problem effectively. Among these efforts have been the
Alien Registration Act of 1940 (the Smith Act), the
Internal Security Act of 19.50 (McCarran Act), the Federal
Loyalty Program; and such state actions as the Feinberg
Law in New York and the Levering Law in California,
both of which attempt to deal with Communists in
On July 20, 1948, twelve men were indicted for conspiracy to organize the Communist Party of the United
States, an association of people "who teach and advocate
the overthrow and destruction of the United States Government by force and violence." The twelve were the
Politburo of the American Communist Party: William Z.
Foster, Eugene Dennis, John B. Williamson, Benjamin J.
Davis, Jr., Jacob Stachel, Robert G. Thompson, Henry
Winston, Joseph Gates, Irving Potash, Gilbert Green, Carl
Winter, and Gus Hall. Foster was shortly thereafter separated from the trial because of illness.
The starting point of the conspiracy was placed at
April 1, 1945, when the American Communist Party, on
instructions from Moscow, abandoned its wartime policy
of supporting the Roosevelt Administration and reverted
to its long-term revolutionary doctrine of class war and
violent overthrow of American "imperialism." The trial
was one of the longest in American criminal history."
The government presented evidence for forty days. The
defense used up ninety-eight days. Evidence against the
Communists came from their own actions and their own
publications. The documentary evidence of insurrectionary
intent was abundant; the writings of Lenin, Stalin, and
Foster, and the programs of the Comintern were replete
with calls for mass action, culminating in armed uprisings
to destroy "capitalism" and "imperialism." FBI agents
within the party testified to many instances of Communist
preparation for armed conflict.
The Communist leaders, testifying in their own self-
defense, were trapped, under cross-examination, in myriad
inconsistencies ancl lies and forced to admit their advocacy
of armed uprisings — the very crime with which they were
charged. The jury convicted the eleven defendants, and
the Supreme Court ultimately upheld the Smith Act.
The Internal Security Act of 19.50, popularly known as
the McCarran Act, forces Communist and Communist-
controlled organizations to register with the Attorney
General of the United States; it prohibits Communists
from holding any nonelective office or employment in the
United States [Government] ancl from holding jobs in
defense plants. It seeks to prevent any officer or employee
of the United States from aiding or contributing to the
Communist Party, and would have all Communist and
Communist-controlled literature properly labeled anel
identified. In time of war, the Act would intern Communist
Party members. A Subversive Activities Control Board was
established to determine which organizations xvere Communist-controlled.
The cases of Klaus Fuchs, Alger Hiss, ancl the Smith Act
trials indicated the seriousness of the Soviet conspiracy
and the necessity of intelligent and effective counter-
measures by the United States Government ancl its
The Institute of Pacific Relations was established in
"ED.'s NOTE: Facts Forum News, October, 1955, contains Judge
Medina's inside story of the trial of the eleven Communists, hs-cn'n-
ning on page 38; also a picture of the eleven top-ranking Communist
leaders in the United States during their conspiracy trial in \'i ev
1925 apparently to study and discuss impartially the problems of the- Pacific, its islands, anel the countries bordering
its shores, especially in Asia. Branches of the Institute were
founded in the United States, Britain, France, Japan,
China, the Soviet Union, and several other countries. Most
of the financial support came from the American branch —
largely from the Rockefeller anel Carnegie Foundations, a
number of leading American corporations, anel several
wealthy patrons, notably Frederick V. Field.'"'
A CASE HISTORY OF COMMUNIST INFLUENCE
ON FAR EASTERN POLICY
For many years the IPR practically monopolized thc
study of the Far East and Pacific problems. The United
States Gox-ernment, researchers, ancl the mass media [i.e.,
radio, television, motion pictures, the press] sought ancl
obtained advice anel information from the- Institute.
On July 2, 1952, the Internal Security Subcommittee <■
the Senate Judiciary Committee reported its findings on
the IPR ancl its relation to subversion and internal security. This followed an eighteen-month study of IPR files
ancl publications, and testimony from sixty-six witnesses.
Among the conclusions of the Subcommittee were the
The IPR, its officials anel staff members, were either
Communists or pro-Communists, and instruments ol Communist policy, propaganda, and military intelligence. Owe"
Lattimore was. from some time iu tbe 1930's, a conscious.
articulate instrument of the Seiviet conspiracy. Leadership
of the IPR worked with persons in government involved I
in the determination of foreign policy, and exerted substantial influence on United States Far Eastern policies.
ancl to orient them toward Communist objectives.
According to the Senate Committee, Edward C. Carter
the first secretary-general of the IPR. tried as early as 192"
to effect a relationship between the IPR anel tbe Conununist International. Carter enjoyed the closest personal relationship with important Soviet officials, lie described Ear'
Rrowder, former secretary of the American Communis-
Party, as "100 per cent American." Not only did IPR ol"'
cials who testified avoid mentioning the names of their
Soe iet friends who asked for anel received data on American security in the Pacific, but they also carefully avoided
mentioning the role played in IPR affairs by their Japanes*
colleagues, Ilotsumi Ozaki ancl Kinkazu Daionji. These
men were participants in the spy ring of Richard SorgeT
— a spy ring which helped deflect Japanese aggnssiu"
away from Russia toward the United States.
In the summer of 1941, Edward C. Carter was secretary-
general of the Institute, and Fred Field was picketing tne
White House as executive secretary of the Communis*'
front American Peace Mobilization. Lattimore was leaviffl
his post as editor of the- IPR publication, Pacific Affiliate, become, on President Roosevelt's nomination, adviser**
"ED.'s NOTE: Frederick Vanderbilt Field, Harvard gradual*
1927; later studied in England under Harold Laski; inherited Ieii.ii"''
ot approximately S2 million; i.s descended from Samual Osgood, H**
V. S. postmaster general; Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt
Field, who laid the transatlantic cable; William II. Vanderbilt, raj"
road magnate; and William li. Osgood Field, his father, a I'. S. am"
officer in World War I. This scion of a renowned family is -"
avowed and active Communist.
fED.'s NOTE: For stoi*y »it the Sorge spy ring, si-<- t-ondensat**
ol Major Charle-s A. WJHoughby *s book, Shanghai Conspiracy, in
March, 1956 issue of Facts Forum News.
Facts Forum News, October, 19& *'A