Chiang Kai-shek. On June 18, 1941, while the Hitler-
Stalin pact and the Japanese-Soviet alliance were still in
force. Carter and Lattimore had a two-hour luncheon with
the Soviet Ambassador, Oumansky. When questioned,
neither Lattimore nor Carter could give the Subcommittee
a satisfactory explanation as to why they should confer
with the- ambassador of a country that was in alliance with
both Germany and Japan — the latter China's immediate
enemy — both countries also being aligned against America's allies.
Lauchlin Currie, a presidential foreign-affairs adviser
and IPR intimate, was responsible for Lattimore's getting
the appointment to Chungking. In November, 1941. war
anel peace hung in the balance in the Pacific. Lattimore,
Currie. and Richard Sorge (the Soxiet agent) made every
effort to deflect Japanese aggression away from Russia
and toward other targets. Sorge was attached to the German Embassy in Tokyo. His Communist assistants in the
Soviet spy ring included Hotsumi Ozaki, an advisor to
the Japanese premier, and Kinkazu Saionji. Saionji had
been the Japanese IPR chief, ancl Ozaki had been active
in IPR xeork. Also in the Sen iet espionage group were
Guenther Stein ancl Agnes Smedley.
Lattimore arrived in Chungking during these fateful
days ol 1911 as personal representative of President
Roosevelt. On November 2.5, Lattimore wired Currie. at
the White House, urging that no deal be made with Japan
regarding China. He specifically demanded that America
not let Japan "escape military defeat through diplomatic
Victor) ." At the same time, Currie ancl Harry Dexter White,
then Under Secretary of the Treasury, urged Currie to
apply pressure to prevent any agreement with Japan.
Elizabeth Bentley later testified that both Currie ancl
White aided her in her work for Soviet Military Intelligence. Whittaker Chambers corroborated her testimony as
it related to White.
Alter Pearl Harbor, Lauchlin Currie- remained as executive assistant to the President and special adviser on Far
Eastern affairs. Lattimore returned from China in Febru-
■'ry. 1942. and use-el a desk in Currie's office in the State
Department Building; thereafter, for four months or so,
Latfimore had a White House telephone extension, took
care of Currie's highly sensitive ancl important mail, and
Used White House stationery for correspondence. Lat-
Hmore, incidentally, made extensive efforts to conceal this
telationship throughout his testimony to the Subcommittee,
;|s he hail successfully done earlier, before the Tydings
Subcommittee. Currie, from his vantage post next to the
President, helped the IPR to influence American police in
Import of Conununist aims in China. He- arranged a conference in October. 1912. between Sumner Welles, then
Under Secretary of State, and Earl Browder, American
Communist leader. The result was a communique implying
Bquality between the- Chinese Government and the Chi-
n<'si- Communists. This communique was printed in full in
the Daily Worker (Oct. 10. 1942). and gave considerable
prestige to the Chinese Communists for the first time.
Meanwhile Frederick V. Field temporarily left the IPR
'" become an officer of the Comintern-led American Peace
Mobilization. This was during the Hitler-Stalin pact. In
February, 1942, Carter and Currie almost succeeded in
"blaming lor Pie-Id a commission in Army Intelligence
las a Par East expert].0
'ED.'s MOTE: Field seas rejected lor this post (according to Life
Magazine, July 23, 1951 I because la- I!iiii1ee-iI liis security test. There-
f'1-''r. tl,,- e: nmist Party evas his career.
•''.< is Forum News, October, 1956
During 1942. two other IPR stalwarts found their way
into key government posts: Michael Greenberg. who had
succeeded Lattimore as editor of the IPR publication
Public Affairs, was appointed to a position with the Board
of Economic Warfare, and moved into Currie's White
House office; and Professor John K. Fairbank of Harvard,
who became head of tbe China Division of the OW1.
working under Lattimore: Fairbank also used Lauchlin
Currie's White House mailing address. [Both Greenberg
and Fairbank were proved Soviet sympathizers.]
"Many persons in and around the IPR, in particular
Edward C. Carter, Frederick V. Field, T. A. Bisson, Lawrence K. Rosinger, and Maxwell S. Stewart, knowinglx and
deliberately used the language of books and articles they
wrote or edited in an attempt to influence the American
public by means of the pro-Communist or pro-Soviet content of such writings," was one of the conclusions of the
Senate Committee. Bisson, an editor of Amerasia, also
eelite-el its predecessor, China Today, together with Field.
Bisson later taught political science at the University of
California at Berkeley.
John S. Service and John P. Davies, both connected xvith
the IPR, influenced American policy decisively from their
China posts. In June, 1944, Service advised sending arms
direct to the Communists. On November 15, Davies recommended "a coalition Chinese Government in which the
Communists find a satisfactory place."
The mission of Vice President Henry Wallace to China,
in 1944, resulted in a further net gain for the Communists.
With Wallace, on the mission, were Professor Hazard of
Columbia, John Carter Vincent, and Oxven Lattimore. The
result was a Wallace report to President Roosevelt decrying Chiang Kai-shek, attacking Chiang's opposition to the
Communists, ancl demanding that Chiang come to terms
with the Soviet Union. After Wallace's return from China
he published a book entitled Soviet Asia Mission, mostly
written by Andrew Steiger, identified as a Communist,
and writer for the Daily Worker. The IPR also published
a Wallace pamphlet called Our Job in the Pacific, which
was energetically propagated by American Communists,
ancl sold in their bookstores as a guide to correct thinking
on the Far East.
NO HALF-MEASURES FOR IPR
During the years 1944 anel 1945, Lattimore was alter-
nately adviser to Chiang Kai-shek, associate of Lauchlin
Currie, companion to Wallace, official of the OWI, and
finally member of the Pauley Reparations Mission to Japan.
Lattimore's book, Solution in Asia, published in February.
1945, paid glowing tribute to the Chinese Communists as
progressive, democratic, and desirable. He also stated that
the Soviet Union stands for democracy "because it stands
for strategic security, economic prosperity, technological
progress, miraculous medicine, free education, equality of
opportunity, and democracy: a powerful combination."
Advance copies of the Lattimore book were sent to
Gromyko ancl a host of other Soviet officials.
In January, 1945, the IPR held a high-level conference
at Hot Springs, Virginia, to which top-government policymakers were invited. Raymond Dennett, a leading IPR
official at the time, described the conference as a trial
balloon for the UN conference at San Francisco. Delegates
to the conference were recommended by Philip Jessup anel
Lauchlin Currie. Of thirty recommendations made by
Jessup, ten were later described by witnesses before the