Voting independently, it and the Security Council elect
the judges of the International Court of Justice. Upon recommendation of the Security Council, it admits new
member states and appoints the Secretary-General, who
supervises the Secretariat. It considers and approves the
budget and apportions expenses among member states,
who contribute the entire financial support.
The Security Council is composed of eleven members,
five of whom — designated the Great Powers (Nationalist
China, France, the USSR, the United Kingdom, and the
United States) — are permanent. Six are elected by the
General Assembly for two-year terms and are not eligible
for immediate re-election.
Each member of the Security Council has one vote.
Decisions are made by at least seven of all eleven members; but on substantive matters these seven must include
the concurring votes of all the five permanent members,
this being what is popularly referred to as the "veto"
power. Article 27 (3), thus providing, becomes a storm
center of the charter, and has been credited with much of
the league's impotency in security matters.
Contained in the charter is a statement of purposes:
(1) To maintain international peace and security by
peaceful means, and in conformity with principles of justice and international law. (2) To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principles of
equal rights and self-determination of peoples. (3) To
achieve international cooperation in solving problems of
economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character.
(4) To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations
in the attainment of these common ends.
Of special significance are certain other provisions, as,
Nothing contained in the present charter shall authorize
the UN to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.
Membership in the UN is open to all other peace-loving
states which accept the obligations contained in the present charter and which, in the judgment of the organization,
are able and willing to carry out these obligations. The
admission of any state to membership in the UN will be
effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the
recommendation of the Security Council.
Nothing in the present charter shall impair the inherent
right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed
attack occurs against a member of the UN, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain
international peace and security.
Nothing in the present charter precludes the existence
of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such
matters relating to the maintenance of international peace
and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the purposes and principles of
No enforcement action shall be taken under regional
arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of
measures against any enemy state. The term "enemy state"
applies to any state which during the second World War
was an enemy of any signatory of the present charter.
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully
informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation
under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for
the maintenance of international peace and security.
Amendments to the present charter shall come id
force for all members of the UN when they have bee
adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members of th
General Assembly and ratified by two-thirds of the melJ
hers of the UN, including all the permanent members <
the Security Council.
III. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ABOUT
1)(' the ;
It is thought, in the light of experience, that this counf "ie kit
committed two colossal blunders during and followirf. "esigni
World War II: (1) It was unnecessarily ambuscaded poW establis
ically through an improvident executive agreement ' "°man:
Yalta. This subsequently resulted in a coalition betwe* J'milar
Russia and an impoverished Oriental horde, rich in m&] c'°rn I-
power. It has divided once-friendly China into two wai
factions, productive of revolution and world insecuri'
worse, if possible, than the Axis power which that
wrecked. (2) This country was induced to over-emphi
social cooperation while permitting to languish the m:
effort of common defense for the free world.
Instead of inducing world harmony, as was hoped, *
reaped the harvest of a world divided into two camps,
peculiar ideologies of which are at antipodes from e8<
other — democracy and religious idealism on the one haJ|
and atheistic communism on the other. One of these'
destined eventually to survive.
Many students of contemporary history therefore ct>j
tend that the UN organization is not only anemic but si*
that it evinces definite signs of dying altogether, uni*
drastic restorative measures be administered.
The United Nations is at present a huge internatioflj
mirror in which arc candidly reflected before the flo<*
lights of public opinion the foibles, shortcomings, deed
and sinister objectives, as well as the altruistic efforts,
the nations of this world. In these reflections communis
is beginning to stand revealed for what it really is. *J
Soviet voice is steadily becoming theatrical and hollow-'
ministers are turning from suave diplomats into the caning jesters they are. "Firmly based on the Mar"''
Leninist doctrine known as 'revolutionary parliaments!"
national in 1920, replete with directives for using a w ^er
parliamentary framework for illegal acts; the talkat™
technique has been employed by Soviet spokesmen &
agents ever since" (Robert S. Byfield).
We are discovering that while this international sbtfj
in progress in the UN forum, a greater threat to our H"
ties is cropping up at the grass-roots of our repubBj
the weeds stealthily sown in our own backyard throw
infiltration, collaboration, and deceit, while our attend
has been fixed on the main performance.
A number of independent schools of thought have tl%
lore arisen respecting the UN as an agency to secure W'
peace and our relation to it, with wide divergence
1. The Indifferent Group
i its course, much as il
'experts" in governmental philosophies enact their
Facts Forum News, August,
indifferent group would permit the UN expen»»j
to run its course, much as if it afforded a stage upon vv™.
ism' are the usual Soviet tactics of obstructionism, proci
filiation, and endless debate, and the resort to seina" '""liorit
skulduggery. This pattern of procedure was fully * E*°plo,
scribed bv the Second Congress of the Communist In" "r ci
te .Is t