Keyword
in
Collection
Date
to
Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1955
File 011
Citation
MLA
APA
Chicago/Turabian
Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1955 - File 011. 1955-06. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 17, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1539/show/1480.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1955-06). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1955 - File 011. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1539/show/1480

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1955 - File 011, 1955-06, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 17, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1539/show/1480.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

URL
Embed Image
Compound Item Description
Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 1955
Alternate Title Facts Forum News, Vol. IV, No. 6, June 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Contributor
  • Evans, Medford
Publisher Facts Forum
Date June 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 011
Transcript further international scientific collaboration was among the complex of emotions Mu.,—fully played upon by those who brought hinl itilo the espionage network. Mazerall, whose testimony as to his motivation seems to us lo have been frank and sincere, stated in ev idence: A. At tin- same time I elid nol like tier idea e.f supplying information. It nee- nol put to me so nilhli theit I wees supplying information to the Soviet government, either. It wees inure theit eis -cii'iili-t- wr were pooling information, anel 1 actually ei-keal llilel il we' e'eeeilel hope' to lillel this reciprocal. Q. Di.l you ever have theit experience? V I di.l not: no. Q. lleive yon e'ver known of ill fill illation of einv kind being supplied hv Russia? A. Very little. A further objective, pursued through 'lie study group, is gradually to inculcate in the secret membership of the Communisl party a habil nf complete obedience In ihe dictates of senior members emd officials of the partv hierarchy. 'his is apparently accomplished through ;| constant emphasis, in the indoctrination courses, mi the importance of organ- 'zation as such, anel by the gradual creation, in lhe mind "f the new adherent or sympalhizer. of an overriding moral sense of "loveillv lo lhe party." This loyalty to the party" in due course 'akes the place in tbe member's mind "f 'he earlier loyalty lo certain principles Professed bv the party propaganda. In view of ihe rigidly hierarchic organization nf the Communisl party, par- ocularly in its secrel sections, the con- '''I'l of "loyalty to the party" means in Practice, rigid obedience of adherents lo 'hose party members who are recognized 'ls occupying a senior position in the ''''Tan-by. . . . The indoctrination courses in the "hielv groups are apparently calculated I|"l onlv lo inculcate a high degree of 'oyttltv Iii the peirlv"' einel 'obedience l" 1"' party," hut in instill in ihe mind of '"' adherent the view thai loyalty ami "hcilione,. in the leadership of this or- 5*nization lakes precedence over hisloy- j''lv in Canada, entitles him to disregard ''- oaths of allegiance and secrecy, eunl ^"s destroys his integrity as a citizen. Hie case of Kathleen Willsher offers striking illustration of the uses to *"<ich this attitude of ''partv leeveellv" |""1 obedience can he pul by unscrupu- "l,s leaders, even when oth.r aspects of "' indoctrination courses have nol been ''''iipli'ii'lv successful. ( She heul Joined ee secrel "cell of the .'""iniutiisi party and as early as 1935 ''-'fi'eil tn ojye- secrel information, which ."' obtained from her work in ihe Of- ."''' "f lhe High < a.nuni—imii'i fur the "'ted Kingdom in Ottawa. . . . Sh.' told ? thai she wa- given lo understand... ,''" this information was for the guid- (""'' eef the Yilimial Executive of lhe '"'"iiiuni-i partv of Canada. 'ACTS FORUM NEWS, June, 1955 She also said that when these requests, which she recognized were improper, were firsl pul to her . . . she had some struggle with her conscience, bul that after a few weeks' hesitation she decided in comply because ets a member of Ihe Communist parly she felt thai she vvas expected to do what she was asked regardless of any obligation which she mighl have in any other direction.... She testified: I felt that 1 should contrive to con- triltlltc something tieueeia!- the helping of thi- policy, because 1 wee- very interested ill it. I found il very difficult, and vet 1 felt I should try to help. Miss \\ illshei's evidence, taken as a whole, -hows that she felt her tewn position in the Communisl party to be a relatively humble one, thai her one importanl contribution to the cause of the party lav in the transmission of the secrel Information to which her official position gave' her eiccess. and lhal il wets expected of her that she should nol hesitate to make this information available on request to the parly leadership. • • • In many eases prolonged membership in the Communisl party seems lo have resulted in a very high degree of discipline and lo have induced a semi-military habil of largely unquestioning obedience lo "orders" and "partv policy." Such habits, once developed, naturally marie the task of lhe espionage recruiting agents, who are senior members of that partv. relatively simple. ll appears lo he an established principle of tit leasl the secrel "cells'" seclion nf tlie Communis! parly thai rejection of "party orders" entails automatic resignation or expulsion from the party. This principle in itself nssisls in inducing obedience from members who might otherwise lee inclined lo welveT. hut wlm have become habituated over a period of months or years In membership. • • • ...I.eadeis nf lhe Fifth Column solved whal would appear at firsl sight to be their mosl difficult problem—that of motivation, or finding capable anil well-placed Canadians who would be willing lo engage in espionage against Canada fur a foreign power hv means of a widespread svsli'in of propaganda and in particular by organizing a system nf intensive study groups. This sys- tein has leea-n functioning fur years anel weis already ei going concern used for espionage in 1935. • • • A further technical advantage, which this system heis provided lo lln- leading organizers of lhe espionage ni'lwe.rk. has been a surprising degree uf security from detection. I!v concentrating their requests to assist in espionage within lhe membership of secrel sections of lhe Communisl party, the leaders were ap peiii'iillv able lu f.'l quite confident and apparently with reason based on ein experience in Canada over a period of at least eleven years--thai even if lhe adherent or member should refuse lo engage in activities so clearly illegal ami which constitute so clear et betrayal of hi- ier her own country—such adherent or member would in any case not consider denouncing lhe espionage recruiting agent lo lln- Canadian public or to thc Canadian authorities. | For a significant example, Kathleen Willsher was firsl eiskcel in 1935 lo supply secrel information at a regular meeting of her study group. For four years she transmitted such information orally at the study group meetings. While the conversations were private. Aliss Will- sher teslified that no particular precautions were taken againsl being overheard "as no one else would hate been interested" \ It is significant that not a single one nf the several Canadians, members or adherents of lhe Communisl parly (Labour-Progressive party), who were approached hy senior members of thai party to engage in espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union, reported this approach to thc agencies, departments, or armed forces of Canada in which thev were employed. Not one even of those who have described, in evidence before us. serious hesitation and struggles with their consciences which they underwent before they agreed lo acl as spies against Canada, ever suggested to us that they contemplated laking the one loyal or legal course of action—i.e. reporting the criminal request lo lhe Canadian authorities. This is a striking illustration of the efficiency of thc Communisl sludv groups in inducing a motivation for clearly illegal parly assignments directed against Canada. What appears from lhe evidence to be the' real purpose of lhe study group or "cell" organization—as a wide and ever- expanding base for the recruiting, psychological development, and organization of a Fifth Column operating in the interests of a foreign power—would have been frustrated if rank and file members of these groups or junior ail- herents of the Communist parly of Canada had been aware of lhe real ob- je a -lives and policies of [ihe organizers] and tbe other senior members of lhe conspiracy. The evidence we have beard shows lhal al each stage of "'development" the adherent is kept in ignorance of the wider ramifications and real objectives nf Ihe organization, to one of the fringes of which be has allowed himself to be attached. Indeed ii appears from ihe evidence that some al leasl of the adherents res ■ initial to study groups are not lold that these groups are in reality secret "ti-lls" Pace 11
File Name uhlib_1352973_v004_n006_011.jpg