WlliK WORLD PHOTO
U. S. Air Force General Lauris Norstad, air deputy to General Gruenther since 1953, will become
Supreme Allied Commander in NATO when the
latter relinquishes his post.
America's own national self-interest,
Robert Murphy, Deputy Under Secretary of State, observes:
Stripped to its essence, the justification
for NATO is a simple exercise in elementary arithmetic. North America and free
Europe combined now produce about 70
per cent of the world's manufactured
goods, while the entire Soviet bloc, including China, produces only about 20 per
cent. On the other hand, Soviet control of
the territory and resources of Western
Europe would give the Soviet hloc 50 per
cent of the total world's industrial production, as against North America's 40
per cent. The Atlantic nations, so long as
they are joined together, are in a position
to maintain decisive industrial superiority
over the Soviet bloc for an indefinite
period of years. Soviet domination of
Western Europe would rapidly shift the
industrial balance to the Communist side.
One of our great deficiencies in the
global struggle with communism is manpower. The population of the Communist
bloc outnumbers the American population by a margin of 5 to 1. But with free
Europe and North America joined together, this margin is reduced to approximately 2 to I.1
Is this enough margin? Do we have
a reasonable assurance of protection
for the NATO area? General Gruenther, in a recent review of the situation before a San Francisco audience,
said, "No, we cannot give that assurance yet." He indicated, however, that
if and when the Germans contribute
some 12 divisions, 1,300 tactical aircraft, and a relatively small naval
organization for use in the Baltic — all
probably to be available within three
'Murphy, "The Foundation* for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization," The Department of
State Bulletin, April 16, 1956, p. 646.
u'mi: WOULD PHQyo
General Alfred M. Gruenther, respected for his
administrative ability and diplomacy as well as
for his military leadership, will retire as commander of SHAPE, probably toward the close of
years — we shall be in a very good
position. Even though the military
weight of Russia is now heavier than
that of the combined NATO countries,
the SHAPE commander expressed his
belief that our present strength and
our capacity to retaliate is sufficient
to assure us that a third world war is
Critics point out certain military
weaknesses and difficulties in NATO
and charge that it is "falling apart at
the seams." High on the list of troubles
is that sentiment is growing in West
Germany for a regulat army plus a
national militia instead of a democratic draft army. If these pressures
should prevail, the urgently needed
(ainian contribution would dwindle.
Another sign of strain is the withdrawal of many of France's troops
from NATO positions to join other
French troops battling the nationalist
rebels in Algeria. Tbe French NATO
contribution now amounts to little
more than land for bases and depots.
Rival claims in Cyprus by NATO
members Greece and Turkey have
caused such bitterness and strife that
there is a possibility Greece might
leave the alliance altogether if Britain
refuses to comply with Cypriot demands for unity vv ith Greece. Such a
withdrawal by Greece would definitely weaken defense of the vital eastern
boundary of the Atlantic alliance.
Here in the United States drastic
cuts have been made in President
Eisenhower's requests for foreign aid,
which include the amount hi' and
NATO advisors consider minimum
support of NATO. Also, there are
rumblings of discontent among some
of the smaller nations about the heavy
financial burdens they bear under
terms of the treaty. They were more
than willing to bear these burdens
when fearful of imminent attack, but
not so willing when international tensions apparently are lessened with the
new change of Soviet tactics.
To these discouraging elements
Ceneral Gruenther replies that NATO
is, indeed, having its difficulties, but B
not falling apart at the seams. Progress
is being made in spite of the troubles.
One of the main evidences of this is
the Russian estimate of the impolj
tance of NATO, given in a series '"
talks during the recent Twentieth
Party Congress. There were 12 main
speakers at this Congress, including
Party chief Khrushchev, and 11 °'
these speeches cited as the first objec
tive of Soviet foreign policy the <l's'
memberment of NATO.-
Working toward this end, tbe Rus'
siatis strive unceasingly to stir up "'
rivalries and to emphasize all differ'
ences and tensions between the me°j
ber nations. They make tbe most "'
such sore spots as the Arab-Israel
conflict, the Cyprus riots, Frencfl
Algerian problems, and especiaW
have they thrown their weight again*
German reunification efforts.
Most recently, Russia has a"
nounced that the Red army is to "
reduced by 1,200,000 men, and M
adopted a "new look" of reasonaW'
ness and desire for peace.
NATO nations continue to look Wl
suspicion and distrust on such
parade-ground move, the Sovacts m*»
full use of their reticence in prof
gandizing neutral nations.
Considering more specifically pj
tests against the financial outlay '..
the upkeep of the organization, it '
pointed out that during its sevei
history NATO has cost its merrM
nations $312 billion. Of this stagger^
sum, the United States has eont'1'
utcd $252 billion, or more than 80 V".
cent of the total spent by all the *
countries. In other words, our N ^
spending has equalled 90 per cent
our present official national debt, t-0 ,
ceivably, if we had managed to esc*r"
these multi-billion-dollar NATO <*'.
lays, our national debt might now
$28 billion instead of $280 billion. .
Also, there has been considers
confusion, misunderstanding, or p"
■General Gruenther Telia Whnt f\
Up To Now," V. S. News ir World
June 8, 1956. p. 104.
Facts Forum News, .Angus', '