,at we I"*'
ism and <!i
■ ■* is K
?nt can c»J
st the peofl
*nd those of the free world are going
to be fooled by that in the slightest. I
jjoubt if it even fools the people of
As a matter of fact, Mr. Streibert,"
farted Moderator Hurleigh, "hasn't
* been said that the speech by Mr.
JpTushchev — the downgrading of
Stalin — was actually leaked in some
degree to the outside world in order
to help their present propaganda —
and that behind the Iron Curtain,
*«ere you are beaming this informa-
°n, it has not been allowed to be
Mr. Streibert acknowledged that
^s vvas correct. "They try to keep il
*oret," he stated, "and obviously for
Purpose. In fact, most surprisingly,
*n editorial in the Daily Worker criti-
■J-'ed the Kremlin for handling it in
AVell, actually, though," asked Mr.
''na, "wasn't it supposed to be
^nrtishchev's id&i to give it to the
People of the Soviet Union piecemeal,
a measured campaign?"
, It may be that," replied Mr. Strei-
31- "You can't fathom their purposes.
^Ushchev did say at the end of his
Seech, as you know, that it must be
*Pt from the press. What their purpose Was> or jlow c]evjolls their means
.accomplishing it, we do not know.
1 we know is that this is an enor-
0,Js risk that they are taking."
erica did ""
, but t*4
ved to 1"'''
t. We ■
tion of rtj
ing the J
ed with \
0/*l Broadcasts Jammed
„ *n answer to Mr. O'Connor's qnes-
°n regarding whether the Russians
,ere attempting to jam the Voice of
nierica broadcasts of Khrushchev's
yPeech as they have other USIA or
5. ICe of America broadcasts, Mr.
^eibert answered in the affirmative.
1, Ihat prompts the question," put in
a,- O'Connor, "how effective do you
j" "k that the Voice of America broad
. is are? Are the Russians succeeding
^ »es," replied Mr. Streibert, "but
^ Set through. You see, we have so
,. "y frequencies and there are so
■^"y different reception conditions.
^ get constant reports from people
ti'lg out of the Soviet as well as
m . satellites — newspaper people —
j ''Cri indicate that we do get through
w '"'"g. Our own program director
Is there only a few weeks ago. He
v. rd the Voice right in the middle of
\,r' Streibert, asked by Mr. O'Con-
^ *°r an estimate of the size of audi-
• being reached behind the Iron
^s Forum News, September, 1956
Curtain, said that there is no means of
telling. However, it is a regular practice, he disclosed, to ask everyone
coming out of Russia, diplomatic people, visitors, newsmen, etc., whether
they have heard anything about the
Voice. "We find," he concluded, "that
people are aware of what is said on
the Voice, and that people do hear it.
We have regular meetings of our
agency personnel to appraise information received which leads to this definite conclusion."
"You mention, for the most part,
people coming out of Moscow," Mr.
O'Connor said. "I am wondering in
the vast steppes of Southern Russia,
and in the sections which we would
probably term 'rural areas' in this
country — is the average peasant or
Russian person getting these . .'."
"No," replied Mr. Streibert, "we
don't think that the average peasant
owns a receiving set. We are getting
to a higher grade of person, who may
be a manager or submanager. or a
Party functionary of some kind. These
are probably Party people for the most
part, but not exclusively so by any
"Propaganda" vs. Factual News
"Do you think that our propaganda
has much effect upon the average
Partv member?" asked Mr. O'Connor.
"Well, you misunderstand what we
are trying to do," Mr. Streibert replied.
"We are not trying to propagandize
those people against the Communist
Party when they are members of tin-
Party. . ."
"You say we don't hope to influence
them or change their minds?" interrupted Mr. O'Connor.
"That would be like propagandizing
us against freedom and democracy,"
replied Mr. Streibert. "It would fall on
deaf ears. What we are trying to do
is to give them the news of the outside
world as it really happens — particularly the news about the United States
and about Western powers so that
they will get the facts about what is
happening and what our policies really are."
"But for what purpose, Mr. Streibert," inquired Mr. O'Connor, "if we
don't hope to change their minds?"
"A very specific purpose," Mr. Streibert insisted. "If they find that what is
actually going on in the outside Western world is different from what they
are learning from the Kremlin, it begins to open up doubts as to the validity of the Kremlin's statements on all
matters having to do with foreign policy and perhaps will ultimately shake
"Then we do hope," Mr. O'Connor
said, "that it's not falling on deaf ears
— that we may influence them to some
"Well, yes, but we are not doing it
by exhortation and by what you call
'propaganda,'" stressed Mr. Streibert.
"We think, as I say, that news of the
outside world and commentary, or explanations of what is going on in the
United States, and what we are like —
that those things have an effect."
Stalin's Demotion Shakes Faith
Mr. Prina questioned Mr. Streibert
regarding recent reports that reveal
worry on the part of satellite Communists over the deglorification of Stalin.
"Communists outside Russia are asking the question," he stated, "why did
these people laud Stalin until very
recently, and now start saying that he
vv as such a tyrant?"
"It causes great confusion in Communist Party ranks, which makes it a
very fine development," said Mr. Streibert. "We are trying to promote it all
Moderator Hurleigh and Mr. Prina
joined in bringing up the point that
this has been true in Italy, in this
country, and in France, as well as in
Communist China, — that it is almost
akin to the Stalin pact with Hitler.
"Yes. it's a complete switch," Mr.
Streibert agreed, "and a different line.
1 don't see how it can fail to shake the
faith of anv intelligent person."
"Mr. Streibert, may I ask you one
more question on the handling of this
speech?" asked Mr. Prina. "Obviously
you were in on the ground floor of
high government discussions as to
how to handle it — the State Department announcement, and so forth.
There have been reports that there was
a considerable body of opinion among
the top government officials that this
speech should not be put out by the
Department, but that it should perhaps be leaked out, or handled infor-
mallv. Can vou tell us anything about
Mr. Streibert explained that he participated onlv- in the decision that it
should be released in total. Although
there was some question of whether to
release parts of the speech at a time,
in his opinion there was general agreement that the whole document should
be released at once.
(Continued on page 47)