Dan ol St. Thos. Jenifer
James Madison, Jr.
\\ en. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
llu \\ illiamson
I lharles I .otesworth Pinckney
\\ illiam Few
ARTICLES I.N ADDITION TO, VND AMENDMENT OF,
THE CONSTITUTION OK THE UNITED STATES OF
VMERICA, PROPOSED I! I CONGRESS, VND RATIFIED
BY THE SEVERAL STATES, PI RSI ANT TO THE FIFTH
MITICLE OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTIT1 TION.
[Ratification of the first ten amendments was completed
December 15, 17'Jl. J
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the Iree exercise thereof; or abridging
the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the
pea,pie peaceably tei assemble, and to petition the government
for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated militia being necessary to the security ol
a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms
shall not be infringed.
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war,
hut in a manner to be prescribed by law.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and
seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue,
but upon probable cause, supported b) oath or affirmation,
and particularly describing the place to be searched, and Unpersons or things to be seized.
No person shall be hclel te, ein-wer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictmeivt
of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval
forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war
or public danger: nor -hall ;in\ person be subject for the
same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor
shall be compelled in an) criminal case to be a witness against
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for
public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjo)
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury1
the state and district wherein the crime shall have been ■
mitted. which district shall have been previously ascertaa
by law. and to be informed of the nature and cause in'
accusation; to be confronted with the witness against hi
to have compulsorj process for obtaining witness i"
favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence*
In suits at common law. where thc value in control*!
shall exceed twent) dollars, the right ol trial bv jur) -h'1"
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall he otherwise
examined in am court ,,l the I nited States, than accorl
I,, the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration i
shall not he construed
b) the people.
i the Constitution, e
to deny or disparag
f certain ''*
i others r<*taJ*'Hi<
The'powers not delegated to the I nited States hv the ^
stitution, nor prohibited b) it to the states, are reserved 1°
states respectively, or to the people.
prosecuted against- one of the United States h\
another state or
[January 11. 1798] rith
The judicial power of the United States shall not he s J
strued to extend to anv suit in law or equity, comment*1" ■
b\ citizens or subjects of any foreign r-
AMENDMENT XII the I
[September 25, 1804] a"d
The electors shall meet in their respective states an11 "'
by ballot for President and Vice President, one of who*1-'11'
least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with '■ <
selves; the) shall name in their I,allots the person vol
President, and in distinct ballots the person voted lor aS
President, and they shall make distinct lists ol all Sri
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for a*
President, and of the number of votes for each. vvh'c
the) shall sign and certify, and transmit -ceded to l'1
if the United States, directed to the I''1' "
if the Senate;
the government of the I nited Steilcs. directed u
i . ii a lithe- President of the Senate shall, in 'v,
ence ol Senate and House of Representatives, opei
certificates and the votes -hall then be counted: th1' ' M
Inning the' greatest number of yotcs lor President. .he I
the President, if such number he a majority of the wh°l j*on
ber of electors appointed; and if no person have such ' ^
itv. then from the persons having the highest nunihej|||Js
exceeding three on the li^t eel those voted for as Presidf
House of Representatives shall choose immediately. 10 w ,
the President. But in choosing the President, the vote*1**
taken by states, the representation from each state hsvl ?.
Facts Fonrxi Xrxvs. JaiitiO