The Kremlin in Moscow — Citadel of World Communism
capable of it. The masses had to be
driven back to their erstwhile status
A new ruling class was formed, composed of the technological ancl management intelligentsia, led by the new
political elite, the Communist Party.
The latter included many of the more
able- workers, but the mass of workers
refused to accommodate themselves to
the new subservient status, ancl by the
end of the blood purge* (1938) the
social composition of the Party had
shifted almost entirely away from the
workers and into the new ruling class,
headed by Stalin.
Outwardly the Party remained more
or less the same, and Stalin methodically fostered that fiction; but a new
class had been enthroned, and it was
not the working class.
In Moscow, back in the late twenties, when I represented the faction of
the Communist Party coming to power in the American Party, I wrote a
thesis dealing with the rise of the
"new middle" or managerial class in
American society. On orders from
Stalin it was translated into Russian
and (abbreviated) appeared in the-
Bolshevik, theoretical organ of the
Communist Party. It also appeared in
two installments (1930 ) in the American Communist. Stalin saw in the mid-
twenties the rise to power of managerial strata in Soviet society, and he
used my article to say it indirectly.
Stalin rose to power on the backs ol
that new managerial class,** while the
defeated working class slid clown,
down to a servitude worse than any
under the Czars.
The Managerial Class and the State
In the course of shifting its power
base from the working to the managerial class, the Communist Parte underwent drastic changes. From a collectivist party with some internal democracy, it grew into a militarized,
police-like enforcement instrument
over the masses, with functions spearheaded by the political police
(OGPU). After reorganization, only
the facade of the Parte as inherited
from Lenin remained. Stalin continued
to speak in the name of that facade,
but authority was vested in three-
power apparatuses, as follows:
1. The Political Police (OGPU),
which commanded all police forces
"The managerial class includes all directors, managers, .superintendents, etc., of fac-
turis-s. mines, mills, commercial .hie! transport
enterprises, communication services, offices,
theatres. It includes also technicians, engi-
neers, scientists', artists, ev-riti-rs, doctors, pro-
fessors, and other professionals. The iipp<-r
crust in managerial society (state capitalism)
is tin- political elite organized into ei Communist or Fascist — one-party — monopoly. The
politie-iil e'-lite- as a nils- includes all eh- most
of tl it* ollicer personnel of the Eirnu-el forces,
the- police, etc.
inside and outside Russia, also all pi
ons and concentration camps. In she
it commanded millions of persei
and, by its control of armament plai
ancl military stockpiles, including t
Red Army's munitions, was Stall
overlord over everything. It was hes
eel by Beria.
2. Ahmed Forces Appabat. An
genious system of double conti
through Party cells and secret poli
inside the Army, Navy, and Air Fore
headed by Bulganin.
3. The Party Appabat Proper
what we would call civilian author)
It controlled industry, transportatii
commerce, com nic-ation, educatii
etc., or such parts thereof as were j
controlled by the OGPU; headed
Stalin was the over-all boss, wl
OGPU his special and preferred
strument. The three, Beria, Bulgai
(or Voroshilov), anel Malenkov, sto
next to Stalin as symbols of bis d1
Doric power, at the reviewing sta'
on top of the Reel Sepiare Le*nin M>
soleum, on each of the annivers*
Along with Stalin's rcorganizat'
of the- Party, there was an increase
monetary remuneration and in pf
tige for the new ruling class, with -1
responding enslavement and nu'
thorough exploitation of the masse*
In fourteen years (1924-38) StU !
Facts Forum News, October, I"