arc Pndo11!'d h1 lht·ir Cre;tor 11 ith !"t"rlain inalienahf;. rig-hi•: h1 their Creator, by Goel. i\nd '-'llong,l the'<' is life and liherty. It is ''Rnifira11t that life and liberty are ~P<'llt>d oul. IL is significant here that life 1' ju,t th in1porta11t a;, liberty. and lih- 1'tt1 i' ju..,l a' important as life in thi' ''f)('lJllll'Jlt. ) 011 rernll an important tinrc in Am!'r­""" Iii-Ion wlwn Palrif'k I k11r1 'aid ~ 4. TS FORllM NEWS, Srptrmher, 195~ -Wide World Photo Independence Hail , Philadelphia, where the Const itution of the United States was framed. .. ( ,iH• 111t• liUert) or giH~ 111t· death.". Ile 11a; nol being oratorical: lw ""' heing fa<"lual. lie 11a' speaking in th!' -piril of thl' Declaralion of I ndrpcnd­erwe. Liberty is inr!Jortanl. You t"an·l oell liberty any more than ) ou can sell ) our life. Liberty can't be swapped for secur. ity or for anything else. It is a gift of Cod that needs to he preserved. \nd then finally the No. I facl, the fact about gmernm1•nt. The) 'aid, "We hold !Iris lrullr to be •!'lf·t'\ idrnl. that lo Se· rnre tlre,1• right,. 1.> pro11·ct tlre-e gifb of Corl. g(>\"err1111en t ... are in..,liluted among rnt'n. dcri\ ing their ju-,t pO\\Cf:-' from the !'Olloenl of tire gm l'rtl!'d.'" Co\t'n1111ent. in other \\ords. i~ \\hat '! (;01crnmerrt is man\ agent for the pro­lc1 ·1io11 of God's gift,. CovernmenL not a 11rni..,lf"r, hut a "'t('f\'· ant. \\'h) i;, ii a ,ena111·r lkcau'e 11c likf' rl thal '"') ? It i, a senant, logiralh and inexorahl). from llw farl of the 111al11•r. ThP fact of God puh gol!'rnlll!'nl do\\ 11 into -..uhorclinale ..,en i('t'. If ii 11 a,11 't for the fact of God, go\ em· nwnt 11ould lw Goel. 11itho11l limitation. and lhal i' 11h) l'\!'r) l) rann) lhal !'1cr ,talked the earth is p;ocllrss and ma­lerialistic. ' ou think the~e are religiou~ a r gu- 111enl,. The) are not. They arc legJI argu111ents. There isn't any basis for the protPcl ion of human right except the fact of Goel, tlw subordination of p;o' t'rnment. How arc you going lo keep go1ern 1111•nt •uhordinated? How are you p;oing ''' keep thi:-. 111011 ... lcr in ... uhje<'tion ·~ Thc1 f..1ie11 it 1' a' a 111011'ler: the' feared' it. Thr Founding Fathe" of thi­r<' puhlic shook 11 ilh fear at lhe Lhoul!hl and 'ighl of gm l'rnnH'nl. \\ ashinglon had a word for it. Wash· inglon said that go,·crnment is like fire. a danl!erou' oerrnnl, a fearful master. Gm ernmenl "as ne1er mor!' accurate]\ dcocribed than that. I remember it well, becau'e in the fifth grade I had to "rile it 500 times. I ha1~ forgollen 1drnt I did to earn the penance. but I "ill ne1er forget 11 hat I 11 rote. and I "i,h 1111 children had to "rite it 5.000 linws: "Gmcrnment, like fire, is a clan · gerou5 serrnnl and a fearful master . ., It is precise]) like fire. The Foundinf! Fathers kne\\ it. The1 had seen the fire of government s11 ecji bark and forth acroo5 the human rare for 6,000 years. hurning the God-giwn rights of n;an Lo a crisp at least once in every genera­tion. The1 resoh rd that it "ouldn 't happen in \ merica, and 'o thn look this fire 1d1ich the) light1•cl in the Declaration of Independence, and th!'\ tied it dm1 n he­h ind iron \\all, and barhed "irt' en. langlerncnl,. The} cnca"•cl it: the) di..,. hur,ed it: the) checf..cd and halanced it. Thn took the fire and di,trilruted it lhr~ugh the towns and cities and parisheo of the >-late,. The1 loof.. a little bit of the fire, a 'Pr\ Ii Ille hit, and put it in a placp called Waohinglon, D. C.; and 1d1cre\Pr the1 put the fin· of p;o1ern- 111enl. they checked and halanced it he I 11t•1•n the legi>lati,·r. the exeeuti' r. and lhe judician. \ nrl 1d11 did 1h1•1 do all thi' 't The' Pas:<> 9 did it to pn·11·11t lhl' f11(' frnm 1·011n·11· !rating. from corning tog(•lht•r and mak in!!'. a de,trueti' r ronnagration. That i­t he rationale of the chrck and halanct· .. y,,,.tcm. And what is our Con•titulion, then? Our Constitution i a fire insurance pol­icy to protect us from bring destroyed by a connagration "hich inc\ itahly re­- ults \\hen lire gets together and gels oul of control. What do )OU ,i,ualize \\hen )OU see the distribution of the-e fire,? What ron,litutional doctrine doe' it epitomize? The con•titutional dortrin!' of stat1< right,. \nd \\hat i'> the modern application of state,· righh toda\ in a cold \\ar? Can the Communists corn;pire to grab a gm·ernment where the powe"' are dis­lrihut('( l in that manner? They cannot. Back in 1912. Woodrow \Vilson said that a eoncentration of governmental power is what alway,; precedes the death of human freedom. "Bring the po\\er' of gO\ernmPnt to. gether," he said, '"all in one place. and human freedom is dead." \nd today at this critically late hour in our history, the ommunist say, '·A concentration of go,ernmcntal po\\er i­" hat must precede the death of human freedom ... and they prO\ e it. They han• pro,ed it fifteen times in liftccn Euro­pean countrie-. IIow did they capture Czecho,Jornl-.ia, Hungary. Estonia, Lal\ia? Did they cap. Lure them by dropping bombs an1l marching men? Oh, no. They captured Lho>e countries fir,t b) concentrating the po" er of police, concentrating po\\ er O\ er election,, concentrating power o\er land; and once the PO\\f.'r OYer the land. the elections. and the police \\Cre con· \eniently hrought togethpr in one place. that power was grabbed by the Commu­nists through conspiran from the in­• ide. and the countn ''a' !'om mun izf•d "ithout firing a •hot.' \ ow. after having tried tlw C\peri­ment fifteen times, surce-si,eh and suc­res, fulh . "hv •hould the\ a·handon it here? . The) \\on 't ahandon it here. \'\ c "ill hme to prepare our•ehe, against th1• pos,ihilil\ of a military attack. hut we must aJ,(i arm our-cives a:rain'l the •neak plai that has heen efTective in every country that the Communisb hme captured •inee the encl of \rorld \'i ar I I. \\hat i, our he-t protection again-I the roncentralion of po\\ er \\hich "ill he L_he prelude to the ommunist conque>t? :-itale-. righh. constitutional '>lalcs righh. the di•lribution of po"ers throughout th!' forti-eight state' of the l ninn. Con­' Litutional 'tales rights i-, vour he,t de­fen- e again•t communi,m. I 1\3• told that thf' grPal<'•L frustra-lion that llu Lommun"l ''""fl1ralo1 find• in thi• <'ountn i' tlw Con•lilution of the l nitt'd :--tall'•. \ol the FBI. not the Pentagon: tlw Con,litution . Why? Because \\lwn the Communi't loob for the centralized power over tht' polire. he !'an 't find it. ll is in forty-eight stales of the l nion. \\'hen he looks fo1 centralized control O\ rr lht• ha I lot box. he can't find it. The Founding I· atht•r, ha\e distri­buted it in forl\-eight stale• of the l nion. \V hen he loob for ct'nlralized control 0\ er the land. th!' prelude to th!' rcdi.trihution of the land from the kulab lo the pca•anl. IH' can't find it. The Founding Father, ha\!' put con­trol of thr land in lht' forl\·-eighL •tale­of the l nion. \\p didn't do it. The Founding Fathers clicl it. And so it is with cduralion; so 1l " \\ ith agriculture; and "' it is \\ ith health and human \\f•lfare. \II of these things arc resen ed urulrr the tenth article of the Bill of Hight, lo the -tales and to the people. \rhat i- lillt'rt\ ·r Lillt'rt\ i, the limita-tion of p;o,-crnmf•nl. . \rhat i, l1 ran1n ! T) rann) is un­limited gmernnwnt. That is the way to define lillt'rt1 and l1ra111n. and you can proH' it quite clefiniteh. The gO\ernment of Hu••ia i• "ithoul limit. The go,ern­nwnl of Cerrnarn under Hitler \\as" ilh­oul an) limitation. \\hat,orwr. The gov­nnmt• nt of \lu'iSolini and his fascist 'tale \\US "ithoul an) legal limitation. whahot'H'r. The go\rrnmcnt of the l nited Stales ha, imposNI upon il a limitation pre,crihecl by the Con,titulion .. thus far and no furllwr. and here shall thy proud wa'e' he staved." Every man i, limited h\ Jm, in this country and t'\ery goYernmPntal agpncy and c1cry go\ernmental a:rent is likewisr limitrd by law. \\ h) ., llecatM' frPedorn i' an inalien­ahle God·gi\l'n right. and frepdom is de­fi1wcl in the worck '·goH'rnmental limi­tation~: · Comrnuni.rn i' unlimited, concen­trated gm errunt•ntal ptrn er; and where /!OH'rnmenlal po\\t'r i' corwcnlrated and unlimited. nohod) i• fret'. \\I' nun deft'at comrnuni-m in Ind o­china. \\'c mav throw it bark militarih in 1'.orea. and. \H' Illa) hrlp suppre-s f1 in 1-.uropt'. hut if at tlw -arne time '"' pa' for il tlw prif't' of unlimited. co11- centratPd gmt•rr11nenlal powt'r in mer­iC'a. \\t' lrnH' lo-l the hattlt• "hile our ha<b \\l'rt' lurrn·11. Don't think the Com­rnuni'h do not I-nm' lht' \\t·ak side in our line. Thal i, the hole through which tht•) cra1'1ed in liflet'n <'OUntrics. \\'ho i, going lo 1-l't'p gO\ernmcnlal po\\t'r lirnilt'd and unt·oncrntrated? \ ,I,. ) our,t'Jw, that qut'stion, fello\\ \nwrica11-. Tlwn. Cod hPlping ) ou. you \\ill 'hrd \our apalll\ and 1·omplacerlf'\ Again we are asked I Do we need . · 1 Th~1BJ SEN. JOH ". BRICKER of Oh1 " ... !hr po11w of !he adminis/ro· lion has brr11 gro11·ing at such a rapid [Jaff recr111/y !hat lfrrir influence 01er lrgislalion i.1 grealrr !Iran possibly ii'.' t'l rr lu•t•n in tht, past, or u•as cont1•Ul platrd in !hr original Cons1i1111io11. SE . HEHBERT IJ. LEIIMA ol \ 1•11• }' ork: '" ft .1/rik1•.1 '"" a.1 11/rol/1 illogical I•' claim 1/ra1 a '"'"') might sla11d abort 1/rr Co11.11i1111io11. u lrr11 11 e k11ou tfrol· 11.1 i11/a11"/ /111t'. a trl'III}' ca11 hr on·r· rid1fr11 In i<•gi1/a1io11 11 hiclr 1111111 b• rnbjr«I lo tlr1• Co11stil11tio11."" JOll1 FO TEH 0 LLES ~rcr1•1an of • la/1•: "\o limila/1011.1 upon 1/w trt•ol' 111ak111g potU'r.1 arr' f'l(Jlici//1 1frfi111.I 111 the Co11stit11tio11 or deci.1io11.1 of th• S111>rr1111' Courl. /Jut 1h1• /rt•a/r-makillc pozvrr i.s 1wt an 1111 11· 1111.1 1'<l p111u•r. II of the Supreme Court cas1•.1 1111irfr deal nith th1• .rnbj1•ct are 1111if11r111 1'' that effect." e1 Fm .,.,, tutio1 up" Prin1 York ment opers Pl pose 'itate B1 men I from ~eco 1 agrc• from Con! thro1 ti on ratifi Pf \me1 or th of th You lln itmrr 'iola \t•ar mittr gard lions doctr "la tee 1t11.;ta Vi1...io1 pr art Praet or f'J la\\s Crisv in!(,. PH say i1 hi.he hud I asked I eed . .. , ~he1BRICl(ER AMENDMENT? administro­uch ct rapid luence 01er wssibly it".1 1•as con/NII· stit11tio11. m~1A ol illogical I•' 1ta11d abo1 1 knou thal· c111 /w 011·r· ch mus/ b•' 1." ES till' /fl'llf1 it/) (frfi111''' .1io11.1 of tli• '(1/)-111(/kifl.· ' . 111 pozn1r. '(ISi'.\ 11 /iir/i uni/orlfl 1'' Hr, J[J5.J FOR 'enator Bricker Interviewed on Facts Forum's Reporters' Ro1111dup ~nator John W. Bricker, sponsor and author of the Bri<'ker ConMi lutional Amendment, was questioned recently on 11 Rrportcrs' Round up" by a panel of well-known and able rrporler-= \I r. L. Ed~ar Prina of the IF ashing ton EL•ening tar; and Jack Doherty of the ft'ew York Daily Yews. ll!r. Robert F. Hurleigh, nationwide news com­mentator and Director of :Mutual Broadrastinj?; ystem's Washington operation., '-ened as moderator. PRI A: enntor, will you s tute briefly the uim of the pro­eosed Bricker Amendment to the On!ltitution of the United "lutes? l3n1CKER: It's \ery simple. Thl' fir>l b!'C'lion of thl' Amend­ment would pre\ ent any treaty or international agreement from 'iolating any of the terms of the Con:;ti lution. The 'econd section would pre\enl lrPalics and international agre('menl:; entrrrd into hy the PrrsidPnl and foreign powers from hecomin!( internal la11 l'\C'('pl lhrou!(h action of the Congress, and if the) affected tht• rights of the ta les, through tlw action hy the slalr legislatures. The third sec­tion "oulcl r('quirr a roll call rnte of the . enale before the ratification of a treaty submitted hv the Pre idenl. PIU"\A : l see. enator, muny of the proponents of the \mendment say thnt it l\Ould rcdu<'e or pre,ent th e abuse of the trca ty·nlllking power. ow cun )OU point to uny abuse of this power by n President in the ln'it four )t"Urs, or since )Ou firioit in troduced th e Uri (•ker Amendment '! flmu,i,.n; They han' heen \l'ry carefu l not to s nd any anirndmenls down, 11 ithin rec('nl months anyway, that would 'iolate the principle of the Amendment. There 11 as one last \ear that 11 as the treaty "ith Israel "hi ch would have per­n1ill<' d professionals to practice in this ountry without re­~ ard lo ali(•nage, "hich wou ld haYe srt aside the constitu ­tions of man) of the states which require citizenship for doctor' and lawyers, and srl aside the laws of many mon' 'lates 11hich ha,·e the same rrquiremenlS in thrm. For instarH't'. lo illustrate. if that treaty had a],o carried a pro­\ ision lo thr effect that onr "ho had hren admitted lo the Practic(' of the profrssions in that country could likewise Pra<'tice in this counlr) 11 ithout ('ducational requirements or r\amination, that would hm r st•t aside likewise sta le l~,IS and sta ir constit utions. and that was admitted hy Dean (,ris11old of !Jarrnrcl in hi, "ro"-1'\amination in the hear­in~' · PJUNA : I see, c nntor, but can you point to one treaty, hay in the last four years, which in your opinion would not h n,c bf.>en roncludcd and up1>roH•d hy the .. cnntc if the re ad hf'en u Bricker AmPndmf'nl ? (Continued on Pa!(P 12) FA('TS FORUM EWS, Sqitrmlwr. 1.?5.5 AGAINST Senator Lehman Expresses His Views Before U. S. Sf'nate Our Constitution has been in effect 165 )Cars, and during that long period it has been amended on onl) th irteen sep­ara te O!'casions. In only one instance \\US a !'Onstilutional amendment "hi ch had· heen appro' eel c\ er repealed. That \las th!' prohibition amendment, "hich had hecn enacted in haste and under the pressure of propaf(anda. and \\a> re­pealed only after a debate "hich deeply di' ided the counlr) and detracted the attention of the public from much more 'ital and basic issues of the time. Our Constitution has no" worked well for 165 year>. an<l has been an efTe li\'e documont for the protection of the freed oms and liberties of the American people. There ha' e been Yery fr" instances where there has been any occasion for the people or for any stales to claim that their rights ha\e been abridged by reason of the treaty-making power of the l 'nited . tales. That re ord is a rather good one. WARNS AGAINST HASTY ACTION So I 11arn the enale against hastily approving, on an emotional hasi:-. anything so fundamental as an amendment to the Constitution of the l'nited lal{'s. Once apprO\ed and ratified, should it later de' elop lo ha Ye he{'n an unwis{' 11ndertaking, it would he a difficult thing lo undo. L{'t u' consider carefull ) and soberly what it is proposed that we do. I hope we do not do it; in fact. I am \C'ry confident we 11ill not do it. I am convinced that the supremacy of the Constitution °'er treatie:- and exccutiw agreements. if necessary to he rt'affirmed al all, and their relationship to internal la\\. -hould he reaffirmed and clarifi{'d at this time hy joint reso­lution. rather than hy amending the Con>lilution. If there w{'re. in fact. any sub,tantial question as lo the ,upremacy of the Con titution. a con,litutional amendment would he not onlr appropriate hut imperali\e. But in a situation like the one actuallY before us, where there is no sound !(round for doubting the supremacy of the Constitu­tion, an amendment of the Constitution would create more confusion and uncertainty than it could concei\'ably remow. In actual practice, we know from our recent e\peri{'nce that the Congress has not been indifTerent to the conse­qurnccs of Supreme Court decisions. Within the past decade th efTecls of uprcme Court decisions haw heen remedied 011 al least four occasions. Congr{';;s prO\ icled for slat{' regu­lation of the insurance bu ine. s. afl{'r the upreme Court had held it suhjecl lo the federal antitrust laws; the claim' for portal-to-portal pay wer{' C\linguished h) act of ongrl"Ss rr.or11ir11u•1I "" Pa!l,r lhJ Page t 1 Senator Bricker Interview I Continued from Page J J) BRICKER: Thal would not have been approved? ) es Genocide is over in the Foreign Relations Committee now. The Covenant of l!uman Rights no doubt would ham been submitted long ago, be­cause the tale Department and the President haYe stated that they were in farnr of it. There are many other ILO Comenlions that haYe been entered into that hm e been submitted to this coun­try to be ,ubmitted to the Senate for ratification. PRI:'iA: Yes, but enator, what I wa~ l'elling at-don't you think the two· thirds rule, the two-thirds of the Senators present procedure, wou1d have stopped .,uch treaties? BRICKER: Far from it. I think if it hadn't been that this amendment had been submitted and so much attention given to it by the members of the enale and by the public generally throughout thi' country. many of them no doubt would have pa,sed without any resen'a­tion. You remember that the enate in the treaty with I rael which I mentioned a moment ago did put in reservation• protecting the rights of the states in their constitutions and in their state laws as to citizenship, realizing always that a lawyer has Lo take an oath of obligation. Ile is really an officer of the court. In fact, he has to be a citizen of this coun­try and pledge allegiance to our consti­tutional system of government. PRJ"\'A: en a tor, ecretary of tale Dulles before he became ecretary of tale .;;aid that there has been a trend toward trying to use the treaty.makin~ po~er to effect international social changefil. Do you beJie,·c thi is true, and if so, can you cite any examples? BRICKER: Oh, I know it's true. The -pecialized agencies of the United '\a. lion'. which are acting independently of cour e. have drafted between one hund­red and two hundred treaties to be sub­mitted to the nited tales which would affect the internal laws of this country. and ~Ir. Humphries, who was the man­ager or the admini trative secretary of that fir't commi"8ion, said very definitely that what we are trying to do is some­thing revolutionary. Heretofore th<' rights of a citizen within his counlr) ha\"e been his right' in relation to hi• own goYernment, and determined intern­ally. while what we are trying to do i' rernlutionary. in applying international la" to the citizens of the various coun­tries that are participants to these treaties. OOHERT' : !:>enutur Bricker, if your amendment became the law of the land­would that affect our relutionship within the United N'ations'! BRICKER: It is not intended to. We \\Ould still be a member of the United "\ation•. and it wouldn't affect our par- Page 12 ticipation there at all. That's a compact of the nations, an agreement, a treaty­it is not a government in any way, shape or form, and our internal relations in this country, the laws of the United Lale• and the various states of the lnion are no malters for the United Na­tions to consider. In fact, the Charter itself says, in l\rticle II. Paragraph 7. that this shall not affect the internal af­fairs or the domestic affairs of the par­ticipating countries, and it wouldn't have been ratified had that not been in there. Secretary tettinius, you remember, sent a lelter to the enate confirming that. saying that in no way would it ever be used to interfere with the domestic mat­ters of the participating countries. No •ooner was the ink dry on the parchment than these specialized agencies that have been set up set ab ut their task of draft­ing treatie which under our peculiar phrasing in the Constitution do become the supreme law of the land, and as Mr. Dulles said, very definitely and right­fully. in his speech to the American Bar at Louis\·ille, that is a \cry dangerou• power. Treaty law is superior to congres­' ional law because congressional law has to comply with the terms of the Con­stitution; treaty law does not. He said that a treaty can transfer powers from the states to the Congre , from the Con· gress to the President, or to some inter­national authority. They can cut across the rights given Lo the people in the Bill of Rights and et a ide the provisions of the Constitution. PRINA: '\ ell, enntor, couldn't the Congress simply by passing another la"' 'iupcrsede the action of a treaty? BRICKER: In domeotic affairs the1 could if they wanted to violate the term"• of the treaty. I think that has been sus­tained by the upreme Court. What thei "ill do in the future nobody knows under the present wording of the Constitution, but if they could, it would then take to override the veto of the President two­thirds of the enate and two-thirds of the House, and it took two-thirds of the enate to get the treaty adopted; there­fore, it would be very difficult to get two­third of the , enate to override a veto of the Pre idcnt, or even two-thirds of the House if the House were narrowly di­, ·ided, because the power of the admin­i• tration has been growing at such a rapid pace recently that their influence over legislation is greater than possibly it's e1er heen in the past, or was con­templated in the original Constitution. PR'"'" Approval of a treaty takes two­thirds of those present it doe n't take two-thirds of the enate. Bmu .. En: There have been treatie' ratified with two or three people on the floor. I remember thret• that \\ere ratified when I was in the chair one day when only six members were on the floor. PRJ A: Senator Bricker, is it true that the United tates i~ one of the very few nations where a treaty cun change purely domestic rights and dutic~ without the approval of the national legislature '! BRICK•:n: Y cs. Most other nations of the world have to have parliamenlaq or congressional action, whatever you might call it, before a treaty become> domestic law. That's true in England. true in Canada, it's true in Germani all the great countries in the world, and in a modified form in France, Mexico. Cuba and the Philippine Islands. PRINA : Oo )OU think then that is the an111wcr to the opponents of the Amend· ment who say that such an amendinent would completely hnn1string the conduct of foreign affairs? BHICKER: Thal is not only the answer, but our Constitution is stronger than any other, even including those I have men· tioned in making a treaty the supreme law of the land domestically. PRINA: Well there ;, ulso thi. tu l"Oll· 1Jider in that connection, is there not. that the upreme Court has ruled no treaty n1ay entail anything forbidden b, the Constitution. BRICKER: Year; ago there 11 ere deci· sions to that effect, and in the last cen· Lury there were a lot of decisions to the effect that a treat) could not set asidr the provisions of the Constitution. Thal has all been outlawed now, and the ruk has been changed en tirely in Missouri against Holland and in subsequen t ca't'' in the Curtiss Wright case, for in· stance and the upreme Court ha• never held unconstitutional a pro\ ision of any trraty for thr simple rrason thal th<' . upremr Court ha• said time and time again thesp are political matter· and thr upr<'m<' Court doesn't C'ntC'r in· to them; but in the Missouri against Holland case Justice Holmes wrote an opinion in which he said that a trC'all doesn't have lo comply with thr on· stilulion, and it did srt asidr Artirlr 10 of the Constitution. P111NA: Oh, I don't say comply 11 ith it, hut it can't allow something that is e'· pressly forbidden by the Constitution. BnICKEn: Well, it did in that ca•!'. PHI A: Du you think tlrnt the Mii:ru­tory llird eu•e did thut? Bn1<.KER: In that ca;e it did. Pm"·r· were rcs<'rved to the states under thr Tenth Amendment. And the . "pre1111 Court in the decision ..,aid ven drfi11itl'1' that under a treat) you tra;isfrr tho•<' powers from the state lo the Congre•'· and they upheld the act of Congre'' which had been denied before the treat1 \\as in existence. ow it wasn't nece'· sary- I grant you it's a very fuzzy opin· ion, and in my judgment it isn't a sounJ opinion, but that's the law of the ]and and it has been folJowed up since that time in other cases, and further than that thr "uprrmr C:ourt held that th!' .i>· FACTS FORUM NEWS, September, Jg5 <'ailed in...,un out r. \\ ord~ of th1 pr<' mt those \men pro hi lakin1 la\\. 00 1·uld 11 f('ft in ror (.'(} BRI much the C. c-a lr11r Pnd O lion a hopef1 ~rar. hring and I lie bt>c thing ~01err if thei Push t ?' to i tl next 001 does r ul) l"Ot Politic-1 llouse B1m I[ \\ill 1erv c \\eli d and " Doi White llmc llw p not or 11 ould agrcen the c( ~<'stifie, •ng lo Prc•,id1 rlcnt th the Pre e ratified lay when floor. true that very few ge purel> thout the lture? .ations of amentary ever you becomeo England. )rmany orld, and , Mexico. ids. hat is the e Amend· nencln1ent e conducl e answer, ·than any 1ave men· ! supreme b to con· here not. ruled no bidden h> 'ere deci· : last cen· 1ns to the 'et aside :ion. That cl the rule Missouri uent ca~e!.' • for in· :ourt ha~ pro' isio11 •ason that time and ti matter· tenter ill" ri against wrote a11 t a treat\ the Con· Article 10 nply "ith that is ev .itutio11. l ('H~P. he n.1i~r11 · cl. l'o\\t·r­uncler thr S11prent1 drfi11it<'l 1 sfer th<"" Cong re>-'· Congre'' the treat' .n't nece!"· uzzy opin­' ta sountl f the land since tha1 ·than tha1 at the so· nl>er. 1 ~5· The Bricker Constitutional Amendment fuiled hy only one \Ole to get the required l\\o-third• ma­jority when Inst con~idC"red in Congre ... s. Now, for the third time, UnitC"d Stale'- Senutor John \\'. Bricker. H<"puhli('un of Ohio, huo, propo~ed u cono,titutional amendment ,,hich would J>ro,idt'" that no treatie., or inter­national executive agreements with foreign powers hccorne domestic law in the Lnitcd Stale~ "ilhout prior ··· appronal of Congre~"i. Critit·s t•ontend that the Bricker Arncndmenl would be an in,·asion of the pO\\oC'r:i; It. .,., ...' .f~ ~:'.~::::::i::;::::.:::::~~::i.:::::::,::.~::'.:~:~:~:~:~:;, . ,.,.,.::: 1·1dled Lit\ inofT Assignmento of Rusoian in,uranee funds could be efTective "ith­out ratification b) the Senate. 111 other \\orck an executive agreement becomes of thr 'a me status of a treaty, the su­preme law of the land, and did transfer thost> funds and did violate the Fifth \mendment to the Constitution, which prohibits the federal government from taki1111 proprrt) without due process of la". UOllEHT\ : 'enator, u~ u mutter of t·old lurke> politic"i, there isn ,t much 1i111e l<'ft in thi~ -,e.,.~ion of Conμrcss, ccrtuinly_ ror COlllliiicfcrntion of your amendment. BRICJ..Ell: Wt>ll, nobody knows ho" rnueh timr is left in this session of the Cong'Ce". Of course, if it is on tlw •·alt'ndar it "ill he up next year. The <'nd of this session does not kill legisla­tion at the encl of the session. J am veri hope! ul that it can be passed upon this l<•ar. If not, and the leadership will not hring it up for one reason or another and I don ·1 know what that reason might hr bt>cau'e 1 think it's the most important thing "e ham got outside of keeping the ~overnment going by appropriations 1f the) do not hring it up I certainly shall push to gel it up first thing next year so ?" to l!i' e the House time to pass upon it next ) ear. DOllEHTY: Well, enutor. in ease it does come UJ> next year, 1nightn't it gel all t·onfu!!ied und 111ixed up in the hi~ Potitil"nl bn11lc for <·ontrol of tht• White llouse in 1956'? Bttr< J..ER: Oh, you don't kno\\ what 11 "ill get confused in. The issues are 'er} clear-rut. The opposition is pretl\ ''ell defined now. We know what it i• and where it comes from. Do11u1T\: :onw of it comes from thl' \\hite llotM'. , B111cJ..1:.R: ome of it has in the past. llw Prc•sidenl has now said that he is not opposed to an amendment whieh "ouJd prohibit a treaty or international a~rcemenl from violating any tt•rmo of the Constitution, and Mr. Dulles also ~rstified, as you remember, in the hear­lr1g to the efTeet that he did not "ant thl' f'rrsiclent to have, and I am quite confi­dent the President himself cl es not want the Pre•iclent to have, power to make la" ~'AC'TS FORUM NEWS, Srptrmhrr. 111.5.5 individuall) for the people of this eoun­lr). Those are the two most important parts. Now if we get the third section, which require a roll call vote. and that means a quorum before the vote is taken, ) ou have some additional protection there also on the matter of treaties. PR INA : Is there nny sort of compro­mise that tnight be worked 0111 bet\\Cen you and the administration? BRICKER: lt ma) he. I ha\(' ah\a)S been willing to compromi,,e. I worked on it, a year or, you n·nwmher. t110 iear, ago \Cf) diligently to 11et something that "oulcl be satisfartor) to the pt>oplP do" nto" n. The fart is that this is a legislativP matter. It's a matter for the Congn•os under the Constitution the l'residt•nt doesn't sign it; lw can't \Pio it. ow the President has a perfprl right to say. if it affects his position, "hat that effect "ill he. [ ha' c felt timP and time again that the White House has gont' loo far in its opposition by ha' ing pPrsonal contact "ith Senators in order to determinP 11 hat their rntC' might be. I ha' r had no hesitancy in saying that Lo thC'm, and ha\ e said it publicly time and time again, and r belic\e it to hr true. Then in the ratification t'\en by the lt•gislatures of the states, the g 'ernor can't \C'lo that ratification. That's a le11is· lati,·r matter entirrly, for the simple rC'ason that policy-making is a matter for tht' Congress of tlw l nitC'd StalPs. The E\t•t·utiw is an exccutin'. Ile car· riPs out the la" s of the Congr<'s>. and the amPnding section to the Com.titution got this J>rO\ ision just as close back lo the people as it could, and ldt it sole!). propC'rly. in the hands of the policy· making power of the g°' C'rnnwnt, "hich is thC' Con11rrss and thC' lt>μislalures of the stales. lllllLEIGll: Senator Bricker, the Bricker Amendment was not aimed at the prespnt administration. 11as not aimed at President Eisenhower. B111CKEJI: No, it was drafted and filed long before he became PresidC'nl or lw­< ·amC' candidate for President. JJUHLEJ(;H: And ,e1, ,ir, the'"•> fact that he has in a sense led the OJ>position in the administration ug-uinM the llrit~ker \mt'ndment- hallii thnt not no" pul him in u posilion thut "ould t·nuse hin1 n ccr­lain an1ount of trouble next }Car if he allo"·cd thj~ to IX' po~tponed and become u political illiisue? BRICKER: J don't think so al all. Ifr has alread) suggested that he is content with an amendment which "oulcl pro· hibit a \iolation of the Constitution h, an) treat) or executi\e agreement. 1;1 fact. that is the essence and the substance of this "hole thing. \ ow the second sec. lion is to mereh make that efTecti\e. be­eaw• e as )OU k;1011. in Mio,ouri again-I I lolland the Supreme Court held that a treat\ doe.n ·1 'iolate the onstitution it·s the supreme la" of the land, under the terms of the Constitution. though it "as nner intended to he that. \rhen you read the history of our country and the Constitutional Comention, you im­mediately realize that such an interpre­tation was the furthc t thing from the thought of Hamilton. Jefferson. \fadi­' on or any of the other leaclero. PRl~A: cnutor Brit·ker, nrm1't there many other cases JOU eoulcl cite that "ould sho\\o that the upreme C.ourt ha ~ ruled that no lreal> made OH~rriclcs the Constitution'! BRICKER: Oh. the) never ha, e said that a treat\ 'iolated the Constitution at all because' until 1915 ... PRI:\A: "iot violate it, hut thei made it clear that it couldn't. BRICKEil: \ o, no, that's not the la" now, because Mi souri again>! Holland reversed all that, and then Curtiss \\'right said that the treaty-making power is a matter of sO\ereignt). and then the Pink <"ase said that e\•en an e=-ecuti' e agree­ment can 'iolate a section of the Consti· tution. and it set m-ide not only the deci­• ion of the Supreme Court of \e" ) ork. the la,,s of '\rw York. hut the fifth article of the fir,t lt>n amenclnwnts. PRii'IA : \ ctunll), in n treaty which does affect clome ... til· riμ-hliiii and duties "ould it not he nece ..... ar) for the Con~ ,:.rre~to, to puiiii .. In"' to <·arr> thi.., lreat) inlo efTeet? B1m.J..Ell: Thai·, "hat l want done. and that's the purpose of the mendment 1i- far as the internal law is con<"erned. But now no. l\iow, it heromes the su­preme law of tht' land a' 'OOll as tlw lrl'al\ i .. ratifiE>d IH l\\o-thirds of the J>age 13 ...,enate pre,,ent an<l 'oting. There isn't an) question about that. and all the pelli· fogging that the opposition has done and there has been much pettifogging all of it doesn't in an) way rever'e the decision of the Supreme Court. It simpl) adds confusion to the i•sue. "hich is a dear-cut one; fir,t. that a treaty must. like the law> of Congres , be under the Constitution one supreme law, the Con· ,tilution of the Lnited tales and that it shall not become domestic law until the Congres, makes it so. Congress being the poliq-making p<n•er for the la\\s of our people. \o" "hat business is it of Britain or France or Japan or Rm;sia or a national of tho,e countries as to "hat your relation,hip lo your go,ernment i;. "hat your right> in relation to me might he that's domestic. PRI'>A: 5enator. "hat I was primari!) thinking about in this connection wa• enabling legislation, legislation that would be necessary to actual!) carry out these supreme la\\s that are laid do"n h) treatie,. BRICKER: Well. of cou,,e. then \OU immediate!) bring the la" under the Con•titution because it·, an act of Con· gre•s then and i-.n ·1 abo'e the Constitu· lion or outside of ih tnms. DOHERT \' : Sennlor- u.., u matter of cold turkey politic~ a,:ai n, " o uld n't thi.., fort:e the P re~id<-n t to l"Ome to Con g-re~.., hu t in hand every time he l\Unted a treat}'! BRICKER: Oh. far from it. Treaties "ould be enacted just exactly as they arc no\\. The) "ould be negotiated by the President and the State Department. The,· "ould be -enl do1rn lo the enate for ·ratification. The1 "ould be ratified and the) would beco;ne the supreme la" of the land as far as an) international relationship is concerned. Formal treatie, are primaril) and lota!I) supposed to repre~ent a so,ereign nation in relation to another SO\ ereign nation, and should ha1e nothing to do "ith internal la"'· \ obod) e\'er contemplated that the) should until this fuzz) opinion of Ju•· lice Holmes in J\lissouri against llollancl said that thC) could make dome'otic inter­nal la" in our counlf). and then \\hen all of the specialized agencies of the l nited \ations -;tarted to work on e'ery· thing from labor relations to in,urance la"s to o;ocialized medicine to the righb of a mother in emplo) ment. wages and hour>; until the1 started to "ork on those thing, the dang~r did not become appar­ent. The first red flag, of course. was the Co1enant of Human Hi!!hts. "hich. if it had become the supreme la" of the land. a' it would if ratified hy the Senate. \\Ould place your right and mine to free 'peech. freedom of the pre.s, the right to wof'hip Cod, the right of assembly. and of petition lo Congress make them subject to the law' of the countn, and even subject to international dictate•. and then if thev created the International Page 14 Lou rt of Lriminal J us lice. "hich i' 11011 in formation. an American citizen could be taken any place in the \\Oriel and tried before that court on "hich \\e might or might not e1en ha1e one member \\e 11 ould ne1 er ha\e an\ more than that and he wouldn't ha1e the protection of the Con>titution of the l nited States in that trial. the right of indictment h) grand jury. th<' right to be confronted 11 ith "itnesses, the right to public trial; and of cour,e the rip;ht to trial in the di,trirt or the state \\ hPrein the crim1• 11as committed \\Otild he entire!\' taken a\\a\ from him. , HIJRLEIGH : Sena tor Bricke r . man) of your suppo rters believe that Jo hn Fos­ter Dulles, us un int ernuti o nul attorney of repute, prior to tuk inJ' O'\Cr h is ca binet po ... i lion as Se<·r etar} of Shale, hud been in effel't u -,u J>J>Orter of the Bricker \mendm('n t and hud said ~o in !<ipeet·hc'>. yet after he bet·ame Secre ta ry o f Sta te he tended to reverse hi 't po -.it ion. They daim thul thi.!'> \HI~ due to the po liti t·a l :,ituation and his lrnv in ~ become u member of the Cabinet. Have )OU uny fee lin ~s on that? BRICKER: \o, \OU \\Ould ha\C to ask "-Ir. Dulles to a11~\\er that question. but I do k11011 thal he madr the most clear· cut •talement at Louis> ille on the clan· ger• of treat) la" that had been made h) an) prominent la\\)er in the l nited ::itates. "ith the exception of tho'e "ho ha1e te,tified here in the ... Hl RLEIGll : Are )OU 'IU)i n g, Senator. 1lrnt Set·retur) Dulle ... in hi "i Loui sville -.pced1 .. po ke o ut in fa , or of lhe Bri ck er \ mendment or an amendment o f thi "' '-Ort '! Bn1u.rn: lie ,aid that treaty la" ;, a 'er} dangerous la\\. that it is para­mount to the la"' of Congre,s becau,1· it doesn '1 ha1 e to conform to the Consli· tution. It !'an transfer po"ers from Jo('al g<nernnwnts to Con11re--,. and from Con· grero:...., to the Pret-ident or lo an interna· tional bod), and further than that. it can set aside the rights of the American peo· pie gilen in the Con'1itution. PRI\ \ : But Sen u tor, he 'uid oub•e· «1uenll,, I belie , e, thut "Idle treu t} la" j.., li a ble to ubu"'e, "iUt·h a hu ~e hu.., n ot ta ken pluee, and lie und many 0 1l u~ r ;,, lun e point ed 0 111 . or liu"e a.,"- ed wh ). a ft er near I, 170 > eu r"! "itho ut the Bri l·ker \me nclm(•nl , \H' !<ludde nly n(•ed it to ~ u a r­a n1ee th e~e ~u feμ- u arcL .. to the C"i ti ze n"' o f the l nited ~ l u t e ... '! Bn10.rn: Well. he<"au-e the whole phil1»11ph) is !'hanged. The State lJe. partment. if 1ou remember. under Mr. Truman and Mr. lfoo,e1elt. and imme· diateh after the l nited \ atiom. \\as or­ganized. took the po•ition that there is no lonp;er an) difTerence het\\een domes· tic and international la1'- that an) thing the General As•emb!) take,, up becomes international in chara!'ter. an) thing we \\ould enter into a treaty about is inter­national, and no longer i' there any pro· tection on domestiC' la", so "ith that philosoph) there is a complete turn· about on the part of the administration taking to themselves the power under treaties to make laws for the people of tlw l nited ~late' fir,,t, and ;,econd, that the President himself b) executil e agree· ment can make laws. "io" remember the Potato case. in "hich the Attorney CPn· era! in his brief on certiorari in the U· preme Court said that unless the right of the Pr<"sident to set aside a law of the Congn'" \\ere sustained there "ould he 01cr a hundred other such executi1 e agreements that would fall. I haYe asked 1diat th<'y were; l haY<'n't been a hie to p;('l them. I asked Mr. Brownell in the last !waring to iouhrnit for the record a Ji,t of thoH' to "hi ch h1• referred. That means that the Pn·,ident of the L nitre! , tales himself. h) e'ecuti1e agreement. i, making lt11•. amending the laws of the Conl!n'"· and a great deal of that amendment has heen in secret. and maybe WI' don't kno" "hat it is )Cl. ll lJ Hl.EIGll : Are th<> Bric· kc r buck er• g-e llin ,:: u fair hr<'uk, Scnuto r, in th f' hear· inJ!ii <'O ndu t· tt~d h) Senutor Ke f a uver, who is deeply hill <"n pc rh a11s by the pr<"'liclc 11 · tial buμ-'! BR I Ch f:H: Oh. ) e,. IH' got to pre!-Pnl our ca•e thorough!) and adequate!\, and sin!'e that time Senator KefaU\er <"allrd hi, 'ul)('ommittee together. "hi<'h re· ported out the \mendment as it \\RS ;;ulr· mitted b) a 1ol!' of three to l\\O. I hall' 110 complaint 11 ith the 1\8) the hearing· "ere ('ondu<'lecl or "ith the action of tlH' suhcomrnitt1·(' since 1hat time. Ill HLEIGll : \\hut abo ut Hepublicun du ims thut if it \\U~ n·1 for tl1 {' Brirker \mendme nt luM yea r. Hc publicu ns would 4·011t rol the 11011 "'" und Senutc no" '! BlllCKEll: I don't know that it had a rl\ · 1hing to do with it. The Republican pari) large!) 'upported thi' amendment. II 11as in tlr!' platform of lhe la,t \ atiorrtrl Com('ntion. and if that isn't Hepublican do!'lrine I don't knrrn 11here \OU are go· ing lo find it. . li l llLEIGll: \\ell. perhaps Senator Fergu'<>rr in Mi<'hi11an did nol "rpporl ii ('nough. ll101 i..rn: \\ ell. he 'upported it in th" lrqrinning. lie "as one of lhe signer' It> i<. and thPn 'llll fit at the lm•t not to sup· 1>ort it. That might ha' e had somethinf( lo do "i th hi, election. I do11 't kno11 'm1 "ill hm(' to a'k the people of Michi· ~an abou t thal. ll tHLEIC,11: \Vt'll. perhap1:> if it di<l ha\(' an)thinp; to do "i th hi, election and h1· i' not 11011 in th!' Sena te, it '"'ul1l ha1e <'hang!'d the Senate. B111< !>.ER: ) I'S. if he had het'n elect!'d and therl' had hPen no other change-­Tlwr(' "as another onl' "ho" a;. defeated· 1ou rt'mcmlwr. I hat also s11 itchrd in th•' ;niddlt• of this, and that "as Guy Ci!letlt' out in !11\\a. Jlp \\US one of the originnl 'igrwrK and lw Tl'\ crs('(I his posi tion, and he 'la\ er! homt• loo. ll lJHLE IGll : \\ itli l' r<'sident E i,e"· ho" cr's uclmini'itra tion against you, wl~0 are your c·hief supJ>Orle rs for the Ame ll · m nt? 8RllKER: The merican people. FACTS FORUM NEWS, Septeml1er, J955 B to ti al RI'' mo. Jo" l prr· Z('ll' oth, 11ill \\hr 11ill lion f'Oll /('fl ! ilm or 11itl th1· tn g'0\1 if'ar II Jw ll adoJ l ni 178• all ti on \o for<' 11ith o[ .\ of : l nil of I T Dt·rr ii ton part •ti tu Ii mil to r and and tlw or )l 'lurr I hat llp1 a tn l•ilh til!hl nu!li 1·i1 i11 lor) 111 \\ tlw l '1 fo f'U~p or l liul?I }' A( und, that ' e agree­mber the ney Gen­n the Su­the right l\I of the would be exeeu ti' e t\'e asked n able to •II in the record a red. That 1e United nerment. ws of the of that ·rel, and IS )Cl. r backer .. tlu• hcar­uver, who presiden-o pref.en! 3teh , and .er 'ca lled 1 hieh re­. ,,as ~uh· •o. I ha,e hearing­ion of the epu bli ('u ll e Bricker !ltl"l would 0\\ ·~ t had an1· ican part) lment. It "- ationnl epublican >U are go· Senator •I suppo rt I it in tlw s i ~ 11 ers tn 1ot to sup· ~ome thin ~ 1t knO\\ of Mi"hi· if it did s elec tion ',it \IOUJd en electc<I · ('hange·· ; defeated· hed in th<' .iy Gillett<' e or igin nl ~ ition, an'! nt Ei~f·W you, wh0 le Amen'I· op le. nber, J955 Bricker Amendment Necessary to Maintain Basic Freedom By SID II \ROI'\ , Tc'a" la\\)t'r n c\\~-a nal, ... t, '+lio \\arn ... that "'ithout the Bri(·ker \mt•ndm<'nl \m<'rit·a 11 indept"1Hle11t•c "ill ... oon lw lo .. t. The Bricker Amendment, in substan­tially th!' form introduced as S!'nalt• H!'solution \umber I last January, i.1 tht• most important piece of legislc11io1t lw­fore the Congress of the Cnited State.1. l nl1·s, it is adopted, this rounlr) \I ill presently lose its independ!'1H'!'; its ('iti­t<• ns "ill Jo,e their propt'rl) ri1d1ts and otlwr fre!'donb. \lost of our rt·•o111Tt'• \\ill ]l(' ,iphon!'d off to ot lll'r l'""J>l1•, ,-Jrn "ill 1·011trol a 1\C>rld f!O\l'lllllll'lll. Till' llril'kl'r Am!'ndnwnl, if aclopll'd. 11 ill f!trnranll'l' thrl'!' l<·f!a l and 1·on•lil11- lional pri1wiplt»: 11) il "i ll prt'lt"lll till' r·on•lilut ional rif!hb of Anwri<"an <"ili­t<• ns from h1•inf! ahriclf!<'cl or d1.,,ll"O)l'cl lhrou:.d1 tn•a tit•s \\ith ror('i f!ll po\\l'f~. or hy lllPUll:-. or (''\('<'Uli\ t• [l~rl't'lll('lll:-- 11 ith fon•if!n pO\\!'r•: 121 it 11ill hlocl tlw Pil:o-.\ road throu:.d1 ''hi ch our C'oun­lr1 c·oiild ])(' mad<· a prO\ inc<' of a 11 orld irrn 1·rnnwnt: ancl I:{) it "ill kl't'p \ mt'!" i<'an soldit•rs undf'r AmPri<'an c·cHnl .... 1dH'n on duty in fore if!n lan<k ll11ri1w tlw fi"t l :{ l Yl'ars aftl'f till' adoption~of our f1•d<•ral Constitution tl1t• l nit('d Stale~ μo\Prnml'nl nq.rotiatt'd 1789 tn•ati<·• "ith for 1" if!11 po\\l'rs. and all su<"h tr<'atirs concl'rnrd 011h rl'ia ­tions lwh\t'Pn ~o\'erei~n μo\ 1·r11nit•11Ls. \ o onr ,.,,.r h<•a rd of a tn·al1 "ith a forrif!n JlO\\('f hm inf! anythinf! lo do with dom<'• li<" ht" or thr pri' al<' riirh1, of \ m!'rican citil(•ns until thr a<h<•nl of stranf!t' politica l doctri1H'• in tlH' l nit<•d. tall'• liv tlH' inll'rnalional "inl!s of both major -political parti1•s. Thomas Jdfnso11 . tlw fo1111clt•r of tlw Di·monatic part\: a11d \l i·"1ndi·1 ll arn­ilton, tlw foundrr of llH' Hqiublican partv. both ci!'ciar!'d that tlw Con· Rlitti'tion of llH' l nitecl. tail's. as" ritli•n. limit. th!' lr!'aly-makinf! po\\1·rs slricth lo rC'lations ht•l\q•c•11 sO\Trc iμn JHl\\ ('r'.-1 and dot•• nol 1•\ l!'nd liq ond that poi11t: and no treat) can ahrid f!t' the po'"'r• of thp stalt•:-- or tre:--pa-.:-. upon tlw ri μ. ht:-­of pri,al<' "iti"•ns. Tn Fcckralist Papt•r \'umlwr IS. \J ,•,a1uler Hamilton 111ak1·• that \!'fl clear. Thl' lef!~tl do!"lri1w of tl11• Upn·nll' \.ourt of th!' l 'n il!'cl. !alt••. that a lrPal\' or '''<'<'uliH' aμ-n·t·nwnt 111ad1· ''ith a fon·iμ-n po,,cr can ahriclgt• t1w tii:ht, of tlw -iat<'S anrl s!'I a•ide and nullif, tlw pri\alt• rip:ht' of '\nH·ricnn «itiit•n:->. fir--t oriμ:in all·cl in t1H' \l iμ-ra· Ion Bini c·a•t'. \li"cuni "· I lolland. in \\ hil'h a ldl -\\ i11:.r Supn·11w Court of llw l ' nit!'d Stal<'' h!'ld th at a tn•al\ "ith " fon•if!n JHl\\!'I" l'ould and i11 thal r-asr did ahridμ-<' liH' 1\nwrican Bill of Riμ-hts . \.11id Just ir<' \.liarb E. Iru l!hes wanwd of th<' implications of F'AC'TS F'ORl'M NEWS, Sqit!"ll1l111-, 19;;;; that d<'cision and nont' paid an) alll'n­tion to him. \ l'\t ('ame th!' Pi11k ('a•t', in \\ hi('h thl' Supreme Courl of th!' l nitl'd Stalb IH'ld that an e\l'C"UI i\!' aμ-rl'l'nlt'nL nr\ er ratified by the l 'ni t!•d • tales • enalt'. madr lwt\\ern Franklin D. Hoo•r\dt and Lil\ inofL thr Jll'1»onal rl'prl'H'nlati\l' of Joe Stalin. was 'tlJH'rior to thr Bill of Hil!hts of th<' fP!kral Con-.titution: and thr l'rl'sident of tlw l niti·d Stall''· throuμ-h an <''f'('t1li\r aμ-n·t'nH'lll '' ith a fon•iμ-n pow('r. had th<' pO\\t'r ancl au­thority to Yoid anr or all prm ;,ion' of lht' fl'd<•ral Constitution. The first la\\\('!" to ht·<·onw alarm!'d ml'r that ck<'i~ion was John Fo•ll'r Dullt••- "ho no\\ lhinb tlw ci!'l'i,ion in tlw Pink cast' is μ-ood dodrin!'. and "ho n•1·i·nth· n•ftN•d lo lt'•lih at a c·ommill<'l' 1; <'a r i 11 er 011 tlw Brit ·J..t•r \mc11dnwnt. r TIH• l nil!'d \ation• Charin'"'' rali­fit• d in ]uh. 19JS. and i11 tht• Stt•l'I S1·i- 1un· '"1'1'-- tlw Ju .tin· of lhl' l nill'd Stalt·• Supn·nw \.1u11I and l\\o a.­.... oC'ialt· ju:-.li('<'s \\rolt• a mi11orit~ di .... .... t'nlinμ- opin ion holcli11 1! that tlw iiclop· lion of thr l ' nil!'d \ation, Chart!'r \l'sil'd till' I'n·sid1·11t of tlw l 'n it<'d Sta It's " ith tlw po" t•r- of a dil'lalor. Th1'\ "'Prt°"I) lwld that tlw adoption of 1l1t• l'hartn f!a\I' tlw l'n·· idl'nl I"""'' lo s('it1• tlH' pri"il<' propC'fl\ of .\n1t·ri­(' a1J f'iti1t•ns "i1l1011I c·om11t'll"'alio11 in 'iolatio11 of Artidt• \ of thl' \nwrintn Bill of Hi g-ht •. '/'hr• l11wrica11 f"'"fl/1• 111i.,.11•d dictalorsl1ip in that ca.11· 111 1111/i / 1<·11 rn/1>.1 on I hr• Cr111 rt. Tl1t• Con•! i 1 ul ion prO\ idrs that all lrl'alit•• "ith fon·il!n pm11·rs nHH lw rat if ii·d 11) tlw l nitl'd Slalt·s Sena!«'. hut tht •n• j.., no pro\ ision "' lo till' n·quin·d 11umlH'r of st'nator' that lllti'I he Jll'l'S(' lll. \.011st'<Jlll'llli). lllO•I of till' tn·a ti i·s h<·inl! mad!' toclai arc rutifi1·cl II\ J,._. than fi1t• s1•nalor,: hut unclt'r tl1t: la" of tl1t• l' i11J.. ca--c. a11 l'\t'('UI i' t' aμ-n•t•nu•nt 11uul1• .\t'crt•ti) and 11 itlwut th<' k1111n·lr•dw· or cr111wnt of tllf' S1•11a/1• """ nullif, till' Con•lilulion of till' l nit!'d . tatt-s .' Tht'IT j..., 110\\ a dt'lt •rrni111•d dri\t' in th<' l nitl'd . lal<'' to mak1• thi- counln a prrH inct• of a "orlcl μ:o' t•r11nw11I thro11!.!.lt --omt• tn·al\ or t'"'ruli\t' aμ:n•t'llll'lll. Tht' pa••Hf!t' o( tlw llrirlt•r \n u·ndnll'nl 11 ill makt• that impo,, ihl i·. Ont• of lhl' fir st l11 •a li1 •, lll'f!O liatt-d hy John Foster Dull!'s afll'r I H'in~ promoli·d from an a~sis t anl lo DPa11 \dwson lo S<·1Tt'lar) of Sta ll' 1111d<·1 th1· llqiuhli ­can » "'" tilt' Sta tus of \rnwd Fore<•, Tn•at 1 "h ich dqiriH•s al l \ nwrican ....l'nic:t•mt'n and \\Orlll'n in llu· armt'd forcp, of tlw l nil!'d tale' of their ril!hts as American citizen' the moment thry '"t foot on any forei~n shore. and al"olutelr abandons them to the la\\~ and the .rnurh of •lranl!e lamk That 1rns the decision of the federal court in the Kr•rfe case tried last year in Tr' ash­ing/ on. The talus of l\rmed Forcrs Treatv has rreentl)' been r-.tenckd to Japan and the fir't Yirtim \\as tlw \\ ife of an .\mcrican soldit•r "ho forgot to turn off the electri(' iron. ll l'r rente<l hou•e burned do11 n an cl -.lw 11 as impri>oned for ar,011. Forl\ otlwr countries are in line to join otf;,.,._ in that trraly "ith tlw l nitccl • tatt•s I!°°' t•rnn11•nt: it ;, •oori to lie <''>lt•ndl'd to "' l'f\ countn in the \\ orld ''here \ nwrican -soldi!'r• ·may hl' •tationcd. - Hut μ-l't this pkase John Fo,tu Dull1•,. nwmht•r, of th l' State Dep..tr•­nwnt. politicians. and others, incluiling m1•111hi•rs of Conμ-n•ss and l nited Stalr>­.... t•nator~. rC'~C'n t' lh<•i r ri~ht'; as A1r.eri~ can C'il in·n~. "IH'll ah road. and arC' ~ub­jl'ct only to \ nwri1·an rnurts for any offt•n,t'• l'ommiltt•cl in for<'iμ-n land •. II /11 do thn n•wri 1• t111•ir 01111 right.1 and aha11do11 1111rrirnn soldiers to 1/m11w· lti11 ·' and cr111•/ 1wnish111rnt? Th!' Brick<'r \ menclmt•nt "ill restorr In .\ m!'rican -oldii•rs th!'ir riμ-hb as \ mrri<"a11 cilit:t•n ... unclt•r the Con~titulicn of the l nited Stall's " lwn on hr!'i!!•1 duty: it "ill μ-uarantt·r lo the Americ~n -o ldi <•r the saml' ril(hls h!' ri,.ks his life to clrfend. Off<·1H'• earn difft•rt•nt puni,hment• in difTl'rt'nl ('Ountri<·s. In most all for­t'i!!. n <'Ounlr1t..., orw accu~<·d of rrim.-• is g-t;ilt~- until ht pro"'' himsrlf innorcnt · "hi le in <\me1 i•a lw is innol'ent until hi, f!uilt has ht'l'n l'<.;lahJi,JlC'd hr leiwl and compt'lt'nt t'\ idt•nct• IH'yond a rt'a•­onal1l<• douht. I'n•r) riμ-ht μ-rant,,d the \ nwrican citizen accusi•cl of nim! j, dt'ni!'cl the 3<'ell'f'd in 1110,t forri1!n lands: and "" 1ih thr Amt'rican ,olilirr or an\ mrmher of his famih· ihe m~re :.H'<'tr"'Ution rr-.;ull~ in punis.hment hc- 1·at1"'<' he has no nwa1i-.. of prcn in~ hirr1 · ,,.Jf i11noc·1·nt hdon· a juclf!<' in a land "hl'r!' trial Iii jun is unkno11 n. l n -onw fort·if!ll la11ds tlw theft of a fil(- a •I il'k of \\ oocl. or ol lwr itt'm of littli· 'alt1t'. ;, puni,fwd II\ n1tlinf! off both hand, and hoth fl'd. Thi' 1rnH crud and unu-ual pu11i,hnwnb prt'\ ail in \• iatic countri<•• and in tht' 'ITi ddll' f:asl for p<'lh offl'n•t'': a n cl l\meriean -oldi<·r- 11 ill I"' ,uftjt•<'ll'd lo them "hen till' Stati1- of \ rnwd For('('S Trl'alv ;, l'\l!'ndl'cl a, rnnlt·mplatl'd ft) John ico•· In Dull!', and tlw pn·si·nl H!'JH1hli .-an administration. Tlw Bril'kt•r \ nwndnwnt is ! win~ sup­portrcl in lht' l 'n ill'd Stalt•s St•nate In tht' c·on•l'nali\l· "inμ-• of both th!' Ht·­puhlican and lkmocratic parlit'•: and;, hein~ oppo,Pd ll\ tlw international 11inl!°' in both parti1••. Th<' PrcsidPnt ;, Page I:> J polit1C'al I" -0111·1 ol tilt' 111t1·111at1u11al "in!! of hi- parl1. and tlwrdon op po-~; thr Rrirlrr .\mrndmrnt. Tlw ">tat1" or \rm<'d Fon·•·- Treat1 :wthori11·- the C'il ii authoriti•·- or an~· countn that ha, ,igned thl' lr<'al1. i;1 "hi ch · A.m<'ri<·an >ofdit·" :rn· 'tati;llH'd. to arre-t •oldil'r' "ho may hl' drnrμ!'d or -uspected of any criml'. Thl'rl' i, no limitation a' to the numh<'r 1d10 mar be arrr-ted: and r·onsNJllrntly. an ~1rr· ni!!hl dianμc in !!Oll·rriml'nt could takl' plar·I'. and lht nnt rla1 tlw 1d1olr· \mt ri- 1 an armv mi~d11 lit• ant· .... 11·d and taken undt•r -om•· phony charg<' and lwld un­dn tht• tt'rm• of a trrat} 1wμoliatl'd hy John ro-tt•r Du lit·-. \ r1tura/ly. Zl'e do not rrnticipatr uch a thing. /mt thPrP ,_., nutlung in tlw lrnlll Iv JH<'L nll ll There is no hope that tlH' SuprrnH Court will set aside the judiC'ial prl'· ccdent' of thr llollanrl. 1'1111.. and f...t'd1· cases. The majority of tlH' members of the court an• committt•d to thl' prrcl'd­rnb o[ thr ('US('S ancf lfH' poJicit'' of thr L nitcd '\ations. Onli through a con­stitutional amrndment. such m, th<' Bricker Amendmrnt, can the guaran­trcs of the Am<'rican Bill of Rights h<' rr-.torcd. Only through rcpral of th<· '°'tatu' of \rmrd Fore-cs Tr!'al\ can tlw rights of mrn and womrn in tlH' armed for ct·:-- lw pn· ... l'n Pd \\hilt• on fon·ign -oil. What can you, "' a private citizen. do to makt' spc·un· th1• ron<titutional Senator Lehman's Views rt:m1ti1111Nl from Pnw· I I) 111 1917; th•· •lat•· fair-trad1• laws hall lwt•n re1i1ed; and unilatPral d..trrmina· lion- in thr <''1'C'Uli1t• branch arr no lon~er hindin~ upon bu~int·-..~m(•n ha, in~ contrarb with thl' l!OI Prnnwnl. OVERRIDE CONSTITUTION? Tht r on~n·--ional pol\ t'r to rnad lt·gi~lation -..upt·r ... t·din~ a treat} a ... in­ternal la" has bt•pn dearly p,tahlished hi thr , uprt•nw Court. A.,; act or Con· ~rl'.- ha1 in?: this l'ffel'l. like any other ;..Wt of Conμrt':--'.". mu:-.l hr in pursuanc<' o[ th<' Con,titution. and therdon· suhor­dinatP thert'lO. lt slril..1•s m<' as 1d1oll1 illoi!iral to daim that a trraty mip;l{t stand abO\t' till' Con,litulion. \\fl('ll \\P kno\\ that. :1' int<·rnal la\\. a treat) can lw OH'rriddPn hy f<'gislation 11hich must J,.. -uhjt·d to tlw Co11,titutio11. [[a treaty r-an •land no lwttPr than an act of Conμ-rr·--. to my \\al of thinking it [ol­l1n'' that a tn·at\ must fl(' subj<•ct to thr Con:--titution in 1lw -.amt• dPμTt'C' a ... an •. wt or Con!!l"t" ...... Tlw dt'C'isions o[ Lht· "upn·nw (.ourl ,,[[ord no basis for a111 ..!aim or [ear that •n·ati•·, ma1 01t•rrid;• lhr Con,titution. 1 n fapt. the ··tall'mPnls on this 'ubjPcl in Llw ">upr<'mt• Court\ opinion' arP clP[i­nitch in arrord 11ith our traditional 1·01wi·pt or ron-titutional ,upn'maq. For in•tann·. I find thr [ollo\\ inμ in an opin­ion of thP npn'm<' C:onrl. ''rilll'n in 1870: It nt·t·d hanll} lw ...,niil that a trt·at) annot rhanj!f" the f"on .... titution or lu· ht-l•I \a lid if it hf• 111 'iolation nf tli:it in .... trument. \\"h1 did tl11s --,.,.,.,] hanlh lw •airl ·r· f >Ill io;1sly lwc·,111-.1· tlw :-iuprl'mr Court ft•lt tlwn· ""' 110 n•al qu•·,Lion ahoul ii. I [,.,.J '''aclh tlw '-<11111' \\U). Tlwn· appl'art·d in tnd,11 ·, IS•tl(' or tlw 11 mhin.1!;/1111 !'mt an ''".;.11,.111 artic-lr !11 Lhl' lt'f\ alift. antl di•tingui,flt'rl col- 111111i-1. \\.ahl'r Lippmann. in "hil'h hP Page tfi .-l1·arl) point' 0111 1111· impo"ihilit) of n·aC'hi11g an aμ:n•(·m1·11l rr~ardin~ t}w nH'a11;11g o[ th(' \Urious tompromi1.>C' pro­po- aJ, on thP Rri< l..1·r \mcndmPnl which ha1t• hrrn put fon,ard. lie also stair' tht-n· is no quC'-.,tion r<·~ardinμ: th~ su­prl'ma<' I of tilt' Con'1itution lo a111 tn·alL I am 110 rnn,titutional la" yer. Thl' e·ourt <l1•cisions and aqrumenb to whirh I h:111• rdt•rr('(] ha1 <' ht'<'ll furni,IH'd nw I" r·o1i-lilutional authoritit's and T dra11 11;,.m lo Llw attt•ntion or Lhr Srnatr and the puhlit· for their furtlwr con,ickra lion. But a' a layman. I cannot '<"<' that an\ rH'\' or ... tnrtling- doclrirH· \\U~ pro mulgatl'd b) tlw \li gratori Bird dPei,ion of 1920. thl' 11011 [amou- <'a"' or \fi ,. 'ouri a:rainsl I lollanrl. \1 r. Ju,ti<'<' Oli1 rr W<•ndrll llolm<'s. \\riling thr opinion in thP \Iiμraton Ri rd C3'l'- "rnl out of his way lo fon• -tall 311) disquiPling infrrC'JlC(' of a rrrn­lutionary chan~f' in our roni;;titutional law. TIP •airl: \\ t' do n1·t 11wa11 lo 1111pl} that then· art> no qunlifirati<Hl"' to tlu• trf"aty-mak inJ,!: pcl\\f'r !'hr \li~ratory Rird dl'eision su,tained a [t'dt'raf Jal\ impi<•mt•nting a treaty ('\"('II though tlw la" d1·ah 11 ilh a suhjrd 1d1il'h wonld ha1(' h<'<'ll \\ithin th!' "' c-lu-i1t· r·ontrol of till' sla[p, if a trral\ had not lwt'n i111oh t•d. Thi, mean·, -imply that tlw tn·at1 pO\\!'r is supn•mt· 1n1·r •lalP la1L a• tlw Constitution 'UY' it j,_ in an1 matLPr whid1 is an appro­prialt · suhjl'rt [cu a lrPaty: and thi• ... 11pn·nw po" t·r j..., plt>IHH\. ""11Hici1·11t to clo thl' full joh rt''fllirPd o[ a lrt•al\. Tllt'n' ap1wan·d in tlw 'Y1•11• } orA Fi111t'.\ thi.., morninμ a \('r) intPn·~tinμ. illumi11ati11μ-. ancl t'd1wational articl!', in tht' [orm of a ll'tlt'r to tlw t'ditor of tht' \C'lt } ork Tim1•.1 [rom tlw distin~ui,Jwcl la" \'t•r. \Ir \rthn r IT llPan. "1wr·ial !!UJI a11ltT~ ol \11wru·a11 I 1 l·t·dum:-- ·~ \\hat 1:a11 1 '"' du lo hr in;.: al1out tlu rrpral of the Status or .\rmrrl Forcrs Trt'aty '? \\hat can yon do to forcl' tlw l nited Stall's S(•1iall' lo Pnact the llri('k<·r i\nw11dmp11t and thl'rc·hr rrnd<'r 1oid thr fHO\ isions of any lrl'aty that C'Onrlicts \\ ith Lia• i\nwrican Rill or l{i p;hts '? Tlu•rt• i., 1111u·h that JULI can do.' Wlwn till' /\ml'rican puhlir ckmand• thr'r thinp;s they Hill come to pa.1s 1 I[ you arr oppos<'d to the supcrnational "orld μ01 <·rnnwnt propo,ed b) till' l nil<'d '\ations to replan· Lhl' Constilu lion o[ the [nited :-italt'S then rt'p;i-· ter your opposition '\O\\ with yotll l nilNI Stal<•, "'11ator' and )Our parl\ il'adl'r,. It is Jntpr than \ ou think. •\mbassador lo f... on·a. Tlw lt'tt!'r rmrl­as [ollows: INTERl'HETIN<, \\IEND\IEYIS
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