sd shall enjoy !
ill have been I
and cause oj
.ness against i1
ig witness i"
. for his defenj
ilue in controj
al by jury shafl
ill be otherwise'
[es, than accori
vote: a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member
or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of
all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House
of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the
right of choice shall devolve upon them, [before the fourth
day of March next following,]* then the Vice President shall
act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the
greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice-
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall
choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall
consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United
[December 18, I860]
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
except as a punishment for crime whereof the partv shall have
I heen duly convicted, shall exist within thc I nited States, or
any place subject to their jurisdiction.
,,f certain r'-. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this
ul-c others ret4* art'<ie by appropriate legislation.
I States bv il"'
[July 28, 1868]
4 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United
Stale's, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
the United States and of the state wherein the) reside. No
stale shall make or enforce am law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States: nor
shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property,
"without due process of law: nor den) to any person within
tes -hall not be1""* jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
tf Section 2. Representatives shall he apportioned among
itizei**the several states according to their respective numbers, count-
>tates hv • ■ ,- .
of any foix-ig" ,"",.""' "hole ,,,, er of persons
; Indians not taxed. But wh,
each state, excludi
the right to vote at any election
fcr the choice eif electors for President and Vice President of
he United States. Representatives in Congress, the executive
* and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legisla
tive stales an<Ture thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
ent, one of wh<**taU'- being twenty-one years of age. and citizens of the I nited
an,,' -Ial.- vv ith ^fes' or in an>' wa5 abridged, excepl lor participation in
ie per-,.n vote1*Tf , lon* "r "''"'' """<'■ the basis of representation therein
son voted for a8 a" ,)e reduced in the proportion which the number of such
t lists of all l"'""al'' Cltlzens shall hear to the whole number of male citizens
,,,5 voted for s»FKenty-one years of age in such state.
|,„ each winA ^EC™N 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative
-eiled tee the Y u°ngreSS' or elector of President and Vice President, or
led to the I'"'"" , any on,ce' civil or military, under the I nited States, or
ICU IO UM , .Under a-.- -I-.- -L_ I
I 'Altered by the 20th Amendment.
iy state to support the Constitution of
rilv of the wh""''"' l """' S'at<>s* !i,,a" have engaged in insurrection or rebel-
'!,.,, . ..iiii " T" ap,alnst 'he same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies
son nave sue ,kerei»* R.,r r t ....
),; ,l„. 1 eeeiiiib-V u' Longre8s mav by a vote of two thirds of each
highest um jHnusc. remove such disability.
el lor as rresi" 1
Sectiox 4. The validity of the public debt of the United
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither
the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt
or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emanci-
palion of any slave: but all such debts, obligations and claims
shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
[March 30, 1870]
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition
SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.
[February 25. 1913]
The Congress shall have power to lav and collect taxes
on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any
census or enumeration.
[May 31, 1913]
The Senate- eef the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for
six years: and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors
in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any state
in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue
writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That thc
legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to
make' temporary appointments until the people fill the vacan-
cies hv election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid
as part of the Constitution.
[January 29. 1919]
[Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this
article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating
liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation
thereof from the United States and all territory subject to thc
jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.]
[SECTION 2. The Congress and the several states shall have
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.]
[Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof
to the states by the Congress.]
'"Repealed by the 21st Amendment.
ach state Ii.i*"Vac:ts Forum News, January, 1956