lion both at home and abroad on as
large a scale as conditions would permit.
\- I indicated earlier, in the case of
wheat alone, export subsidies have been
averaging eighty cents per bushel —
8200 million a year.
I nder the broadened authority vested
in us through Public Law 480, we have'
signed agreements with eleven nations
for the sale of $226 million worth of surplus farm commodities for foreign currencies. Nearly one-third of this total
represents wheat, with 33 million bushels scheduled for export under this
agreement. A large part of the 17 million bushels of the wheat shipped thus
far under this program is hard winter
wheat. .. .
Our program for the fiscal ve-ar. covering shipments through September, 1955,
should bring the total to between 50
and 60 million bushels of wheat and
wheat Hour equivalent. Public Law 480
requires lhat these sales be in addition
lo the usual marketings of the I nited
States. We are taking every precaution
to see that our normal exports are not
Title II of Public Law lllll authorizes
lhe President to use surplus agricultural
commodities in meeting famine and urgent relief needs in other areas of the
world. Nearly 20 million bushels of
wheat and wheat flour equivalent have-
been used for this purpose.
Public Law 180 alsei provides for expansion in the barter activities of the
Department of /Agriculture. During the
period July 1. 1951. through April 30.
1955, we traded 45 million bushels of
wheat for metals and other strategic materials for defense purposes. About 33
million bushels of this wheat has alreaelv
\t the same time, the Foreign Operations Administration is required to use
not less than $350 million for the purchase of surplus agricultural commodities for use in its programs. This minimum has already been exceeded and
I'OA has programmed over 50 million
SOCIALISM—You have two cows and
give one to your neighbor.
FASCISM—You have two cows. The Government takes both and sells you the
NAZISM—You have two cows. The Government takes liolli and shoots you.
NEW DEALISM—You have Iwo cows.
The Government lakes both, shoots
one, milks lhe other anel throws lln
COMMUNISM—You have Iwo cows. The
Government takes both, controls eeenl
regiments your life so closely yon would
rather be eleaeel. but gives you back jusl
enough of the milk Io sustain your life,
thus prolonging your agtmy while constantly telling you ami thc world how
luck, you are.
CAPITALISM—You have two cows. You
sell one and buy a bull.
bushels of wheat and wheat flour equivalent.
These government programs, added to
sales under the International Wheat
\greement. will account for the export
ot more than 220 million bushels of
Despite all of these programs and
even with tight production curbs, it has
been impossible to prevent a continuing
build-up in supplies of wheat and some
other commodities. .Although the loan
level has been at 00 percent ol parity, our
calculations show that actually farmers
received an average of 84 percent of
pariiv [or wheal during the L952-53crop
year, 1>0 percent during 1953-54 and ill
percent thus far in 1954-55.
In view of this experience of recent
years, I am convinced thai we need to
direct our farm program toward better
balanced production. We need to encourage increased research and education, we need more marketing efficiency.
We need In find new markets and expand existing ones. We must be com*
petitive price-wise, quality-wise and pro-
Fnr Ihe states which have been so
heavily dependent upon wheat, we need
—Wide World Pholo
To reduce wheat surpluses, Secretory of Agriculture Benson suggests an accelerated increase in the cattle Industry.
I., develop alternative and profitable
crops. We need a plant which could
bring to the wheat-producing area something approximating the new billion-dollar industry which the soybean created
in the Corn lielt. Perhaps it should be an
oilseed or a high-yielding forage crop
e>r even an entirely new plant.
Right now our research people tell me
lhat hybrid grain sorghums show real
promise for the hard winter wheat area,
vvilh increased yields up to 50 percent.
The remarkable population growth in the
Inited Stales will call for much greater
livestock production in the years ahead
if we are to maintain present dietary
standards. Possibly a continuing and accelerated increase in the cattle industry
holds the brightest future for many farmers.
Meanwhile, however, wheal will be llu'
principal and perhaps the most profitable crop for many parts of the nation,
lor those areas, the real opportunity lies
In improved wheat varieties and in the'
research eunl education which will provide them. For the current year, we increased funds available for wheat quality research bv $50,000. Other si/e-eibl,'
increases have been earmarked for re-
search devoted In stem rust. smut, mosaic diseases and insect control. \ll"
gether. we have more than $700,000
available for wheat research work alone
during lhe current fiscal year and a similar eun,unit for next year. This compare!
with total wheat research expenditures
of $272,000 as recently as 1947. . . .
I have real confidence in the value <"
research, education and market de've'lnp-
inent. Mosl of the greal gains of agriculture have come from tlu-se' sources. I he-
lii've they ,ilfer the surest approach I"
many of our problems.
Whatever the role of government i"
■ mr farm program of lhe future, it mil*'
never overshadow personal freedom an"
initiative. \lv own experience in Washington has onlv strengthened mv conviction thai fanners, through their individual and cooperative efforts, can do motf
Im themselves than lhe governmenl caD
ever do for them. Moreover, I believe
farmers are loo realistic and loo self-re-
liant ever to barter awav ihe fr Im"
to make llieir own decisions.
\s I look ahead, I cannot be anythinfS
hut optimistic over the future of American agriculture. Certainly we have oui
current problems. We have heul others "'
the pasl and tomorrow mav well brffi
new niics. Nevertheless, vceir in and yea'
nut. American agriculture is nmvii'r
ahead. It is more efficient and more p'"'
.Im live than ever before in our history
This real anil lasling progress will cof
May God give us the strength and th'j
wisdom to work toward the constant go"
of all who love the land — an expanding'
prosperous and free agriculture.
FACTS FORUM NEWS, September, 19&