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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 7, August 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 7, August 1955 - File 069. 1955-08. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 28, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1399/show/1398.

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Facts Forum. (1955-08). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 7, August 1955 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1399/show/1398

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 7, August 1955 - File 069, 1955-08, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 28, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1399/show/1398.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 7, August 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date August 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States
Item Description
Title File 069
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"'tll'f'1·1·d in hn·akin,. do\\ll till' moral fiJwr of our Hllllh. thrn tJW~ \\ill H«_ill' p11111 1111 tlw pni~on a:.rninst 011.1 ;.!O\l'llllJH'lll and ii ... i11 ... 1i1111ion .. : " To Secure the Blessings of Liberty" \rn11 ... r1I "' ,,h,11 tlw~ f1•1·) , .. a 1·ont111t110,! lo .... of JltT ... on.il £11·1· 111111, u croup in l nili· anapoJi .. h:l. ... owl lo nr •.111i11· tlll' Indiana Pro· t on .. titution.tl Fut 11111 .rnd lo .1 .. n·r1u111 \\ l1.1t t!wir 1·on .. 1i111tinrhil ri •'11.. ,... \nH'ri•·,rn,. <11"1· ~rnd ho\\ lu l'rnll·1·1 tlwm. \1 !ltt op1·11illlo!: ... 1· .... 1011, !lw f11rulll lwdHI f r.rnlord P.11k1-1. l11di.111,1 '1T11'1an nf .._late·. r.111 ror .1 wl1ir1h 11f th1· b.1 ... 11· pri111·iplt· .. \\hi1·la 111a1lr• \nwri1 1 l! l 1·.11 I Ii· 1·111ph.1 ... i:11·d that 11111 fur..f.tllwr ... 111•\t·r 111111pr11111i .. 1·d 1•rifll'ipl1·, nr n· .. 01 t!'d to cl1111l1l1· I.ilk 111 1·orw1 .. 1I tlwir plii/11-.. opl1i1· .. or 11lij1·d1\t• ... wd that i!H' ... ahatin11 nr Jilwrt~ 1kp1·111! .. upon .1 \u·ll-i11rornwd nation ''ilh nlii1li11:.: f.ti1h i11 tlw prir11·ipl1· .. laid do''" Ji, tlw I 011 .. lit11ti1111 Newspa per Strives for Truth \ f m I I urt/11 \ 1 ti rt 1 kr i11 ( 11l111,1du ""I' Ii" ... f ulo. 1•11111dl\ 1u11t1t to hi ... lru .ti 11 1·\, ... q ... 1·~ 111.1 .. tf11 11 \\'111 h n·.uJ .. Of, by, and for Facts Forum News readers ··Wt• lwli1•\1• tl1{tt mw 1ru1h j .. ahHl\ .. 1·011- -..i .. 1t·n1 \\ith UllOtll<'r truth. \";'(' f'n<ll'U\O~ Ill ht~ 1·or1._i .. t1·nt \\ ith 1h1· tru t h-. f'\[Jf(• ... -..f'if in -..urh !!rrat moral irnidt·-.. n .. tht• C.nldt·n Rulr'. 1111' Tt·n ( om11H1111lnwnt-... and thf" Drrlnrnlion nf l111h·p1·nd1·rt1·t•, """'hould \\f'. al .an~ 1inw. h1• i1wnn ... i .. 11·nt ''i1h tfw .. t· trnth ... \\f' \\ot1ld apprc•1·ia11~ an)nrw pointini.= out .. 11d1 irwon .. i..,t1·11«y." Tlw r,,J,,rru/ri ,,,,,-,,/!, r:,,:1·ru· T1•/1•!f"'l'h al ... o print .. tlw addn• ..... , .... of 1•onp:n• .... m1•n to 1•11· 1·01irtw1· ri·a1l1·r ... to rorrc· .. 1101111 "i th th1·ir t•li·1·1 1•d r1•pn· .. 1·nla l iH• .... Granite Wall Against Subve rsion \ t•\\ ll ump .. hin·. ni nth of thf' nri~i n al 1h ir· 1t•1•11 .. l alt''-· ha .. pr1n1·d it j ... i1ul1·rd t ht• "Crunilt' ~Intl'" in .. ofor a-. ( ·omm11ni .. 1 J)t'llf'lfiJ· tinn j-.. 1·11n1·1·rnP1I. Stnh• lc·i.=i ... Ia tor .. nppr(1\f•1l 1 l2.500 apprnpri111ion 111 ('Jlahl<' llw a1ton11·~ i?f'Jlf'ntl tu 1·11nti11111• hi .. inH· .. tiμa tinn into .. uh· \1•r .. i\1' a1·1i\itit• ... Against " Pa rrot" Teaching From \ 111 honu.!r. \la .. k1.t. 1·0111t• .. \\orrl frnrll \ttorru-\ luhn E. \l and1•r ... : " I ha\1• lw1·11 a rirm l11•lif·H•r for nwn' "·nr~ 1ha1 11 full ~Par. prdnahh tlw '-t·nior ~1·llr in liii:h .. dtool or fn• ... hmnn \ f"ar in 1·oll1•:!T• .. hould lw 1lt•\ol1·d to u '-lllfh 11f tlw Con .. ti tw tion of the l 11i t1·d ""1n 1c• .... toμe thrr \\ ilh 1h1' Bil l of Hi1.d 11 -... \ nd IJ\ tl1i .. I nu•nn not tlwl I\ p1• nf t 1·1whin~ \\ hi('l1 pnmil~ ..,111dt·n t"' 111 11~·1·01111· pt11rnh .. o 1hu1 tlw~ 1·an rt·pi'lll the• ( 011 .. 1i111 1ion Hnd !1 11· Bill or Riμ lit .. \\Orr! (or \\ord. hut 1'1at l hnt• IH• in-..1illt•1I in to thrm t lH' 'nwaninc· of tlw ( on .. 1i111 1ion. \\h) ii "J'"' hroul!'ht ,1lio11t. \\ hnt it.. purpo ... p .. nn·. ''lint ii hu ..... t1T11111pli ... fwtl. and '' 11~ it i-; t ill' μ:n·att• .. I d1w1111w111 or liu· pn· ... 1·111 ll~c· and \\ h~ it j .. J 1·i' ii hildr of a fn•1• p1•npl1· and 111•\t in impor t.u11·t· 111 1111• llnok i1 .. 1•lf. To nw it \\oulil n1t•;;111 \rn l11tl1· if an\olli' 1·nul1I rt'pPat '''ml for \\Orr! tlw ( 011 .. 1it11ti11n and Bill nf Hii!hl .. if tht•\ \\1·11.·. \\ itl111111 an 11ndn. . 1anc li11or of \\ h1.ll ~ ii llH'~lll"' Get the Pro-Ame r ican Show on the Road \l ull\ l•t11f\ Ftuum \ t•1n rrud1•r..;. "i ll lw \1t1·11ti1111i11J.! !Iii .. month and p1• rlinp .. \\n ulil lik.1• Ill Ut'I llJlftll 1111' rnll old nμ; plnn ..;u!Jmi t1 1•.J II\ \ 11-..1i11 \Jo .. Jwr or \\' ut .. 4~ku. 11 1.: ""'iomt· l\\1'11 1\ ri\1• millinn \ 11ll'!'i1·an ... ,dll ljf• ·011 \\ lu·l'f._'- lrn\l·lin" in t·\t·n diri·di1111 1hro11: . d11111t 1111· nation ~n 'nratiu·11 ... 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(0\ 'I Ill'. \ l.E ll ' l - " ' ' ' ' I> thi· 1·n l11 111 11 i11for111nl of vn t rio1i1· ;.wlhi t it~ .. in ,011r a rt"a h, ~ri1iu 1t •• 1t1·tult•r.;o l(('port," i:-·u.-t'" For11111 , Ualln "I I, Tc•, 11 .... ) Volu1 ()(fit· ~uin S •n th« 11tt11·r.~ \11)· nr ma>· ht 11rhil1;,c l'.S.A HOA! Pn·t1ldt:1 \. Cilb Mn. io;, II. Go ..\DV! fhairma Oa,·id I llhrnton Sa\asrt" " cQ1Jill1 l'. wro. \fcNid1·r It ~U\ Ur. lt«uden \hile 111 C:o ll ~A'• Du1 O~n fH llo,. i: I- J.1.T\ I Co 1,1 ~ Is L 1T I \ <. 11 I I< TS I 1>11.f)(.f h 1t:R1t .. \\n K ho ) 01 Lr()'\() f1·1. Jof Fn l'o Sl u 11 0 11 ) 11011 " I f.\.I Io lftPi. I ~.! l 1•, 1 I{(, 1'11, I H I 1!f l ' h lh 11 f\ \To 1-<l\11, I .1;1 Tl.H: ()l•J\ f()\ l\, Ts I 1'01.1. Q I Of,\'\ lers )\,3\ .. ron· ·a'o~ tn lw •fl in "urh Rul1·. tlw laration of llf'Oll"i .. tn1t ate Rll)'OIH' T1•/1•flm1•h mPn tn t•n· thf'ir t•lf•ff· i~inol 1hir· 1ilt·f'd tht• -.1 1wnr1ra· "' apprmrd w auorn•·' l into -.uh- \\onl fron1 twn' )t•nr­ior \rur in l t'OJlr~C', • Cnn ... titw ,.. "itli tlw u n<1I thttl tudPnt" 111 n·11t·at tht' • wnrd for ., 1lwm th t' l} it Wll'" ·r. ''hat ii If' trff"tlt1·-I .h~'"'it j .. ti in impor· ould nwnn "ord for Riμht· if :,! or ,,h;.11 > Road ... ,dtl hi' 1p-. \\011lil '-t1h111i11rtl if'31l"' \\iii dirt•1·1ioil ... In '" 11 t forh·l'''' 1rant-. anti and hn' 1 • .. : lw \dll a clu11·f1 ... C'flrt''" 11f and I tlwl 1 (Ill their at11n· uniJ n11 plan"" r-tHlll\ e1f n 1·rn.1~ l 1o " t •uJ1111H1 itt ,out .• ,·~ FHl' t'" FACTS FORUM NEWS Volume IV AUGUST, 1955 Number 7 O(fidol 11uhli1•nliun ur Fn('ts l'urum. lnl'., 11'\0:! Muin Slr1·d. llnllnl4 I, Tt•xns. PuliliMht·d month!~ 111 lht• intt•r1-Rt~ of FHclK Fol'um pnrti<'ipnnl~ nnd 11\hni'I t•onrN'rwd with dispc>llin5C puhli<' ll!lflth.} \ny nrti1'11• t•untuirH'i'I in FACTS f'OHlJM N .. :WS m11y h·· frN•lr rt.·prod.ur('d. S('('nnd-<'lmu~ muilinv flrhil11tt nuthurizt·d ut Dnllm1, T1•'\fts. Print1'(I in tJ.:.A, liOARU OF lHHECTORS: HnlM:r1 H . lkdmnn. Pn•r1id1·nt: ,luhn I.. Dnll·, Vh·t·-Prt',.i<knt; Wurn·n \. Gill"·rt. Jr .. S1't'r(·tnn-; J•~ Nn.~h. Tri n ur1 r. '1 ra. K I'. LRmlwrth. Mr". Sui· MrC'rary, Hoh1·r1 U, Go ill. .\OVJ80RY HO.\HO: :\.laj11r H. :\ Hurch:\ ~~~~~dmj,~ ;S~~'i~·k}[.:~u~~n·~,:Y~ 'E'.t~o~~~i-~ i~;il~i~li;;,nr::: Ul•nton, Mn. H. N. H.u!0i.1Wll, Jr .. Mr". Wall111·• ~~Q:i'jj, n~·(;u~:rn~:;il~~i:~ J:iY~~rM,~·~~·1r~t:·~~I ~itu·~·i ~t~,1~~~.mj:~h·~· \~~~~.~~~11 Hnht'rt Jo:. Wood, Jln 11forol It '.\ou \\ii'h t•1 mn~1 :1 t•n11tl'ih111i1m t11 f-iu·1111 l'or11n1, 1Hhil'n•:- .Jot• NnMh, '1'1·1·u .. urt•1· l'rH·t" Forum, l>olllu1 I, 'l'l'Xlls. Sul'h t'ontrihutinu r111T~ n tux­tl1• th11'tihl1• t<IULU~. FACT ~ FORl'M is n 1wti1111-wicl1 )111hlw 1·thu·11- tion1d H'nturt· <it'<lil't1t1 ·cl to nruu .. in)f 11uhli1· int~·ri?>t in importunt cu rrt•nl t•\'t·nlff 11nd 11timulntinac imii­' id uni pnrti1·ipatinn in tht• 11ha11in~ 11( 1111hliC' 11olky. Fuct11 F11rum i!I nonprofit :ind nnn1111rtittnn. KUl1- 1•ortin1t no 1•olitirnl <'ttndiclah• or 1mrt'.\» Jo'n<"t Fnrum'g 1H·tidtit>~ un· <h"l4il!nt'fl tu 11rt· 1 nt not j111u unf• \ h w of o conlrm•t·r~ial i tw. hut 1tll 'il·wll. tn·lit·vinJ! that il i~ th<· ri1dtt nnd th1· 11hli~1ttion u( th1• Am•·ri<"nn JltOJll1· lhl·m1q•Jv1 tu ltnrn ull th1 (nct.M uml c-ome t.1' th1·ir nwn cnn Ju ion , TO Sl'BSCRIHE. i;•'t• Pnj!t·M :J!J.ln. ('HANCE OF ADl)ftESS: ~t·nd oltl mldn ~ 11•,nc-tl)· n,.i imprinh-d un mnilin}.! lah1l 11( '.\UUI' ·1111'.\ 11( FACTS FOltUM NEWS1 11nd rkw ntldrtn !o F \CTS fo,OH.l'M NEWR. lh·pnrtnu·nt (' \ . IJnl­hut I Tt·xn . Plt·u,..._• nlluw thrt·t• W1'i..'k" ftir 1·h11n.u-•·­"\ i·r. l>r. 'lf'dford E\lrn~ , formf'rl~ edi1or of lh(' F11rts f<'<uum Nell'·"· ha ... rt'·t•n tt•r('cl th l' Hn1df'mil· field . Dr. E"nn;.: nun(• to F.1wl~ Forun1 la~ I }'t"ur from i\ft• furr) ( :ollt'J!P. \hil t't1{', Tt'xu .. , und is no" in lhf' 1li' j .. in11 of :-.1wial .. C"if'nc·t'.., ut \ortlt"'""' trrn ~l u te · Collf'J!'f' at \utf•liitod1e ... J .. o ui .. iann. nun \o\muot, Fri('•~ Fortun ('OIUm~ntulor, i ... lea\ in:;! f"uct .. Forum lo t~ -tubli ... 11 hil'I 0"n llf'\.\ .. ({'Uc·r and hroud1·u .. ti11j!' "'f'nire "ith hf'nclqunrter ... iu Dalla ... rl (',H ... P. 0 . llox 130.'i. IN TH IS ISSUE l.1.T's Pt T A \I rn1r 1 F111s·1-. br S1•11otor II illio111 f.' . ./1·1111f•r Cof \ISTI \r 1.. IJan Smoot f!lt 1•r11«•11.1 l!r. Fn•d S1·/11rar= 2 <• " Is L1TI\ \'1f.llH 1 Co1'\c, Ctl\l\ll '\ 1 ~1"~ fn1/11ri11p. Jim Ri.,/11111 l \ C1111tn.H. /11 0011 Smoot 12 IS l'11Ts 1'0111 ,1·s H11>10 1'\11 T\ Sc llU>l If,, l' Jf.l>C,f l.1 UC.I\'\! E TO " 11 0\! l .S. Oil l \,n1111 1·, P RO\llSt.. b) Dun .~1111101 '\\If.HI< I Jiii. BEllT!Fl 1." I 9. '\I. '\ I. 5<1 \ ·~ ·' ''/Ill/or II ilt' 1 '"· Rq1. lfordick :W llo ) 01 \t> P1w11.m ·\T1 . 1\TIC l \lo'\~ /11 /J1111. '111nnl fco'\c11w ST1m11n Allt.<)t u f. lh11 ''-f ·~ /1·M11n11i:. 'lo jor C1"irp• Fi1 •/di111' f.'li,,I lot: Fnt \ll \ \\ 11. II\ F111111u S1ark i'o 0 l l!SC 111111. . 11011 ) Ill c \\ 11 f.1. 1' l.o.,i.. H11 I t•\, 1\·l'w !'-111s 1: ss11Ft11<s l .S. \11tl'0111 11 Ht.p, lfS IU "T111. l.11 El{\I \1 1\ll., .l 1>. I 1tr.1 J'\ Jt 11 \lt.f DELl\IJl E'\C \. jl'aluri111' H1•rtn1111 l11•d f11, T111 r11 ) ot \ 1 :iPOhL'\. hr .~1·11·11 l 11dl'fl1111 l11f l \rt1111 01'1'1 '\llEl\ll.I! SrnH\ 1Co\c 1.1,10 1. In /'011/ Cm1u·h h lh1111.1 Cll () ppf:\ ll l.11 11 H. T1•1/i11w111 11/ }11'111 }. llcUn1 f.\1To1t lll,1u <.1 11t1t11.s l'm-111n'\ «11'n'T Hi u.s J.f.TTI HS 1 o ~.U ITOHS ()i>l\lo\ Fllltl If F ILTS fOHl \I 1'01.1 . }{ESL LTS Po1.1 . Qt 1.. TJO\s 1\D P o 11. Q11s110' \\ 1''1.1" 11J<.1, IOlt TllE \loYrll JJh1Ho f:n·di1 .... J >a~t.., l:.!·.13: f lug, ( mfrru oml ...\:.· ( 11dertr1u1d. J 11/11·) For/(r nntl If rl\hin1:1m1. II id1· lf'orltl l'h11fm • ~Af'Ts FOHl"M XE\\" 'Au1111-<l, J!I.;.; •)ll ~ .. .\2 :~~ ·lo .)() '\!) :19. 10 10 12 15 16 I.". SI 52 ,;:; 5t) hl (ii (ii 61 h5 <1S What they're saying _;(~)~t lr, ,.) ~I '.»' about FACTS FOUUM i'atrinti ... 111 111 ,tiJ .. ,,ti[ 1111·.il.. dm,11 Ill\ .... d1·- rr-.i .. 1ann· lh;ll i-. 111\ \rl1ill1 ·-. lu·t·I. ... Orf'bid .. ln \ i1l111· Bro ..... 11111 \lid-f un1im·11t ... uppl~ ( 11 .... 0111· \\ti\ tu "'ilH' our nutntn in tht• llt''l r1111111·4·11 111onth-. liuild ti!' I t11 /\ f 11r11m \ 1'H' 1·i11 11la1io11 tn 14'11 mdlio11. \I. F. J',11u .:!fl.:!6 "1·\1 ·111h °'t.. """ .1111.1 \lu11i1 ·.:1, < aliL r,·1·1 ••• \Oil ,111· lll\11h1·1I 111 .l \\ork id 11·al \alut• to h11111~11111\ 111 n·1 ogni1in!! tlw c11ntrihuti1111 .. nl tlu· 01:di111.11' nti11·11. . IL \. ""111 \Ill II :!I \l1·adm, Park I ladd111g lu11. E. I ... "-wollanil l w·h fmum \1·u' i-. 11111· 111ui.:d11111· 1ha1 i ... g•· ttin!!: dn ... 1• to tllf' h1·<1rt ur thinJ.! ... II ha ... Im .. ~· an1l 1·fft•r-1 1h.1t U\\Ul..1·11 :t11d a1u11 ... ,• tilt' thin~in!! 1wopl1· 111 an <ll!i' ol 1111n· .. 1. ''•tnlnn 111• .... ., ;111d \J1·illalion . I 1111\I , .. I BHI 1111' Orh'id.1 h_, . • 111~ 1·111hu ... 1.1 ... t11 ,q1p11·1·i,11i1111 1111 \11111 1t·l1•\ i ... ion prog.ram.... I ... inn·rr·h hn1w \our 1uulit•n1·P 1 un ... into million.... . ... I ... hnulrl lik1• lo ha\t' .•. l\\n film .... lo .. him to our Bn•akfa .. t I luh itlld lo a 1wm l·t·r of otllf'r 4'id1 111 :,!Ullil.itlio11-. ;Hound \Jia111i ''ho 1110 ... l 1·1·11ainl) ... fwuld lwa1 tl1t•111. ,,,, ... \hit.101111 \l\ t :-0\11111 l'lw \lianii Bn ·t1 ~fn,1 ( luh a111I l hc- F11•t·dom Clnh of \liurni I '. 0. 1l11, ~l:i. I i11l1• 11111-r "tu \11<1111i :ltt. Fl ;i. I Ji ... ten to ~nlll' i-ad1u pH1:,!r.1111 n·~ularh .:111d ,.,m ... idt-r it lo Ill' ;..111 ,.,,.,.1ft·111 prc· .. 1·111.:1. tion or linth ... j,lc· ... 11f l'llfll'lll ....... 111· .... \11...._(;t,Hll\J \f. f.t1llH H:~.H I Uoni.:.tn h1·. Elrnl111r•t. I.. I.. '\.) It j ... 11ult•t•d !!ldlif~ lllf: tu ... ,., •• 1 1wriodin1l 011 1fw 1w,, ..... t.111d d1·1lii·,111·d 111 tlw pri11ciplt• .. "hid1 h.:n1· nwd1· tlw l 111t1•d '°'tu11· .. tllt' 1111'' 1•rf11I ilnd fr1•1• 11.ition ii j .. trn":t'. \1011· plt•J .... inl!. ho\H'\c•r, j ... tlw firm "'1;11111 /•rlt'/\ F"rum \ c'U ,\ la kt• ... 1μ:uin ... l tlw d1 ... 101 It'd philcNI· phit• ... of t'Ollln1111Ji .. m ... \\liil'h ''1' -.l10ul1l all ~110\\ un• the .. ,,0111 101• .. of i11di,id11nl hu· 11rnn f11•c•do111. 't 11111 111.t~u1i111· 1 ... ;1 'i1 iii· 1k1nr1·nt tu p11ldi1 q1nll1' . . (,\In I ''In' ~709 Br11.11h,.1\, 111111""11111 I'~. I r\;_I ... .. \I~ .,.!r.lllltlfl1• IOI \Hiii f1t'I' 1 irn1l.1tio11 I lihrar~ J knm"" 1111 lioun1k J-:,,.n hon~ -.hall !If' 1ak1•11 •·.:tn• uf .:111tl P"" ... "•I .11111111d fn·,·I' II\ llw untfn ... i:::111·d . 1111-. H11.1 111 II ll11.dila111I 'pri11:.:: .. , \ .1. NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 'Thi.., il" .. ll l' of f'tu •t ,, f 'orum /\Ptr.~ j ... 1>11hli .... hC'cl a'i llH' \u ~u .. 1 in .. h •iu-I of th (' Jul) 19.55 j .. ..,u-.· -.o a ... lo t·orr('""IJ011d "'ith the date .. of otlu•r 1110111hh muμ:a ­' inc .... rurrt:"ntl~ for .. u lt~ ul nt" "'~ ..... 1und ... !.\ub .. t·ri1>1io11 ... "'ill lu• t''lt.•ndt•tl ut·t.·ord. in~d~. l'age l IT JS ahrnys a plra•urr for mr lo Iran• Wa•hinglon and trawl. meeting with the peoplt> and disrus,ing our national problems. I b<'lir,·e fpn1•ntly thr -trrnglh of our nation r •side:':; nol in the !'apital hut in the ,·ast e'1ian"<' of our countn. Empires arr rrprrs<'nl<'d hy. as they are gO\'<'rned hy, Lh<'ir rapital rili<'s. Frr<' !'ountries arc not diviclt•d into a capital city and the provinrrs "hich arc ruled by it. In m ·stale o[ Indiana wr still bdie' I' the l'nitrd • lairs is a union of so,rr· eigns. and our ·tntr is in ewry rrspert the o\rrriim NJual of tlw fl'drral j!O\· <'rnmenl. ThrrP i, no drfrrrnrr in Indiana to tht• p:lamour and sho\\ "hirh arr no" '0 r,·iclent 1n Washinp:ton . We hdirn• that wr. thr proplt'. p:o,·rrn thr country. and Wa,hinglol' t·· th• front offil'r. part of Lil(' aclministrati"· head­quarters. I am surr that dorlrinr will sound right and proper in thr slate of Texas. It is a fa\ oritr arp:umrnl of the col­lectivi4 that forrign polirv is some­thina remolr and ahstrarl. "hid1 ran be und;r-loocl onh \,y t''flt'rls ''ho ha,·e , 11ent ypar- i1; th1• prrrincts of the tal<' 01'parlmt•nt or on th<' staff of certain daily papc·rs. ,ongr<'•sm<''"'.· who ha,·e not had thr ht•nt'fil of long mdoc· trination in thr mvstrrirs. and vou. who do not r,·rn hrrathr thr air of \\:'a>hing· ton. are supposrcl to sit patirntly and wait until the p:rrat minds havt' handed down "hat ,·011 may know. Ameriran~ nP\·rr accrptrd such non­s!' nse. Our p:rratesl diplomatic achieve­ment• \\t•rr th1• 1•nrk of laymrn. who had spent most of tlwir yrars in prirnte life. In tht• last ft•\\ yt•ars \It· have heen he" ildered and hrmu-l'cl hy forPign re­lations e'perls in Washington offices. but th!' moment ha' roinr '' hrn the \meriran prop Ir nt't'd to drride "hat kind of for<'ign policy tlwv wish to <land for. ancl tlwn lt·ll our j?O\'rrnment to folio" it. PresidC'nt Ei ... P11hO\\f'r\ mr~~a~f' on defense of till' \ationaJi,t ,;lronghold on Formo•a "ill c•t•rtuinh Ill' a landmark i11 .\meri!'an forc•ip:n affi1ir,. hut "hat kind of a landmark it "ill hr i" i:ol yet rrrlain. Fir-.t let us look al tht' dorumenl!l them-eh-rs--thc tnt'"agc of th1· Prcoi­dc ·nt. and the rrsolution of Con!(rCo" •upporlin!( tlw Prr-id1•nt\ po,ition. RESOLUTION REAFFIRMS TIE In the "orcls of ti\(' mt•ssagr an cl the re-olulion. thl' l nil(•d Stairs rraffirms it ' dost• lit•, "ith its loyal alh. tlw \aliona}i,t l!OH·rnnwnt of hin~- and makc•s a commitmt•nt lo dd1•11d the• \a­Lionaliol stronghold 11 ith ,\nwril'an mili­tary po1,rr if lhl' Communish 1·arrv out thl'ir thn•al lo attad, it. Thi, >lall'.nlt'nt doe,; not 'ohc• all tlll' prolil1·nh of our forei!(n policy in the \\.t·slt•rn Pacific. Page 2 I Let's Pu'A Tlwn' \\' .. h \l,!'.?t'tlH 1101 r 'lal1·n Thi d1•al, \\'t· h. air n r1ii111· tlw fr rnak .. ni-.1 11, lhc• I 111111 .. r in~. I -tart 11 \ r, 111 ma lh1· a1 .111rl - Jt.trl i ... ll11t 11,.J} '" tilt' •II. Tl ·l pn" '"""" llll'\llJ \\p ... h. •IJtill'<I' '"rul1·r 11r '>ur \\ "' •if 1111· 1«111 ( f n1;11 11 '1111· 1110 lir 111a!..i11• l.1irl r}; 1.l\1t·rl f'.r111,tit 11 ho, .. ' 111r Co <.rn1~n -•·h .. ,. TW I h1· r111·11l, I ''1t111tl"1 0u1America First! by Seualor William E. Jr1111er This rultlrr•.<s " '"·' f!il'<•11 I>)' Snwtor .fennPr (R-1111/.) lwforp the Dallas Pulilir- Affair.< <:lrtl> anti Tlil' Committl'l' of 011<' 1/11111/rl'tl. Tlwn• i' no f!OO I rt•a,on 11 IH ii -hnuld. \\',. ha11• had l111·nlv \'l'[tr,; of mi•mnn· ~1g1•m1•11t of our al'li\ iii(•:-- i11 \ ... ia. It j .. 1101 r .. a,011alill' In u-k Iha! a11y 'i11;:d1· -1a1 .. 111 .. 111 ..i .. ar """' all 1lw """ru-io11. TIH• nw ...... ;..J!:!'P i...:. "'i!!ni[il'Ulll lwntll"'f' it "'""" 11 ilh 1h1· mo-t ,imporlanl q111•,1inn. \\',. ha11· a1t11<ll/lll'NI that '"' -hall lnlt'r· ·lit• IHI /lt'\I rl'lrl'al i11 '°1-ia. Tilt' n •. .J r.hi111•,,. 11 ill nol 111• pcrmil11•d lo l1n-;wh th .. frn11lin- or llw >-lill·frt•I' 11orld. \r1· niakt' ii d1·a1 1hal 111· ,hall nll'l'l \.nmn111 ni-1 mililan a< licm 11 ith mililan at lion. lht> nnh df2'lll1H'nl lht> Conununi,l-.. 1111rl1·r-ta11d. ,,.,. 11 ill nol slarl llw >hnol· inf!. hut ir 1lw Communi-i' d100'" 10 'lart u 11nr. 111• 11 ill fini"h ii. \ rort•i μ-11 poJif'I 1'U1't'f11 lh II orl..1·d Cllll 111 lllilll\ l'OnfPrl'n1·1•-. puhli .. Jv 'lal1•d 011 1111· a11lhoril\ of tlw Chirf F.:\l'<'t1livr, •11ul -upporl~·d II\ l.onμ-n·" and l1otl1 i'·trlit". -ho11ld ill' firm a• a r111l. nut I "''-1\ lo \'Oil \\hat \nu kno\\ ''•·II that tlw f1in·iC'11 polin "'1al1li•lll'd 111 th1· l'nrn10-.1 papt·r- i- nol ri 1111 al all. Tiu· fad lhal ii i- 1 li·urh •l.il1·d in ·I pn·-id1•n1ial m•'''"f!''· and formalh tppr1111·d J,, 11,.. li·f!i-lali\r l1ra111 h. nlil\ llH·.111 110lhinf!. Ji i' 11J10ll\ f'O"iltJt• lhal \\(• -h.tll rnlln11 1111' nppo-i11• p11li1 \' or •l1J1u·a .. 1•1111·11I of lilt' Con11111111i._1 .... "'II' H·11d1·r 11f our achunL.1~1·. a11cl n ~1·110111 11r our lnrnl a lli1 •, i11 \ ~ia. \\ 111 ;1111 I '" rTrhtin !Ital 1111' wi,llt'• .. r 11,.. \nwri""" l'n·-irl1·11I. 1111• \ 1111·ri '·Ill C.rttt"rt'"· and 1111' \ n11·ri1·a11 p1·npl1· ''''" 1,.. rlo11l1·d "? 1'111· rt'.1-011 i- liri..fh that "" ha\1· l\\q lint• .. of .u1thorit~· i11 fon•i!!ll l'olk~ ltt,1l..i11::. 0111· i- 1111' li111' or r1·-pnn-il1ilil\ l<1id dn1111 111 our ( .n11-tit111io11 and fnl· 11111 .. d I" all tlw'" 11ho hPli1•\1° in 0111 Co11,ti111iio11. Tlw ollwr i• a 111'111nrl.. 11 lto," 1111·mlll'r• d1·lilwrald\ rli•rt'!!arcl "ttr CmHitution. our l'rt •,id~·nl !llld 0111 r.011g'rt• .. -;. and a\l a!" a la" u11to lht·rn· 'l\hf':-.. TWO-HEADED MONSTER DIRECTS n ... -.td fad i- lb.ti /Ill 111tltlw cl1w11 1111 ·t1t. IH1 formal nnnmit11w11t. 110 IPμ-nl 'li.i11d.1tt•. •·.rn d1·lt·rmi1w \1111 ·111 <.111 fot ~ .\('T.' FOT:l'~l NE\\'S, , l "!I" /, /fr.;.; "'"" polin today. Onr rl1wl11ali11:.: for· 1•i.!!n policy i~ n lu~·of-\\ar IH'l\\t'1'11 thP:-..P l\\O rorC'(''· It i' '111 tllN'llJPrJ CJlll»lion 11 hid1 !!1'0t1p 11 ill I"' lri11111phanl in lh <' .. 1n1!.!,!.d1• to .. hapt> 011r 11~tlin11".., d1·-.tiny. \\'p ha11• ''"'" a!!ain and :t!!ain in th<' lasl l11n d1·r·adl'- '1ha1 1111' ron·i!!ll poliq· pul rorn ard in our puhli1 -talr•mrnt­i< lint lhl' rorri!!n pnJi1'\' <':1rri1·d nut Jw our !!O\f'rnnH'nl. Thi..:. j ... 11nl lwt·a11 ... 1• lht> \ 1111·n1·d11 !?O\· 1·t nllll't1l ha• •udd1•11J\' hC'l'Olllt' Unl~ll't· 1111rlh\. Thal 11ould hr a 1110-1 in:tr" l'lll'<lll: •l;tll'l11C'nl or II hal ha' hapJl<'lll'd. 1'11e n·a-011 i- that thr '°lnlt'ril'an !!O\<'rrl· nlt'nl i- a l11n·hl'aclPd mnrr-1!'1'. It i' il•cl h\ two diffc•rPnl orμ-aui1i1tf! f'<'llll'r<. Thr· fl('ll'r·'t'tl lr•d f1lH'<liOll or II hi..J1 <'('llll'r i:-. to dl'lt'rmine our fort•i μ- 11 polic·ip~ hu ... l..t·pl II' in <'on,tanl turmoil and rnadl' th 11101.. r11tilr an I indrrl'l11al hdnn th" II nrfrJ. This f'onflirt lw1111·1•n 111 o h<·acl, of 1111r !!0\C'rlllll<'lll 11 ill 11nl l'nd until orw or tltr ollwr i 11 holl\ cl..f1·al1·d. up· rnolt'cl and ckstro\ ed .. For Y<'ar' 11011 nur !!nH·rnnwnl ha, '""'" pullt·d i11 11"1 nppo ... itt• '1in·dion ... in 111aki11!.! it ... dt'­c ·i .. ion .... Tl11• lwari11;r' of tlw -1H·e1lli·d TYdin!!' C:ommilll'l' di,-r'lo""I dt'ar t'\ id"'""'· in -pi11· of 1111• 11hi1<•11ash. !Ital a po111•rrul ;111d rut hit·:--:-- ~roup '' u~ f! 11idi11 ~ 0111 d1·1 ·i, in11, 111 lht' aclrnn ln!!l' of tlw ~"'id l 11inn. This 11 as nnl nr;11 '· Co111111ill1'<'' 11f Cnn~n·,, had lwf'n mal..in μ- 11t .. >111ni· 'harC't' for war-. Tiu· R11 ..'-eil Commillt't'. 11 ltir h in 11·-1iμ-;lll'd tlw clismi"al of c .. 1wrnl \l a<'· \r1h11r. a11d inH'"ti:.:ations In tlw !'l'nal• l111t·rnal . 1·1·uril1 , ul l<'ommillt't' -hr1111·d lhat ti ... PC'rf'l fac:lion in our μoH·rnmt>nl h,11J II orkt•d OUt ib 01111 rorr•if!ll pol in. In -.uil ii• 011 n enck and had h1 infi11ill' -1..ill. palil'tl< 'C' and rnlhl.•ss1tl'-'. p11l ii inlo ..rf,.c·t. re;rardl.._, of lilt' l1· gnll~ 1•,taliJi,hcd roreig11 polin· st'l l1\ Con· :,!n''' and hy 011r Prl'sicl1•111. Thro11;rho11t a ll or 195 1 a11d 1952 1h1· ( .orq.rn• ... :-.. l':--pt:C'iully lh t• ~1·1wlt'. \\H"' Pll ~""'"' in a μ- real d1'11a11· lu l11rn 1lw li::ht 011 thi> -•'l'f'l'I forPiC'll poliq a11rl dt'-lnn it- i11fhu•111'<'. 1 ou k11011 tlw a hif'\'l'mf'nls of thi• "('<Tf'I group. \rt1•r tlw cld .. at nf Japan in \Vorld \\'ar 11. our orfi<'ial fnrt'ign polin llU> In ddrnd and •lrt'llf!llH'n 1h1· \ a1io11alisl gO\'t•rrrnwnl of China. llut tho• ~<·ncl fac-tion in our ~0\1 1 rtllll('lll \\U~ dPlt'r­minecl Ill' •ho11ld '"JIJIOrl lhl' \.hirn•'<' Reel'. 1 n tlw nanw of thr l 11itl'd • late" .!!OI ernnwnl. th,,,. in-i-tPcl on a "unilt•cl front" !!0\('rnmPnt i11 China. 11 ith tlw ( .ommuni-t relwls rl'laiuing thPir own armt'cl forcr'. Our rPpn·-r·n1a1i1 ,. ;ra' ,. lhr Rrcl" a lnn f! 1·pa,, .. firr• '" 11 hid1 the' mule! n·-t and re-r•qttip llu•ir arrnie~. ancl hr ,,., up an l'ml1aq:o on Arneri an fittlll'l• ror lilt' f! llllS of IJH' dt'ft'nclt•r,. MILITARY VICTORY IMPOSSIBLE Sinn' 1950. ""hall' had 1110 policie, for 1111' \ ationali,t f!Oll' rllltll'n t on For· mo.a. Our offiC"ial poliC"y 11 n• lo ,.upport thr lrf!al gO\'l'rnnwnt a11d lwlp n•arm thr \ationali-t rnf("(''· Conl!rt'" \Oll'd tlw mon(·~ a::rnin and a;:ruin ;.t ... propl·r for our m1 n d1'f1•1H'. B111 th<' hidrll•n fan ion in our .!!O\<'rtlrlll'lll i11l<'11dl'cl that 111• -houlcl "dis<'nl!a!!r' our-1·h 1-i" a• thl' politt• phra,,• !!Ill'' from 1h1· \ ational. i-1-. Tlwir r;·al polin for l'nnno-u paralld1•rl tlw fa111011- :uh in• of 0111·11 f.allirnon'. lo Id i...on•a fall hut not lrl ii lnol.. a, i r \\ ,. pu-lwd lwr. Jn IJ1·1 ·1•111Jwr. 1919 ri\l• \'t'H r• U"O Our :0.lalt' lkparlnw11I "' "" · i•,11t'cl i1i-lnw· 1101i-.. to it ... p1·1 .... 011nrl ahrnad to :-.ho'' no rt·~ret:-- \\ hc>n tlw .~o' t•r11rn1·111 011 For­mo'a fpll <H'<'f>rclinC' lo pla11. During: lht· \\i.lr in "-on ·a. \q· \\l'fl' 1i-1rn>iltl~ fightin'-' 111 d1·r1'<tl th .. Herl Chin<'-!' attarl..<'r>. Our militan lt'ad1•r,.. our pt•ople. anrl I l1l'lil'11• nu;,t of tl11- 1111·mlwr- or tfil' arJmini >lralion. \\{"H loyal lo that olijt'<·ti\1°. But lhl' im i-ihlt• .C'rtrnp had a rliffp11·11t poli"' . Tlu·y 11t'r" rlr·lermi1wd In prt'll'lll militun {icton "'l'r tlw HPck Tlw1 inl<'n(h•cl .lo n·lurn "' for("(· 11 ... Chi11"''' pri,otH·r, of 11ar 11 ho did 110l 11 i,lt lo !!" I 1ar I.. lo Com· 1n1111i-1 ( .hi11a. a- lhl'\ rt'lurnPcl the hop"I"" r..fuC'tt'' i11 l .11;11f't' afll'r 1915. Thl'\ i111t·11rl1·cl lo i<'a\I' \orlh i... on'<t a 11a-irland. OITllf'il'd II\ i: .. r1 ll'IH>JI' \\htt l':tge 3 -Wide World Photo General MacArthur (front) shown touring Korean front April 3, 1951 , with Generals llidgeway and Hicke y. On April 11 of that year, President Truman removed MacArthur from all his commands and named Rid9eway a s successor. nn1ld i11fih1al<' '>uuth 1'.u11 ·a al \\di and de...f·end al n mon11·nt"·· 110lin· 011 l'n•t• 1'.orPa. "ith 11rn1i1·- 1"''"" ,111<1 ro·­"' iuipp .. d. Tht• .. ~~nt'I μ1011p \\1111 t'\t'I\ ohjt•t·li\t' "'r"pt th1· rt'lurn of till' pitiful 111 i-011Pr-­of.,, ar. ,,ho \\t'rt' .... .t\t•d Ji, llw in~i ... 11 •1w1· or Lun!!rt· ...... and tht• Ulll~'llliltinμ- ddl'r· mi11ali(;ll or our mililan 11 ·1.u lt•r ..... Tiu· '-an11· tlo11hl1• pu1 po'" l'an 111· found in 0111 (,1·rman polin. in \ u-tria. in ltah. in Ln·1T1. and in tlw tra~i1 · -urn·ndt'r of all I .a-11·1 n I· 111op1· In tlw .·\id l 11ion. Tlw p11hli1 poli1 ~ of 1111' l 11il1'll :-1at1·-. 1d1id1 h,1- in .1111111-t all in-tann·­de ·n Hlll<Td n11111111~t ,11111 -upporlt·d tlw inclqwnd1·11t 111·an•f11I 11atie111'. h.1- facl1·d il\\J\. Tlw ,,., n·I polin of 1111· f .. dion '-0 frit·1-ul'1 In tlw ~01 ii'! l 11io11 ha- i11 almo·t ·1·11·r1 in-tann· lw1·11 lriu111phanl. Our pul1li" · polin of n·-i-tinf! nimmu­ni- m ha- -u•Tt'""'"' onh in Tu1ll'1. unrl lo a limit .. d f'\ll'nl in (;,,.,., .... llu.I S1·e·- rdan uf lld1·1N· Forn•,ta l. "ho \\Os de·t1·r;11i1lt'cl to hlo1 k 1111· l.01111111111i,1 ad­\ ::tllf"t'. and \\ho \\011 o\t'I l'n· .. ident Truman. ,,a .. clrh1·11 lo ~111 1•arh μ.ra\t'. Iii- hard poli1·) of .11nwd n·-i-larw1· to rnmmuni-m \\a- n•pla1·1'fl Ii) the· -oft poJir~ nf l'f"OlllHllif did lo 1·11rn111'. From 1915 lo l<J5:2 tlH' 1111111·1 of tlw '- 11 i··t l nio11 -p11·ad "'t-1 a11d \\('-!. until it <·1111•ro·d 0111·-third of 1h1• \\orld a11d pul million- of 1wopl1• i11 l111ndag1-. Tht• 1·01iflid lwl\\l't·n f11't·don1 and ,Ja1 - t'l} \\U ... not lo:--l in \ ~i~1 01 i11 l:11ropt'. It ""' lo-t i11 \\ a,Jii11gto11. '"" 'aLi-!' tlw little· p'.l"OUJ> in our poli1 )·lllaking 1d1id1 ra\OrtAd tht• ~O\it•l l 11io11 \\i.l"' -.lfOIH!t'f than till' 1wopl1• "hn lwli1 ·11·tl in ;t i;ro. \ mrri~a11 pol in. I -a1 to 1 nu th.11 tlw l.i-1·11h111"·1 Page i puli•·). for dd1·11-1· 11[ lilt' jlt'I i11wt1·1 of tlw fn·1• \\orltl """'''it i- thr1·alt'nt'll i11 tlw Formo,a '-lrnit. \\ill 1, .. 11111ll'r111i1wtl. l'l"(l(kd. 1·n11·11·d up. '" i-lt'<I and mad1 o\1•r into a polit·\ L.t\uri11μ H1·d China. 11nlt• .. .., ,,,. lt·tnn our lt• ....... 011 and dt>al '' ith ihl' rt'idilit'- of polilic- lotla). EROSION IS APPARENT \11 .. a1h 1•111,io11 i- appan·111. \\ " 1·011· -1,111th 111"11 ii di11111·d in our f'<tr' !hat it i, all riμht Im "' lo ddrnd Fornw-a hul 'l'r\ '' 1 nnμ lo d1·r1·nd {)ut·rnoY w11l \lat-11. That 1- a- if th" l \ ,·l11111ld -a1 to tlw I 11il1·d '°'lall', ... ) ott "ill n·dun· kn-ion "ith lilt' '-'m ii'! l nio11 if \Oll μi,1· up \]u .. ka. ,,J1id1 ; ... 1wc.1n·r lht· ""' i1·l honln than it i, lo 1111' l 11i1 .. d :->talt·-- Tlw ...,111 id l 11ion ''" - .\la-k.t hdun;_!"' to it It dw· IJt>I niatl1·r if \Oii nt't•d \l.i-ka for radar information. \\t'dllll'r informttlion. and 1·arh \Htrnin!! of 1Jin.,1lt'11e"I :Illa< k. \on n111:1 iriu· uj1 \ la-Lt to 1h1· S111 il'I rnlf'I", '" 1l11·i1 '""'ion "ill 1, .. lo\\1·n·d."' \11otlw1 form of 1·ro,io11 j, hid.11 •11 in tht• ''.:n11i11g .. thal I· urmo ... a n·alh IH'· long: ... lo Jl1pa11 Pnd .. o it j ... all ·ri:. .d 11 Int th1• I nil1'<I ~tut,._ to i11le·r11·1w. J.ut Ou1·11101 ,uul tlw Tai h1·11- IH'lon" to t'hi11a. ·Jnd tlwr..fm1-. if '"' d .. f .. 11.f th" 1·0'1 ... tal j ... Ja1uf ... \\I' ;.1n• 1lin·alt·11in~ B1·d ( hi11a. Thal '" !!llllll'lll omit- tlw mi1101 f,11 l th,11 '"' an· not thn·at .. 11i11)! tl11• H ·d-. Thn an· 1h11·atl'ni11g 11'-. Thn 'dllllf)l μd 1lw 1·oa .. Lal j ... J\11uf ... ('\.(Tpl Ii~ n1nq111·-t. Thi'\ ha11· aln•aeh lril'd and fail1·d. It ;, thn \\ho talk of n'"" l'on · 'Jlll'"'t ... ~ not \\I'. \third form of 1·111,io11 i' thl' alle·mpl In !!1'1 a f"t·a ... 1·-f111· in th1· l 11itt>d \alion ..... \ n-.1-1·-fin· t\11t1ld t..11 till' \atio11ali,1- th1·\ n1uld 111·\1·r '' i11 11.11 I... 1lu·ir o\\ 11 1 01111111. That \\ ould 111· lik" t..llin)! Cl'orμt• \\ '"fij11~loll h1• t'nt1ld halt' a n·a-1·-fin· if lw \\11111.I n·main in \ allt'I ForμI' liui mak1• 1111 ..ffort lo rt't'Ollt(ll•'' \ .. 11 \ ork 111 l'hilad1·lphia 01 \ 111 k· fO\\JI. ''""''fin· \\oUld frl't ' thl' l{l'd il l'lllit ·~ ror a llt'\\ altaf'I... Oil J1u.luchi1Ht. \ 4't'i.l~t·-rirl' \\Olllfl μ'iH· rur lf h'I l't'('O~· 11i1i11n to tlw lfrd Lhint'"'· 11 \\t>tild 11•11 1111' rle·-11t•ra l1· J>l'Opl1· 1rn the mai11lantl I hl'I l1Ud 110 hopt'. I l \\ mrld t..11 th• pt'oplr nf l'nland. the· Halkat1' a11d Fa,1 L1·rn1a111 that 1Jw l nitt'fl '>talt·- h111I 1111 inlt-1.1·-l i11 tlwi r f alt·. Otlwr pitfall- an· th1 l""l'"'al- to ··-tahli-h '"" l.hi11a,. a11d -e11111t'r or lal•'' lo put 1'11•" ( hina u11dn a l \ trn-11'1'· -l11p. \\ e· k110\\ \\ hnl' that 11 ill l'""J. \ f11 •r H .. d China i, -af1·h i11,1allrd i11 1111' l \ a- a '"p1•an .. l111 ir;f( .. 11atio11. it "ill hri11μ 11p tlw d1"111and that Formn'" lw '"n"11d1·11 .. I to it and f'it1· th1• Cairo ll1·1 ·laralio11 a' proof '"' ha11· alrr:uh .iμ11"1•d lo llw propo"1l. 1'1·1 li:q" th" 1110,I ,e·riolh th11.,1t of all j.., llH· n·n·11t H'IH1rl that our μ.o\ t•r11· "'""' i111t·111I- to '"" otlwr fllt'lllhl'r- of 1111' I \ In lwlp "' patrol 1h .. Fn111111··' '°'lrait. Thal \\tHrld 1·11d all 1111'11·11"' of t·itlu+1 a 1110- \ nlt'rican or an a111i-Co111· 11111ni,1 pnlin. It ''"'"" 1111•,111 auothr• .. , i< ton .. (jl,.,. 1'on·a. UN RIDES SEE-SAW \\ ha1t-11·1 l 011 n1<1l.1· of 1 h1· l \ in μt•ru·ral. it ~ 1 10uld Ill' po~~ilil1• lo μrl aμr1·PnWn l :1monμ: al l μolld ·\ nw1in1ll"" 011 II f .. 11 faf'I•. Tlw Sm i1·1 l II ion i- " ml'111l11 ·1 of 1111· l 11itt'd \alinn,. Su arr l11•r 'alt·llit"'· ."111· ha- a l'"rnrnnr11t -•'•11 011 tlw s .... 11, ii\ <:01111 .. iL "ilh tlw ""°' po111T . Tlw l \ ha- 110 e·nm111ilnwnl· I" .... 11ppo1I frt•t ·dorn . For t'\ 1 ·r ~ nhliμa1ioll -Wide World ptio' Jomes fo rrestol I· .H"l'S l'<lHl M NE\\'S, t111111 I, I'' lo th1· 11hli ... 1 ,,, .. 1, ( llJlHt .. 1a11l1 t. ll ... l •1μ-1•, I 1111·111 ( di ... nii-. ,,, tl11 1·0111111i '1111 · 111·1111 ·e 11i ... 1 \\ 1 '1111· th .. l . llt,lft'I Thi­fa .. 1 al 1·1.111 .... c .. l111th ( 111•u1ral for fm 111•\t'I 1111· ia· flo11' f ll1e·nl I "pt·an•, 'lot· ... llt \\ 111 11f1t·11 1~a11g1·1 lath. lil<1rnJ I 111 'I' i I 1 '"'' 1'11· \ 1111'1 i1· Thi · l1-r ... ( 1·1111t ra1· '"ttnnot ' 1·1olu1i 11.. .. fl' ''''J'Jll'tl 1111h i.111 ~l<1up e •if \ nu dq1·11ni f',d id .. : t·t111111·11 \\ I' I r;, ... dh ::.11 lall l\t\p n r,Jrt•ion ro11·i~11 t·r111n1·111 1111pl..in· 1J1t. l1u 111..,, ' 11 ha11·11• l11,Jt1 '" 1,,.,11h 1t.1r1. \\ "" f·11:-.:-.i11"' \\l1a1 r., i',111 1111• fa1 t oll1111~ I 1'""d fo (!' l1·lli111! I ha11' " in \ allt•1 rt •( ·oJHilll'f or ~ or~· tlr1· H<'•I 11dod1inu. 'IPI° l('('()CI · "<Hrld lt~I nwinland I tdl 1h•· and f.a,I lalt» had ·1·0-<11- 111 rr or lalt'I \ tru,11·1"· \\ill 11·1111 "1all1·d i11 nation. it Formo:--il llw Cairo (' •"rt'(I{" n·al of all r "O\t•r11· ·mhN- of l'or111t1'•' rt'lt>Jl'.">t' of a11ti -Cm11 · 11 a11otlwr ,.. l \ in 11· to μt'I \ 11wriC':111:- 11io11 j .. ;I 1:-.. So ul't' .llH' lll .. t ·~ll I lilt' 1<-i<' itnw111 .. IP ohli~al io11 lo lh1 • f1t·p 11aliu11:-. il ha .. t ·oa11· .... 1uuuli11~ nhli:,!aliu11 .. lo 1h1· C.omnH111i ... 1 11atio11 ... Ii, -taff i1wl11d1 ·- a prnpo1lin11 of "I'''" ( omm1111i-.1.... hut ii al:--o ha .. a .... uh­' la111ial 11umlw1 of ,,•n1·1 <.om1111111i,1-. Tl11• l \ 11·<·1·11tl1 a11 ardo·d lariio· dam· ·'I!'"- In -01111· \ nwrin111 [: iflh \ 11ll'11d - 1u1·11t C:omm1111i .... b on it:-:. .. ta ff '' 110 \\t'l"t' rli,llli''''" 011h l11•1·a1N' nf ho·ari11!!' h1 ·ld h1 1111· Sl'l1.1i1· l11l< •rnal S1·<·111 ir; S11h l'flfllt1lillt •1·. Thi· l \ i- in tlw 111iddl1 '. ,,., .. ,""ill" l1d111·"11 1111' f, .. , 11orld and 1lw Cnm1111 ~ 111-..1 \\orld Tl11· 1110-1 fa11nal1h• polin 111 "' 1d1id1 llu l \ •an ;ulopl i- 1w11lrali-111. 11 i- 111·•111·1 lo do\\11ri μ-h1 1·rn •\i:--l1·rw1 '. Thi- j, 1111' llli11imum of 11111li,1111l1 ·d f;u·I al11111I llw l \ 011 11 hio h ,ill \n11 ·ri · 1·a11 .. 1·,111 1.1μn·"· Tlw L \ i ... a11 a~t·111 ur ho1h (.nn1111u11i-1. a11ti-Con11111111i,1 a11d 111·111r,d 11ali1111-. II ha, 110 j1hlifi,.a1i1111 fo1 fil\111 in!! lht· 'id1· of thl' fro •o'. 11 l111- 111·1pr 1111'11:ndo•d In do "'· \n11lll'11• i11 1111· "''I n11lpo11ri111! of don1n11·111- lhal flo1" from lh<' l \ i- 1h1·n· a111 1·0111111it llh·nL lo fn•o·dom. Tlw l \ "'"~' for "po•an-." for 111·lfa11 ·. foo 0111· 11 orld. I 1 d,,.., 11nt p11'l1•11d lo 11or~ for lilw1t1 . \\ 111 do I '"' lhal 1111·-.. I" 111111-al- lo ' 1•ftt•11 up tlu F111 mo.-.a r1 •:--ul111io11 .. u rla11~1·rn11- to 1111· inll'l'<"-1' nf llll' l nito-d l~tlt· .... -.o .. 1ianwf11l a J1n •ad1 of ou1 ll1<iral ol1liμalio11' 11 ill prol1ahh 111<'\ail 111 'l'ilr• nf 1111· -nll'lllll ro1111llil111t'lll !11 1111• l'n·-id1·11I a11d lill' Co11μ11·-- lo a 11111· \n1t·r i1 ·a11 li111 · or tll'lin11 ~ Th" n·a ... crn i ... l11i ..... \ μroup of μ;111μ In, 1·a1111ol lro · -lopp .. d I•) a "rillo·11 1·011tr ;.ir-I. \ JH>\\t'r }!roup i11 μo\1·11111w.1l •·11111101 I" -lopp"d h) a 'lal1• pap•·•. \ tt·\ul111inua1 \ j1111ta. \\hO:-t' purpo .. t· j ... lo lt1~1· 0\1•r 1111' ... o\1 • n• i;!11l~. 1·a1111ol lu ' 1"1>111-.I II\ .i n·-nl11tio11 of ( .nn:!to'" · Tiu· 11111, an .. ,,·,., lo a r11thlt· ....... politintl action ~l'<rup d1'11 ·1111i1l1'd lo dl'-tr01 1h1· ho11111 '>( \n14·111 ~t , ... a polilind af"lio11 μ:1011p df'l1•1 mi11o ·d In -111'1"" I ·\ nwr i"'"' pol iii •·al ido ·al- a11d d1•fo ·11d llu· 1111·11 in '-'"' . •·t11m1·111 '' lin tllt ' lo~ . d lo dll'111. ' r· \\ ,. 1 1illl' 1.dk~·d l_uo, .. h a11d '"'"'' 1 ~< ttlh J.dio111 tl11 .. rnal po\\t'I' ~)~11·111. i"'' talk j .. 110 lon,!l'I" μ-ood 1·11011:.. d 1 . \\ 1· r'."'': ··,dlo•d . 1111' . l."'.'"""I ll1t· ' "h' '"lll f,•r1·1°11 i'"_lu·1. 1111, d·wl .•·onlrnl or 1H·1!!11 polw\ \\;J .. op1 •ral111•1 111 our !.!o\ J 1111111·111 ii' 1\11" ii> 191() 1111dn J l.111 I 1•111ki11-. II op•·;·a lo'd 1111d1·1 Uo•a11 \ d,,. . "''· l.111 it ha- "!'""'"'" jri-1 ,,, ..rr, ... 11 ' 1·h ... inn· h1- ll'fl. \'. l' lt:.I\ I' 110 I l';l"'Ull ~ha1,.,,., In 1hi11k llri- ;.rn111p ln,I ii t•lrl l11·1 ·a11-1· \11. \.' lu:-011 11 · -1~11• ·.I \t·1\tl1111P ''1' k1Hn' 111dwal1• .... tlll' t·nn · ltilt"\. \\ hn llw11 "'" lh1· 111•opl" 111· a11· di- 111'>i11"~ \\ lwn· do lht") n111·raio' '! 011 11 ha1 fo1111da1io11 doo ·- tho·ir I"""'' n·-1 ~ I} J·\111 or O\JI (·011ft1...,io1t 1·111111•..., from i"' fart that thi' ;.croup do1·, 11ot "I'"' al•· f '11 1~ r·u11-.titulio11al lint•:-. al all. Our "''al ron·iμn n·lation ...... 1arr \\ orJ ...... i11 1h1· "laio' llq1arlnll'11I. 1111d1·1 ilw rl11"' ·· lio11 of ilu· l'n·-id1 •11I. ,111d 11i1hi11 Ill<' polu·) fra111<'l1 ork laid rlo11" h1 I 011 · grt •:-. .... But th1· P\lra -lt ·μal fon·i;! ll poli1 ·\ mukin~ c ·on'.°"pira1 · ~ opt·ralt· .. all o\t•r llw Int. Like' a earu·p1 ~!To\\ i11~ '' ild. ii ia11ort""- all lhP n·-.ln1i11l .... i11h1 ·11·11! i11 a 1;,.,dlh). 11 .. ll.lrala111Td 01 μa11i,111. Thi, 4·ull1•1 ·li\i:--l 1110..whi1H'npc'l'ilft'-.. i1111;.11I. in lhl' S11111· J)qiarl11fl'11I: in par I. 111 1l1t· \\ lri11· 11011-1· :-.. 1Tl'la1 ial: in lho · -n1wr· ( .al1im·l af!t'rl<'il':-- of 11.il ional dt ·ft·11 ... t •. i11 ilu· l'on·ign Opernlion- \rl111i11i,11alinn. in lhl' ( I \ . B111 a •uh-lanli.d parl of ii 01wraft' .... out~idt· μo\t•r11nu·11t. It Illa\ ill' fo11nd in lhl' I""'"· i11 1h1· l"11li1·-. i11 tlu• collPμ«>:-.. in lal1or union .... in 1111 .. i­'""" in lh1' l nilPd \alion•. 'I lw im /t<lllanl poinl i, 1ha1 all lill' I""" of 1h1, polilil'al machi111 · ar" <'001di11a1 .. d. Tltt·\ oprra.ll• 'l:-- Ollt' from '-Olllt' cn11l rnl 111\\t'I \\t' l'a11110I :--t't'. WHO TO BLAME? \\ ,. ha11· lri"d lo hla111t· ou r pw-i do·nl'. llu· 'ilato• 1>1·1"1111111·111. Iii<' l"llll i11 JHH\t•r. for our fail11rp .... in f11n·i μ11 pulic' . 1 am t·on\ i111 ·t·d ''• .... hall tit'\ t•r lt'f 'Uμ11i11· tl11• Ol'IOf'll ... \\t ' li al\t' lo fiμhl 11111il 111• rl'alizt• it i, 11ot part of 1111' lo ·"alh •·-tahli-lu·rl "'"'''""'""I al all 1( i.... a 1t'\olutio11.:11; j1111l•1 . up1•r · 1ti11 ~ \\ithi11 our ~0\1·r1111w11I. and 1hnu1 uh our .!.!o\1 •r11111;·111. l1ul 1101 fo1 n111 μu\1·1n· 11H ·11I. 0111 C:o11 ... 1itutio11. or 0111 11alio11. \\ hal k1·1•p, 1hi- '"""'" i11 I"""''· n11d1·1 l)1•rn1wrali• · a11d 1111d1•1 l<q111ltli - """ adn1i11i,lrntio11' ·~ \\ 111 h:r' ii 111 •1•11 i111po,-ili l1• for lhro·o· p11·-id1·111- a11rl 111a11\ C.011!.!n• .... :--e .... lo clt·r11oli .... J1 ii '! Th.11 i-. a 1011 ~ . .... fol'\ '1111 it C"all lw -.11111 111ari11·d in thn~c· I' ·' pri · ....... un· !!Jo11p ... -Wide World Photo Senator Richard Russell I D· Go. l . cho irrron of the 1951 committee investigating the ouster of General MacArthur, loolcs at 'W'ol ­umes of transcript of testimony. -Wide World Photo Dean Acheson I" upa~a11rla a11rl wlf 11lw1 ''· hiμ- ... pi ·11di11μ I . ) 011 could a-~ 1111· 1111< 1lw1 lhi- ~rnup i- <"11lirl'h ( .0111111u11i-1 -di11 •rfrol. I doulrt rf 0111 1;rnltlo ·111 i- lhal -iml'lt" Thi­!.? ro11p ha .... \\t' k110\\ . i11d11tli ·d ( .ommu· 11i ... 1 pa1t~ uw111llt'1 ... and (.ummu11i ... 1 ""''Ill-. a11d lllil\ ,1ill ino l11d1· th1•111. II i11l'lt1d1 •, . 0< ·iali-1-. l'nll< ·•·li\ i-1 one· \\oddt•1 .... arnhi io11 .... 111di' icl11al"" ' rt't:'<h fnr ptnH·r. ,,jJli11μ i11 li111t• of lrndlt· to :1<l1a111-.· 1l ... 111-1•l1t•, al 1lu· "'!'''"''' of 1l11·ir <"01111ln. 11 i111·l11do•, lri1111111·r, and 1·nllal1nralor~ \\11<1 1 ... 1i .. 11• lh1 ·1 " ''" 11111~1 · do·•il- 11 ilh llll' 1111-1 ·111p11lo111-.. 11 ho 1hi11~ tl.t·\ can ,!!d \ult' ... or JHJ\\t'I 1>1 1·011 - 111 d- or pulrli,.i11 fro111 1h1· ( .011111111- ni-1- <11111 II •·11 1·.1-i a-ido· llu·ir 1t·mpl•-r-. It i1wl11do ·- llw i1111m,.11I and llll' -i111i'I ... mind, d 11ho Imo• Iii :! 11nrd- lhal l.1111· 110 m1 ·"" 11i11~. I do 1101 k '" 11hal 1111111111lio11 ol th1·-1 l" 'opl1• a ,. ( .n1111111111i-1-. lr111 I k11n11 fn 10·1lai11 lhal o'l<'lllhinμ tht •\ 1ln i- of lt0•11pfi1 lo \lo-rn11 ltt•r ·a1"'' i i·, rlir t•• ·lo·d I" \111-1·011. Thi· Sm il'I 11 ad1 •1» :rn· ilrl' 1110,1 -killf11I 1woplo· in lht 11orld lodt1\ i11 111<· "'"' pnl ilinil :111- of p1opa ­μ .. 11ula. l1rai11\q1 ... Jiin .!.!. 1·antc111fl,q.!t'. ;.uuf 11 hat I hall' r·allt·d "" olu1in11 t <1 ""''Ill· l·I~ lint·. \\ 1• \-an "'il\t' 0111 ... 1·h ..... '-l !!rt•al do ·al of tinw and thnuμhl if 111· n:ali11 011<• r:11'1. \, 1·011diliu1h a11· lnda1. Llw <'.01111111111i-1 11nrld n ·1ol111io11 11 iii <"Oil · lflll "'."~ u-1· all llw lri1- .11111 pi1 •1·1·, of rnll1·1·ll\ 1-111 0111 "- 11orlrli-111. n·nlrali-111. inle rnalionali-111 a11d all 1h ·ir 1arialion-. \0111· of 1 IH'm 11 ill j.,. lt< ·lpful lo "'· flu\\ an \\t ' μui11μ lo n•dn•-. .. llh· hnla111 ·1· and "i"' -1n·111!lh 1 1 1lw 1a,I 111ajo1 it~ of 1111<· \ 1111'1 in111, '" tho·1 1·:111 managt' their n\\11 μo\t•rr1nu·111'! · \\ P mu... ~i\4' 111• ou1 n·lia1w1· 011 l.-~ali-111. Till' pro-( 01111111111i-1. i1111 ·111alio11ali,1. l'ollo• .. li\ i-1 rnn•i"ll polio I II il!J ih f;11 . orili-111 for •'1<'1\lhinu \\1111 Ir !J,.lp- 11 11• -.;o,it'l l nion hJ' triumplH'd a!!ain and a!!'ain bt·1·au-1· or till' l'll<'l"P,\. intdli· !!t'n1·r. a111l d1 t1·r111ination of a ,,.If. dirr<·tpd di tr. \\'r fil!hl thi- a1h a1winp. .irm,· , .. ith ... talt·m1·111 ... promi ... t·:-.. }'JJH'f:-­ancl ·la"'· W1· "ill "'"''r \\in until "'' oppo>'t' the 1·olkt·ti\ i'l politi!'al faction "ith n·,,ol11t1• political a!'lion h\ nwn dt•lt'rminrrl to put \nwri<'a fir;I. ThP pro· \nwri1 ·an l!rllll(l "ithin our !!O\ prnm(•nl toda' j .... mun• 1u1mPro11 ... ahlrr. <tron!!t'r. mon· d1'\01t·d than tlw !'ollr<'li' i-t l!rn11p. It i- •uppnrtrd hy th1· \a-t hulk of till' \ntn- of hnth parti1·-. It- wpakn"'' j, that it j, tninp. to \\ill a drhatP 11ncln tlw rul1•, o.f \nwril'an political lifl'. It •houlrl lw fip.htilll! for 'ic-tory O\t'r oppont·nt• ''ho k110\\ no rulf"<. PRO-AMERICANS UNDER ATTACK \\'r mu-t kno\\ fir-t th1· 11111111'• or it'acler> of tht• pro· \nwri1·a11 l!ronp. Yn11 <'an find out \\ho l1·ad till' \ llwri1·a11 hrandt of our I\\ o-hPaolt·d 1!"' <'l'llnH·nt In tlw rtlf'mit•• th<'\ h,I\ t' n1arl1·. Tiu· left. "inl! pn·-- and tilt' n11lP1·ti' i•t 1·ollahora· tor• arr ah' aY. n·,11h to attad, '.--t••r•" tan- of n,.r,.;,, .. \\ii-on . Thn n·ntn mu.eh of tllt'ir fin• Oil \dmiral Ratlrord. 1"hru-hd11'\ . •1waJ,.i111! in H1·d ( hin•I la•l fall. 'iol1·11tl1 d1·nn111wl'd \dmiral i{a(Hord ancl hn;,.J,.1·1t·d him "ith tl11· -Wide World Photo Nikita Khrushchev during a speech In War­saw in March, 1945. Communi-t-hat1·d .'1·11atnr• l-..111J1' land anrl '1..C:artln. l•n't it •i!!nifirnnt that IPfl"' in!! \nini1 ·a11 rnl11;1111i•t• tod,11· folio" ,.,a.-th tlw li1w •poJ,.1·11 I; l\:hru-h.-ht'\ kt•t fall'~ 't 1111 n·nwmlH'r thi• hloc- did not 1·,ar·tl1 Iii,.<• la.- \rthur. Thry rl<·n<Hllll'<' tlw •1·1wtor - "hu •UJ" port tlw fr<'<' nation• of \,ia . Tiu'\ niti- 1·izt• Pn··i1k11t Fi-e11ho1\f·r i r lw dan·­t ·ooperatr '' ith il"1>11hli1 ·a11• th1·1 han· not n·comnlt'ndt'd. Th<' 1·oll1Tti1 i,1 pn·,, "''' 11111 11·t .tarl1·d to attud, 11<-rlu·rt I loO\ 1·r. Jr .. "ho i' no\\ 011r l 1uJpr,1·1·rl'lan· of Stair. but it b a rul1· of tlwir- 111'\ ,., 111 mil attention lo !!nod 1wopl1· on our •irlr until tlw~ ha\I' lo. \--i•ta11t ~1·1·rl'lary -Wide World Photo He rbert Hoover. Jr. nf :-.1 .. t1· lloh1 ·rl•n11 ha- 1·-1·ap .. d lh1·ir alla<'k for llH' ~:in11 n•a ... 1111. Toda\ prn \1111 ·ri1·.i11 offi1·ial, ha\I' 11ol 01w nu>nw11f-. "'l'f"\Jril\. Tlwv an· n>n•tanth 1111d1 1 all.wk.· mo-th '" mn\ t· .. tf;,., «annul ........ If \ ou 11~·t·d ~l hluq1rint or ho\\ till' 1·olll'<·ti\ i·t' kt'l'JI cla11!!1-ro11 ... ;.111ti-C .01111111111i ... 1 .. 11ndt·r f·o11- .. 1anl pn•-. ... 11n·. I "'11:,.!μP .. l \'IHI <mah 11 1lu· ... 1·ri1•-. of nl0\1·-. '' hid1 tlu·\· t'ltl· ploy1·d to dP•tnll 1•nator 'kf.arthy. from tlw da, in \\ l11 ·1·lin!!. \r1 ·-t \ 11· !!irtia. ,,Jw11 Ill' lotT do\\ll llw n1rtain of t·t·r1 ... or ... hip hidi11μ tlw C:onun111Ji ... 1.. . in 1111r :-.talt· ll1·pi1 rt nwnt. I tt·ll you j11-l ''"It a •11!.tl<'. rnn1pl1·'· JH'rft·t·th tinwcl. .. ('fTt'I campai~11 j.., aln·;.uh undt·r ''a' a2ai11~t llw men ,,i.n dan·d a1h i•1• tlw l'n·-id1·nt to n·,i-t tilt' ( hi111··• H1 ·11-. Tiii' •lrat1·!!1 i­'' ork1·d out alt(! hrnk<·n into -t•:I''· It ''ill ari'.'-t'. ·· ... ponlam·nu .... h ."' from tlll din·• tion•. It "ill h1· tTh<ll'd in all quar· t1·r- nf tlw \\1nld. Tlw "litll' .. i- alr""'h appan·11 t in th<· in,pin·d Briti'h pn·.­and that nf till' C:o11ti1wnt. From a \\t·ll-inrornwcl lt•ft-\, in:r n1a~a- 1i11l' I lt·arn !ht• ... haJH ' or t•omin~ t'\('111 .... On .. !' tlw l \ i, '"·II in tlw pirturt• lh" plan i· to "huild "I' l'll<>ttl!h prt·"un· t11 mak.- impt·1-ali\1· tlw μ1·11th· li<i11idatio11 of Chian!! 1-..ai··lw~ and tlw c·-tahli·h· m1·11t or. trtll' -··lf·l!l>\l'rttnll'nt for tit Formn-an• 1111rl1·r l \ tru-t1·1·,ftip." But. Ill\ fri1·11d•. th1· \ationaJi,ts art' not FOrmu ... an.... '-'t •H-μ-o\ 1 rnnwnl \\ill μi\t· tlw i•land to ih J'l'l"'ar inhahitant•. C:an \Ott ,,.,. tlw \atiu1wli-t ar111i1·•. dri\l·t; from l'ormo•an ,oil h1 a rll'mand for "111·utrnlit,.'' 11a1ulni11~ fikr a l!hn-t •trm\ ;tl11>ut th1· '"nld. '"' lu·lple" "' L1·1wrnl \ nd<'>•' \aliant l'oli-h fi~hti11° nwn'( \1·\t 111· ilrt' tnld "hindin):( mul tilat1·ral aun•1·nwnt' for tilt' rt'dnrtion of armuml'nl ... un· imlH'fltli\t•:' 'l'l1t'"''' a!!n·1•1111·nt- 11 ill hind u• hut not tl11 Com11111ni-t-. Fin,tlh 111· an· told, "Tht·n tlw !!a111hl1 · that tl11: l'n·-i•l<·11l ha, taJ,.en 11 ill. 'tart I'"' irw off. Tiu• ~n·at1·r hi' •1u..-1·.-. tlu• nwn liJ,.1·h hr i' to anptin· tlw fn·<'dom of a..tinn .Ill' 1w1·d• to I and I 111"''1' \nu lo nolt' I ... /J,•d /,;_, "'"'' lroulJ(.,,,,,,,. oir/1·,:· DESTRUCTION IN ACTION Tlw I.Jo< 1d1id1 intrnd• to dl'•trny tlw tnu• \nwrica11 .. in our μo\l'l'llllH'lll i• in ar·tinn. 1- th1•n· a hlnc to rll'f<'nd tlw tnu· \11wri1·an• and drin• out tlw H·1·rl'I i·rwmit•.., of 011r c-01111trv'? l an1 nnl liq!· illl! '011 tn lwlp our (ri<'mJ, in \-ia . I .1111 ur:.dn~ you lo Jffl'\ t'lll the 1111milit.tl· ill~' tlt•r1•at or llllr f"0111llrY :111cf l '\P I \• 1lti1t" it "'land ... for. . ) 011 a,k "ho ar1• the lead!'r• of th<' !'Oll1·r·ti\ i't J.lol''! \\'ho i- takin.!! \d11" .. 011\ pL:u·p lnday'! I 1·;,.tr1 μ11""'' hul I h'-n t' 110 h'μ-a l proof. ll1 ·1111·mlH'r. th1· pln·-icia11 rnnnot ]1<1\ ,. prnof tl1at hi, dia!!nn'i' i~ t·otTP<'t. I k 1-;111 ~l'I tlrilt onh from th" :111IOJl'l · ll11t I 1u111t to poi11t 0111 0111· siμ11ifi· <·:1111 fol'!. \\ 1• an· llf'\f"l' μ-oi11μ- lo ]ia\t ' IPt..wl proof al1n11I llw most da11μ-t•ro11-. l'lll'lllit•• of otrr l'UllltlrV. \\'p II ill 1111[ J.r ah IP 10 11 ..... '' h1.1t pro Or '' t' ha' I'. "ht·n tlH' ntlprit i, rfo•1· to tlw top. \ tton11" C!'twral Bnl\\rll'll and J. Etl!!ar Jlom1·r told th ho11 !' Ill rq1orb. on I J.1rn " hilt '. for ''"11npl1'. 11 t•n• •<·nt ln Pn·-i d1·nt Truman and hi, C:ahirH't offil't'r' ag-uin and a~ain. \\ ,. know Prt· ... id1·11I Truman and lri• lop l.ahin('t nwml11·r· oppo•1·d prnmotinμ' l[arry \Vhil1· lo thr l nkrrrat inrwl \lnnl'lan F111ld. i11 'i1•11 of his rt'l'Ord. Jltrt Jtr• "'as Jll'Oll10ll'd. \\ho 1·011ld t1 ·ll tlw 1'r .. ,id1•11t of tlr1· l 11i1t·d Stai<•• Ill' rn11•t promot1· a kno11 II Comrnuni't 1·ollahnrator? I lta\I' h1·1·11 told "ho 11 '" till' pn•on rt''l'o11sil1l•." l.11t I h""' •o far 110 proof. ~hall 111· ,1t ,md do 11nthi11:;!. 11111'11 II<'""''' politil'al proof that •01111' or our offi.-ial, ,,n -.(•llin" out our <·01111lr\'. mrn·h lit •<·;,.ttl'"·1' II(' ha\I' 110 affirlil\ it- or 11hat 11a- !-aid in tht ·ir ... 1•cn·I <·onft·n·11<·(·~ '? Orn· thin ~,,,. k110''· Tl11" Commu11i ... 1· \ 10 -Wide World ptio Assistant Secretary of State Walter II•~; ertsan ( left I and South Korean Pres id •~ Syngman Rhee met at Seoul in 1953. FACTS l'OJWM • 'E \\' ·, A111111sl. J9S.i .111d l Ult'll tlw , r1•1110\ tnarn k111< littl1· I \\'p II 1,, pn Tiu politir \\'p Ill from 11ho i nnnm Con•ti ,,.,. a \\ t' It i- l pol in \ mpri \ m1•ri \ mr·ri ''nlt·r : in tlw no g'O\(•rt I\. ' \a ti millio1 >ndt'p<' l-..or1 t0 fi~I 1·;111 I lrai11i 11 1ii ... }i 11 lh,.ir , C:an 'tatt· 1,,lrin~ ·•rm t \lg1· 11C"it f(J1t ... pi1 ••r s, 1 !!r1·u1 Ii Jt<1111·r lll'd ('f) •·u11 l1·n 11itlr h l.l'[lf•r I 1 ou·quirc lo l a11d Iii.\ 1110.'' N dr,tro) \Pr11nwnt ,.r1·1Hl 1iw lw >-<·crl'i not 11q!: 1 \-ia. I h11111iliat· d t'\f'f"\• r' or till' 1g- \dw· !al proof. not }uni' rn·.-1. lk 1top•). l' ~it!11iri· In ha11· an!.!Prou~ ill ;,ol 111· \I'. \\ ltt•fl '\ttor111'' r lloo\l·r 11 I larn to l'n--i ofri.-N' Pn·-id.-nl Jl11'111114'f" it<· lo t!H' in 'j,.,, molt•1I. 11 or th•' a k110,,11 H\I' J,et'll ·pon-ihh:· all "1• ,11 politi1"il ria l.... .:1rt i.,.,·a11·1 \\:.h !'-<lid Norld photo alter Rob' Preside,,, I . .111d tlll'ir n1llal111ralor, pu•h tlwir lll'•l ll11•n dr>-1· lo th1• lop. J,.., au-• that i­tlw •af1·-l plan· lo IH. \n Olli' nuild r1·1111n1 llr. John from Jij, jolt in C:,.1., llHtrl\ thoin.d1 nHn1· than 011t· pt•r .. 011 kn"" h,. 1111- di,lnrnl. \\ " 111a1 c:..t th1• littJ,. traitor• I" a-~emhling- l1·~ai' prooL "'I' ''ill 11t'\i·r ~l'L llu• hiμ 0111 ..... l''''"('t 111 pol it i1·,il 1·n1111l<'rnll<wk. Till' prn·l.n111n1L111i,1 all:wk 1111 our politif·al in .... 1it11tinr1..; i .. politi1·al .:H·lio11. \\ •· 11111•1 11•1• politi•·al <WI ion lo rt'lllO"' rrnm p11l1Ji,· lift' l'\1·r~ man fll \\fllHilll 11 ho i· lwhold .. n In tilt' Commn11i•l•. or 1·ommittt-d lo a !)hilo ... oph~ ali1·n to our Co11•til11tion. \\·, . .-annol "ail until "'' .,.,. a part' 1·ard. PUT U.S. INTERESTS FIRST \\" 11111•1 al><1 kno11 \ nwri•\1n polil'V. It j, all "'n "I'll lo k11011 Con111111ni•t poli1·). li11t iii, m<ir<• important In k110" \mrri<'n11 poli1·)-. WP 111u,1 kn,. a dl'ar \mPrif'an fort'il!n policy and n •·l1•;ir \ nwrinm military policy hdnn· l\I' 1·n1t•r an\ t'<>rdPrt'll<'t' \\ ith oth1·r 11ntio11i.; in tlw l ··11it1•d \ation• or oulsidr. Tllt'rr j, no harm i11 1·011rt• rri11 ~ '' ith fnn•iμ11 ~011·rnnw11l•. in,icle or out>id<' of th!' I \. '0 li>111! a• "r put \ 1111·ri.-a fir'!. \atinnali•t China ha, prrhap, half a million nll'll l'<l!!<'f to rii!hl ror llll'ir •11dl'fll'1ld1·n11•. ~on·a has 1·nu ra~eou" '.'-lolrlit·r~ n•ad, ill ri~ht Oil tJwir 01\ll >Oil. Jndorhina •·a11 pnnid1· othrr,. "ith \ nll'ri1·<111 lrui11inl!. \li nl!l'lhrr Fn·1· Ai;iu 1·an fu,. ni,h million• "r troop> t'al!"r to μ11urd th .. ir "·1·tor• nf th1· rro11lil'r or rn·l'do111 . Can '"' μ-uaran lt'<' that no 011P in 0111 latt• i)ppartnw11l or FO \ "ill han1 lri111! tlu· f1111d' Co111!r"" ha' 'ol1·d ln ·1rm tlu·m'! ( .an \\t' μ-11aranlt'l' lhal 1 l~1·11f'i1•.. or Otlf ~O\ t.•rnnlt'lll \\ jJI 1101 •·011.pin· lo und .. rminl' l.hian~ 1'ai-•l11·k '•r ."1n;!l11<111 Hh1·1· or \ 'il't11a111·! Ir tlll' ~r1\tl I 1ra i 11 ... ''ho Inn t• a ha 11dorn·d JH'\\ ... l1ap1·r 1\llrk for pontiri1·ati11~. >O" plan· 111·d f'ordu .... io11 or alla('k our p10- \ nwri 1 \lll h·ad1 ·r~. an• "t• n·ach lo 11u·t'I tlH'lll 11 ith ilt'llt·r 11t'"•Papn,. · lwllt ·r 11 rit1·1•. h1·tt1·r radio and k ll'\ ;, ion prow;1111,, or. -Wide World Photo Herbert Brownell ~·ArT. F'OHUM NEWS ... 111y11xl, /.?.S.5 -Wide World Photo J . Edgar Hoover as he testified November 17, 1953, that the FBI never approved any a9reement to keep Harry Dexter White in the government in 1948 but kept watching the suspected spy on President Truman's orders. Hoover appeared as a witness before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. ir IH'ft' ..... ary. hy minu·n~raph mad1iw· .. in ''"'r) hlock? 'Jh1• ( hi1ll'•I' (.111111111111i>l• ha11• >lMlt'd rour \\~lr ... in ..\ ... ia i11 tilt' 1a .. 1 ll·n \t'i.ll'~ "ith 1111 p1·11alh. Thi· llt·d Chi11r•<' kno" th1·1 1wt 1w"·r p111 d11" 11 tlw Chin!'••• on. 1h1• 111ai11la11d. 1d1i l1· th" Chin1•,1• 1111 Formo•a lr a11· an ;11·1111 . Th1·v will 111·11·r II(' ,-atisriNI "ith l1•ss than' lolnl d1 •,1 ruclio11 of that arnn. Thl'\ rnu,t d1-,.1101 tlw anni1·· of i:..orl'll ;111d or l11dod1i11a . Tl11·' rnunt 1111 tlw aid or llH·ir :-.upporlt'r:-. i11 our Cfltrllril~. ~upporl or 1111' arlllil', of Frl'C A-ia i- \ 1rll'ric-an polin. :h tit'•lnwtion 11f 1h1··•· arn1i1·• ;, l.ommuni'I policy. J'lw Cnmmu11i .... 1 n·μinw .. an· \\l\_1k and th1·i1 pt'opl1· n·lwlliou•. Th<' 011 1~ •ln·n~th thl') po'"''' i' till' r:wtion \\ilh· in tlw \11wri1·a11 l!ll1t'flllllt'11l 1diiC'h put• 1111· :-;mi1·1 l nion rir'l. \\ .. llllhl c1 .. a1 ri1»l "ith our Ol\11 dual "O\ 1·111 111t •11l . If '' 1' ''ill orμ-u11i1t• politi­f'al :.wt ion. to ~upport 1iu~ pro- \ nwrif'l.lll .. in 011r ,!!'O\t·n1mt·11t ~rnl in public Jirt .. tlw '"'rid rnnflicl "ill •non 111· o\l·r. \\ 1· <'illl \\ i11 lru1• Jll'llf'l' ror a ll till' "orld if "<' "ill μird n11r-1·l11·, tn d,·r<'at tlw l'lll'lll) \\ilhin. oflC'11 "'"'' t~ x1ru ,·opi(•o, for hum<· or offit.·P in onlPr 111111 frienfl .. 11 11d rlif'11h m ay ;il .. o r(•acl F \CTS FOIW:\1 'E\\ S If'"" ,.;.1o 11m1111i1it·, of F,\CTS FOHl'M NE\\~ ... n 1lu.11 ) Oii nrn) μi\(' }Our t.'u lle r .. u t'OP'· ord(•r 110" 111 l" )Jt.'4.'i:tl hulk rult."' of 15 n: ,u .. a t'OI)). Sr·f" ordt•r hl n n"- 0 11 l>ll l:I' :~?. What they're saying f -:i!=-='r - '~ -~ . I~ l .;t ;J ~r-y about FACTS FORUM \h thank ... lo \Ir. ll1· \ rmorul for hi .. n .. \it'\\ fftH/, F111um \,·u, Book H1·\i1·\\. \pril. )lfi,il 11( ··\\ hu 'p•·ak .. For \l,111 .. / I am !.!ratdul tu him for Iii .. fairrw .... a111I :.!PH Pro ... if\. I •·ould ,,j .. 11 that all n·,it•\\t'r ... \\ho diffrrf'fl '' ith lllt' on n•r tain point .. did ... o ''ith tlw ... am1· nm ... tnu·ti''' approa1·h. \oH\I \' (·Ill ... 1, ... Edit111 T/11• "'''''"''"). /lnit·u \1•\\ 'url... \ ,). I ''anl to ... in1·1·n·I' tlrnnk tlw 1!011or \\1111 "-t'nt nw Ftff1' F11r11m \1•1n. I ilidn't l..no" that "'u"h an infoi11w1iu· llnd 1ru1f1ful maμa­zilw f'\i-.1t•1I. •.. I .. 1i,1ll hn111l it on tu ... nn\I" Ollt' t•I .. ('. \lu ... S\\1 ~IH\\t.1 :lt~ H1•dlan1i-. !:>outl1 ( .ran,J I 11nc-tion. ( .olorad•• l thinJ.. \ oit an· duin~ ii μn·al "'4'T\ in· ffll our l'Otrnln and trn .. l \IHI \\ill 1·011 1111 111• tlll' jol.. . J\\tf• \ . Fn"~u . .111 .• ThR. Thll. \l1·1ropoli1nn \l1·11111fii .. ( uun<'il nf < lni .. 1 iun ( hurdw .. l:.!07 '\,.,, \\'illo" Road \11·111phi ... T1·1uw ..... ,.,. \Ian} 1im1· .. l\1• thutq!hl of \Hiti11~ )Oii. -.o lwre J!Ot''"· \\ ·,. 1·njo\ )Oii!" prnJ!ram .... I lopt' our .. 1atio11 d()(• .. 1101 di ... 1·a1d ii for ... hndo'' ... 111m1wr .... lwaut' ldnr ... or Enl!li .. h "quick) quark--.'' \111•. \I. F. I 111n Built'. \ lnntnna I ft>rl tliat Fad' Forum j.., 011t .. ta11din:,! in \mPrif'nni-.111 ... it n1wn .. up a t•l1•ur, rl1·a11 path. throu~h tlw 1·011fu-.i11J! nrn1.t• that .. o 111311\ of 11-. ;lrt• f'l1ff1·a\11rillj.t tn <'OJH' \\ith:· El.ll\HITll II'''" :l.'}5 'uuth ( .rnrrwrn Plan· Io .. \11j.!t'!1• ... ( alifornia t .on;!'r;.1tulatiu11-. on )otir firw and patrio1i1· rna~azirw. ""-ud1 ''ritin~ ... --ho11l(J lw .. prt>ad for and "idt· <I" an antid11t1· lo tlw failure .. of till' \nwriran pn• ...... I would likt• \t•n mu«h to haH• your mngazirH' for Lht' in 1h;. hi .. ton roiir._, ... l ''ill lu• kac·ltinj.!; tW\I )'Par. · En\\ '"11 P. Et 111.1' \\'1·'1 Bud1•n C:nll1·~·· \\ , .... , Ha.J1•11 ~prinμ-.. Indiana l am ~Lid to k110\\ tlw1 tlwn· 1•\1 .. t .. a mag· azirw \\hid1 ;!iH·-. 0 rt·al pil'!Un• of ilw \\flrfd situation of tnda~. P1 11 n Co1.01rn 1175 Ea•I JS Ith '1n•1•1 < ·1.·,c·lan1I JO. Ohi11 I thinJ.. H1111 11IJ!tllli1at1011 j .. HT\ \\orth· "hilt· a nil ,Jm· ... \l'I ~ tn111 h tu l..1·t•p \m1•rit·a inform1·d on important j ..... 111-.. uf 1h1· d~l\. 1 \\hulil lik'· In lwlp in tlti .. ''or~. · \111 f ll'OIR \ ... J111n C:olh~μ:,· Ho\ S27. \\ ilmort'. J.\.c·nttwJ.., Thi"' i~ to t1·ll you !lull I nt•\tT mi ...... \our fine radio pr11~n1m ....... ) 011 i..un•h do t1 ;_!rntl _inh a11d I htt\t' lold ull Ill\ fri1:11d.;, not to mi ... ~ your rnflio I prop;rams I.' ... Jt11t'\ l.. 'it U.I\ \'\ I ~t\ 'i. Jrffl'r•on :-1reet \l1l,,a11kt•1• :.?, \'°'i ... Nrn .. in Page i Dan Smoot /11il'rrit•11-., OH. l~ HED SCH\\ >\HZ 011 COEXISTENCE Orw 11£ toda,\ ron•1110 ... 1 a11thnriti1· ... flll f'Olllllllllli ... m. lh . ~n·d ~t · h\\arl. ht•lit'\l' .. thut "('1w\i .. h•r1t 't j ... 11\C'l'l'h tlw 1ornn-.ton1· 0£ .f"on11nu111 .. t 1·n111ftif' .. t. .. \ 111r1·ntl) 1111 hi ... fn1111h ''nrld lntun· tour. Dr. "'idrnu17 l1 •ft hi .. 1111"11i1 ·a l .pra1 ·· 1i1·1 in Il'-tT:th:t to ltt'lp "tamp out tlw ir ... jifi1111 ... 1·11111"n·lik1 .. pn·ad of 1·nmm11ni .. 111 .mil urn' 1lin·1·i-. 1h1• ( liri ... 1ian \11t1-f 11mm11ni .. m f ru .. arf1· "i1h ,., .... at \\ alnl110. lo\\<J. ,,. :'\llJOT: Dr. dnlilrt. it ,., ... m,. lo me that thr furi•i!!n polic·y of th1• l nitrd ..;tall·- thl" fon·i"ll poli!'i1•,. nf 'irtualh all of th!' · \~·('-h'~n p~1\t'r-. in faM i·­ha- ed on onr funilanwntal a,.,umption: namrh-. that in and throu:th thr l:nit••cJ. \ation; '"' """ a<'hi1·11· pt'al'..ful co­t•\. iste1H'l' and collPl'li11· '''ruril\ \\ ith tlw 'lo\i1·L Cnion. · \\·hat 1lo \ 011 think nf that "''ump· lion'? r rlainwil lo ha11· < i-•·m l'rt'd l H' la\\' inlwn·nl "ithin n1pitali-t -rn·il'l~. and that lhP •1·i1•11tifir· applil'alion of the·-•· la•" would Ira.! to an Ul'l"Urat1· pn:dic· lion of tlw futun• . Ju-: th "h<•11 \1·1\lon .Ji,.eowred tlw la" of μ'l'U\ it) it hl'l'nnw po,.-ihlP to pn•dil'l tlw futun· 11101«·mc·nt of tlw hea11•nh l1odir-. •o llttr\ claimed that 111· thl' di-l'o\f"I"\ of -l'ientifil' ,.orial­i- m it- \\U• po--ihli·· '" !..no\\ till" futun· of human '-lll'id1. lk..;. n·di1·1,.r) the ..in· 1·1itahlr. 1 iolC'nl O\l'rlhro\\ of l'a 1itali-t •0('1~( ~_.>LU,U ..... .u.;...:.:J.1!!.:!£!:!.!.'..!:.~~!!!..!.!!.!~~ fh1: icJ1 a of till imo; itahiJit I of 0111- muni-t l'01111u1·-t ha- f"'"•'«i throul!h 1ariou- pha-•·- hut h.:- 11111·r ill'•'ll di-· cant1·d for on1 nHJ'll1·nt. From 1850 lo 1900. tlw \tani-t' look \Ian -t·rrou.h and h..Jil'1t·d that th1· re1olu1ion \\Oulil l'Ollll' about a- thl' automati1· rr•ult of HHlu-triali1at1011. Th" old-fa,hionrd \Jar,i-t- u-1·d 111 do a -implt' mathemati· 1·ai '"lllll. Thi'\ "oulcl ta!..1· th!' number of inclu-trial 1•n.1pl1l\t'l'' in an) ~late and 1·011,.idn it a- a fral'lion of lhl' total pop· ulation. Thi,. fra!'lion l'lln•litutrd th" n·1 olutionan l'lll'ffi1·il'nt. .\• '0 n a~ thi,. fra1·tion re,idwd a !'l'rtain rnlur. a,. -ponlant·ou,.h a- \1a1"r hoil, at the ap· proprialt• t1·mpt·rnlun·. n·1 olution would 01·c·11r. l ntil lhi- point ''a' rea<'hed, it ''a ... impo ....... ihl .. to hrinl!'" 011 th(' ffl\ olu· tion. Onn· thi- point \la' reached, nothinl! l'l1tild -top it. Bc·lic•\ ing thi•. from 1850 to 1900 tilt' \lani-t- co1H·«·n· 1ral1·d on 1'1lcl1·u1 orill)! to impro1t· loeul t•c·onomi<' rondition' 11hilt· th1•1 "aitNI for tilt' n·1ol11tion lo 1·onw. . Jnto this m I .1·nin proj1·1·ti-«f 11110 tliP \ ar\I,. 1·orwq1t of im•\ it;ihilil) the role of tlw Lommuni-t Jl<llll "' llll' l'\l'<'Uti'r of th<' "ill of hi,tor~. In 1917 tlw till) ommuni,t 11a1t1 ca il'i'P 1o JO\\ Pr 1n Hu ...... 1a. 'I hl'Y t~ IHll\l'r in l 11· <'Oil 1 1·11 C'\ll«'l'lat.ion that tlw Hu--ian n·rnlution '' ould he tlll' 'par!.. that "ould inmwdialt'ly ignitr th•• )!t'n1·ral Jo:urnp1•au rnolutionnn ron· flai:-rat ion. l.Pnin him:-rlf madt' the -1a 11 •nll'nl. 111lr"onrp hut ma1w timr,. 11· -im ill' trul 1 i-. 1111]«>,. ,prmnnv ""'.,,.~..ll.l.': ...u!!.r!.!i!:·. .~ci"c l. Tn l 917 n n cl l tlw lloJ,Ji1•1i!..,. a11 ai trcl, fir,[ hourh. tlwn (l ,11 h . thl'll \\t•r!..ly. thr T·.nropr;n n 1 olution It did not romr. Thrrc \\t•rr •poradi1· onlhn·a!..-.. hut tht"<' \\t•n• all 1·,tinl!11i,lll'd. auil lhr infant Ru•-ian "'" it'l :-;01·ia Ji,t Hrpublil' was left to nr~anitl' i1 ... 0\\ 11 "-tlf\ j,·al ror \\ or]fl ('00- 'llll'•I. Tlll' third !'hanw· in till' conrqit of 1111·1 ituhilil} 1•nwrg1·cl. The .ommuni•I '"""fl"'"' of tlw "orld ''a~ to lw miu· i ... tl'n'<I thro11 1d1 thr ronsolida tion of •ociali•m '' ithin Hu"ia, thr !'ontrol of tlw 1·11tin· \\nrld Commuuist mo1pmr11I J,, tilt' Hn-siun Communi'l patl)', th<' oq.rnnization of national colonial re\ 0111· lion, in \ ,iu. and thr po,.tpon ml'nl of tl11• rn1ir1uf',.l of thr \I\ e,t till tlw ('Oil° •ummation of 1111· !'olonial rC'nilution• in tlw Ea-t. Tlw archit<'cl of thi. fin.11 prni::r:im 11 as . "talin. Tn hi• f'rnlifi.11" nf l .r11i11i,m. Jo•<'l'h - Wide World Phofot Peace monurr.ent erected by Russians in Budapest, Hun9ory, and dedicated to those who defended Budapest. Ri9ht, Hun9arion iJrrnY units hear address in Budapest. Hu9e pictures cteft to ri9ht) show Lenirt, Hungary's Matyas Ralcosi, and Stalin. FAC"TS FOT:l'M ~rnws, \ll!fll RI. I"·'· 'talin llous( "Fou1 th(' '1 rrad: "1!1 11rulf'r UH'rlr the p and ti in a ngain~ ine\il1 Thu 01tttlm w~ ~. I I 'tintW" I \\a' fr hack i in th( ran (' in the r11 Qi('\ (I ~ ni•t ai Firs of llie 1 <l'C ~ \ rJlPs: lun ) ~ T"o /() /J1• I l1•rt11n· ist l n• '"~n tonirn nlf:m1n' to~ ~ causr­flO\\ erf thr \\( <iouht •IP1rlo1 nnrJ l'O ,.,.,.r, l r1•a<"tio da. '"' and fo 1l1Jniim 'IH«•nth lo11g. j, ltu1!f!J. ln p ''ta~ '' t r.oninn "oriel 1 .1hun th ~ ~ J~ (),lt' FAC'T. ~.aan 1l'~ ns~ •I.ion that I be thr il!nitr the arr ron· iadr the ir time,,. Cennatl' ;;;-nm!. hourh. F:urope~n 1ere \\ t'rr \ll're aJI Ru--ian ~ ll'fl to orld ron· rnccpt of )mmuni-1 be miw lation of onlrol of no\rmrnl •arty, th•' a) rt'\Olt1· enwnt of th!' ron- ·rnlutiow thi fin,11 /orld Phofof irion ortf'l1 Stalin, Foreign Language PubJi,hing llow•r. '[o,cow, 195~. in the kctun•, ""foundations of Lcnini ·m." delin·r!'d lo the studl'nts at s,·erdlov ni\·er,ih. we read: nows. it 1s to tran~10r'm mmunisl "There ore l ie tau,c of communism has become a Powerful. iminriblc force throughout lhr world. There is not the lightest doubt that this force wi ll continue lo <lf'q•lop und :uhancr and will win final a11d c·on1pll'lt• 'iC'lory. De$pi lc this. ho\\· 1'\<-r. th<' ,1n•ngth of the international '"U<'lionary forct'' and of the c'ploiting da"r·s arc still mor<' f'O"<'rful than ours and for the tinw being arc still pre· 1lo111inanl in nwm· respN'ls. onsc· 'IUrntlv. "e shall hme to go through a 10111;. hitt1•r. !'in-uitous. and arduous ... lruggl<' lwfore we defeat them ." ln pa,,in:r. Wl' might note that thi 1>a, wrillt•n in 19:~9. At that point tllC' C:o111muni•1'' ac-knowledgecl that the free ~·orld \las fundanwnlally more po"erful 1(1an tlwi rs lot I · unrl "ao ~\·lung Jul\ e no" rrno1111ccd this 1< ca ~ 1!tro1pnlly lh1•\ proda 1rn. ""'f'lren• 1 · no iower in the \\Orie! that can ap· . t ~<~to m 1 •. l .. ir~ ~\'ll' .J.l.u-sw 1111d 11 rn111un1sl China. 01"' third quotation should di11d1 lilt' ~ Ar.T: F011UM E\\'S, :111111<.<I, 1115,, -Wide World Photo Mark Twain's picture was displayed as a " peace fighter" outside Bucharest University in Romania. i""'ll<'. It is taken from lntrrnationalisrn and \'otiona/ism. by Liu . hao-rhi. Thi' '"" "ritlcn in i\'ovcmb('r, 1918. on•<'· qut·ntly. it's a lilllc behind the Limes. Page 21.: "The liberated people,; already cxret•d onC"-fourlh of the population of the "Johe. This signifies a n·generalion of rhc· world and bear lc,limony lo the s«opc and Jc,·el that mankind has alr1•ndy allained in its struggle for emancipation. 1 ·ndouhtedly the number of the lihernlcd p oples from now on 11 ill irrow day by clay. It will not be lonir before the wholr of mankind will lw fn·cd from impl'riali-t clominalion. ~o nrnllrr what 5C"lhad,, the struggl<' may su>lain, its general trend LO\rnrd libnulion is an inevitable and irre. isl· ihlt> law of hi Lory." I.ilwratrd means conq1a·red. And Communist progn-.., hns hf'rn :Stich :;incc 1918 that the conqurml proplc now !'\C<'l'd one-third of the p pulation of the globe and not mcn•lv nc-fomth. To any hone ·L person. l hl'n' C'an be no douht that the Co111111u11iols believe that t her arc 011 th verge of lol1l worl I c·ouquC"Sl. And every move in their worlcl . lrategy is dedicated to this end. ~IOOT: Why arc the ommunisls so confident that they 11 ill r ntinu<' to 'uc· eeed in their progrnm of world on· que'l? c II\\' \llZ : Their confid,•nc·e :;prings not m!'rely from an c'aminalion of tlw e,i,ting forl'es operating in thl' world. not 1111•n·h· from the n•c·ord of inCTcdihJ,. ~u<·<·t·~s thltt the ommuni~t pro;.rram ha~ wrill1'n. hut from the \ 1•ry fu11dam<'1tlal b<•lids of cornnw11is111 itself. It is ln11 ihnl " 1'1·adi11g of the l'l'!'ord of ornrnu· nist progres would enlircl)' justify sul'h rn11 fidl't1l'C. To e111pha>il(• this. I \\Oulcl like lo n'peal the Lold figur<'s of om· mu11isl adrn11cc. 1 don't feel we can rq1('al them loo often. The dialectic is a r 1 1ll'u1hiloso1'.~· But wit m 1t t wn· an• <'<'rla1n funa· mental ideas ,·cry important lo any understanding of rom111uni>m. ·~ idea is the id!'a of progr1>•~-.flw din· lccl1c leach<":; !hat 11 ithin till' infinite \'a ricty of changt· throughout the uni· Ycrsc there i operatiH• a clirerti\e prin­ciple of progress, and this principle has chosen and ordained that they shall conquer the world. or thi they hm c no n•stige of doubt. The same forces that have ordained the rising of the• ;oun in the morning ha\c ordain!'d thr l.om­munisl ronqu<'>l of lhC' earth. Thi' second f1·al11n• of the dialt'l·tic co;;c:;;rns the patl111 ay of nrogrcss. The goal i- m•\er approached in a dirl'ct, p1·r5btenl, lraight line. It i not C\en approached in a c-ircuitous. winding pathway. The dialectic mod£..2L lll'.Df' rQ con>i b ot" a >-<·nt•s of a<h ances and re­treat . I· orward, ahnijira 1out-liJrii:-re. lrCat.' And through this forward-back­ward proces , the goal is ine\'ilably reached. Within the dialectic, <'Yen thoul!h heading a war from the goal. you are :;till fulfilling th<• scil'lltific lll<'lhod of approach. Therefore. the rl'\ erse m01 emC"nl musl be carried out "ith the snm<' ft'nor and determination as the adn1nct~ moYcmrnt. enin outli11t•s this clialecli jlrinci1lle · n 1is hook: on!' _sit· for.wiu:d..Ill 0...,,1.cps bar·. a ·in lo the• 1roces Q[ hammering in ..:LJJ.a.if"1t i- a \cry [QQ.lish m:111 who hring,._ the J wmm£! dQwn with n crn•hi.i.ig_ hlo11 and con­~- \~' hen tliaT ffiow as -pent itself. the entire direction of progn·;.s i• rc\C'r>t•cl and llH' goal is achie\'ed lhrou:rh a H·rit·s of hackward­forward motion•. Fn•qul'l1tly. we arc so foolish that "" 1·111leaYor lo d ·tC'rmine the goal of till' ( .u 111111u11i't' hy the pre­cise clirec·tion in "hirh tl1<•y are moYing at the moment. The technique of ad- Page 9 -Wide World Photo Factory and office workers were ordered to march in parade in Pr~gu e, Cz-echoslovakia. They carry drawings of Gottwald, Dimitrov, and Lenin. Sl9n says: "We build the republic and thus for peace we f ight." \a11n" mc.l\ \J.f\. hut tht.• Hoal n·main~ unalterahl~ anci' ali•ol11tr tlw inf'\ itabl!' Communi-t c·o11'1t1l'•t of tlw worlrl . .\n undN-tarulin!! of thi- fpatur!' of the dialrrtif' "ill -lwcl !!rPat li!!ht on the n•markaJ.h• about-turn• "O <'harnctcri,tic of rommuni.m and •o p1111linμ lo thl' •11p<'rfi1· ial oJ."·n <'r. , \IOO r: F.\(•rv tim1• a " lrrushdtt·\ rrplac-<'• a \Tal••r;ko\ ,.,,.n tin1<' tlwn• i" any pnu·ptii>ll' c·lwng-1' al all in per­ ·onnrl or p<1rl\ linl' amon!! the Com­muni- t- man\' nl•-•·nrr- in ,\ meriea •<'I'm to think. that tlw rhanμr rdlect" trouhl1· in tlw :"m i1·t l ' nion. and ><'em to think that khir l.omm11ni,.t policie. are tlwrdon• altl'rc·rl. ,ti!\\ \HI.: Thr third f1·at11r!' of thr clialr<"lic c·nrw1·rrh thl' acltr:il rlrnumic of prog-re''· In at!\' ph:N· of tHli anrr. the clniamir i• tlw c·onflid lll'l\\!'1'n two forrr- in oppo-ition. EH•rrlhinμ in .t'\· i•t1•nc·c• i• in11·rp1·1wtrat<'cl hy it. oppo· •ite. and C'\l'r\ fon·•· i' in ('Onflin "ith its oppo•in!! r'om-. \Yithin the cliulrctir. lhc pro!!rt'--i\'!' fort'!' is rall1·cl the "lhf'-i-": tlw r<'a!'lionan fon·1· i• culll'cl tlw "anlitlw-is"; and '1h1· ('Onfli!'t of th1·-i- ancl antitlw-i- d!'lr·rmint'' the rare 111rl clirr< lion of proμn·-.-. \11\\. '"' 1·om1· to thc· llt'arl of the clial1·ttir. Thi, rnnflic·t for a p<'riod n1·at1·- •In\\, g-radual dwn!!•'. llul in· C\itahly a nitif'al point i, ~!'adwd .• \t t~lis point ('(•rtain chan!!t'' lakP pla .. 1'. 1 he gr~ul.u_al d1an~<~ :rh t' ri'.'-<' to rapicl f'h{111gl'. J ht• tlw~is 11qrnl1"" Lil(' anli· th1»i-. In dial<•r'liC' jaq.:on, it is a trans­formation of qua11tilv into qu,tlity. a~d l~e t·rrn·q!l•nr·p of an cnlirdy Ile\\ dtrt'C'lton of proμn·" k111rn n as thr "s) nthe,i•." Th<·rl'fon·. at thc• !wart of proμrr- rherc Iii'• thi. ~y,tPm: thc•i•· antith1•,j,. l'onflil'l. l1·<Hlina to tlw rritiPal point. \\ ith thr rwμalion of thr anti­the:- i, II\ tlw tlw-i•. ancl tlw emrrμrnr·p of a qualiluti' Pl\' diff!'mtt ,.talc: th!' >ynthr•i•. · ·\- indic·ntrd. Karl llar\ "as a cT1 .. rnli'P of thP dinlrrlir. lfl' thou,!!hl dia· l<·r lir·alh·. ll i• •lnira11 wa•: 11aturr ach dialrr·liralh. l\11d 111• ana]\1.ed thr cro­nomir "'.,,;.m i11 li'rrn• or'thC' cliaki'li l'. Tli• rorir·lu•ion: \I ithin rnpilali•m \Ii' haw a Jlf'rfcPl manif1·•tatinn of thC' dia· l!'rtir. Ir i' thl' prng-rc. <in• thr•i• of lahor. l hl' workinll' r·la s. kno11 n a• tlw ~-in c·onflic'l 1dtllth!' rrartion­ar~ · antrflil'-is of O\l r11'r-hip of llw mran · of produc·tion. thP owning- rJa,, hl'in!! kno" n a• thr linttr,!!t'oi-i<'. Thl',.e tw~ da•<r'• art• in Jrn,i<'. irw-rapahlc conflif't Th!'rl' is no po•sihilitv of rommon inlC'r· C'•l or c·ollal1oralion !.Pt\\i'r·n thrm . '.[:her .il n• nt '\'Or KnrJ \larx thm5 <liscoycrr;l l~ar. S\TOOT: Ll'l nlf' ><'!' \\lwtlwr T folio" you. Jn ll'l'm• thnl I ran und!'r•tnnd. the prar·liral rr•ulr of all this is that Communi•b. lir ron'lanlh- ' · 1 a 1arl. cut it adrift from jj., lr·H l jtjon' t1ud1•rmjoc jt~ <'On· •cnLi.cw.al la•lr·- nnd mural•. and gl'n­~-- nc·1t•• •h·J.IC. ~ oul~f 1h;s1 , h-10 , '"'" hop" to IHiild \.\.._h ·11 11114 T!'!!ard a, il!C' pc rfert Socialist 'o<·iNv. ,,- 'r Ill\ \Ill: l ('•. liul it is inlc·n·-l;;" to note• that h.arl \Tan 1wn·r for ,~ monwnt r·on,irf,.n·d him•<'if to he the irt\l'lllor of lht' cb•s \I ar. The dass war j, a fact of lwin!!- C'\t'n as the• law of ,!!rtt\ ily is u fuft of h(•ing. ~ r·1u.1·n·d !)w ]0 11 o[ fHll' ilw !\ad \Jan di,l'm!'n·cl tlw <~ · - \\ hr·11 \1•\don di-1 O\ITl'cl tlu· la1' of «rm ity. rlw \\hole •!'i1·nr ·of a•lronomy took on nr\I lif!'. \\'hrn Karl \Tan di•· c·o\rrl'd the r·la" \\ar. hr lll'lil'H'<L arul llw C:ommuni l• haw• since• ronl1•ntle1l. that th<•\· \\f'r<' •ril'n lifi ralh- in a po•i­tion lo inlnprl'l thP inr\ ilahlc futurr patlr•m of r\ rnts. i,. ll'ar is tlwort'liralk lwlll'<'!' two ,. n~'f'~: I IP 1 "sif' a iro c·larial. ll owrH'r, hi•lory ha• utP< or t'~wh rfo,s an armf'cl \"i.lll:,!LWrd. For tlli' l>ourμroi,ir. it has prcn irlc·cl th!' nwdrnni•m of th!' stall': and fur tlw proll'larial. it has pro' idcd thc· da•s·<·on•C'irni,,. enliμ-ht1•m•d Communi•l party. Thus the ..!a-.s war manifr•l­it• l'lf n• '"" lwt\\1'!'11 the omn11111i•t party anrl th!' stat<'. ~- This \\ar is a fac·l of hrinμ ib1·lf. ll is in l'\i-.t<'rH'f' '!trite• indrprn<l<·nth of tlw \\ill of 11ha1<·,,.r political ll':11lr·r' m:I\ for 111<• moml'nt hold po\\t'1' on Pillwr sirlr'. t\11 Iha! ran \'nt') is th•· t!'d1niqt1<' hi 11hid1 llw \\ttr is op!'r<tl<'d Dinlf'r·tiC'all'. man) dirrrtions may l'.r tak1•11 by th!' Communi•ls. But llH' 11111· mat<' μoa l of \ ir·tory in tlris \\ar rr main utl<·rh unultrrahlt'. Tiii' ultim:tl< outrontl' of ihi~ war i• not in doubt. fl i- dd1·rminr·d ll\· thr for!'<'' of hi-,ton · It• 1·on,11mrnalion will lw rPad11•d :cl th• nilin1l point \I lwn• th!' proμn·--i' 1' tl11·-is of c·nmm11ni-m ullrrk O\l'rnlwhr•· 1111' rl'a< I ionan anl ith,.,.j, of \ 111 .. rirall impt•riali,rn a1id rlw ,, nllw•is of ""rid -cwiali•rn 11nd1•r 1111' r1f,.1a1<ir,..hip of 1h1' prol1•luriu ~ c·om1·s into bei11g. Tlw Communi"l" today. !'\<'l')'\l lH'rt' in tlw \\orld. prof;·,, 1l11•rnseh•·> lo 111• th" d<•\ otl'I'' of 111·:111'. 1'1·a<·c· j, 1 lw 11111-l 1·ommcrn \lord on tlwir lip•. In 1·\l·r1 !'ounln in 1lw 11orlcl tlwy opt'ntll' p!'<l'r front-. pt'ar·r r·om 1•11lion•. p!'a!'I' litl'r•1· l1trr'. For 1·\amplt·: II c· l'i<·di;e l'C'lll'<' I Fri1•11d,/iip lfook . : \IOOT: If th1· f.or11ntt111i-1,." '"''i1 dodritH' j, thnl '"'-lf i~ a ~tall' of J.eill~· Jul\\ can th<'\ fool annmi' \I ilh tlu•if pri'lr11,ions that tlwv 11.anl prac1·? Sc 111\ 11v: Tiu· Cornrn11ni>b do 1,nr>1 Jll'UC'!'. Tlwy an· ~c nuindy dedicarcd 1<1 JH'Ui ''" If a f1 ·n1•nt Communist \lt'fj lak•·n. μ-i' I'll :1 Iii• d!'leelor 11·,1. :Hl' a-kc•d: "Do \ 011 lo\ 1• p!'U!'<' 11 i th a II ) 1111r lll'arl ·r• 1111' lw d1 ·1i'l'l or \\Oulrl indir<tl•' hi, affir mati\I• a11•\1<·r \la• lhl' unrh·rl· l1·11μ-t·ahl1· f'Oll\ id ion of hi-.. mitlfl ;11111 h1•art. •l1·dir·1 Th1·y "J>c.;u. '!• liy pr .11 lal!' which must p,.a \\lwn ni-.m llf'tion 1lom. f·omm anrl !' •hip ( JH'an·. clc•clir·a 'land. 'ho,1•11 lhc·y a that I p1·an·f tak1· a fcrl hu ~i\1• ) loun th .. ·ar for ,., .t! u11~ a lhr fi1 lht· ac l'1 ·a1·1· • \!( Comm 11i1h a i'ats )" 'C: ll ~ il!-!.u!r l!lot\lhi li~ti;;' ~ Tlri, lll1111i ... 1 iJ!11<>rP1 1''1".'!"iu"l ct 1101 tak i11 thr Duri a doq, l•ital ir l1rou•+ his ff,,: .. ,f '"' Ir, kill linit• ,, '\If) fot I 101 lllrnt r lhry'rc lfc T 11 hilc J l •ai \tH1°!., II ,. r I 't>1 \Ian di-­rH ·cl. an<l ·onl1•11decl. n a po'"-i· 1lc fulun' ~]{' ~ .. has rn•· 'anrruard. "id~cl thr ano fur .idrcl thl' ommuni..,I manifr•l' ommuni~t primarih l \\ ilh 1h1· arial. 11'<1 ~1 ~II •o isiC' hn~ thr clirf'.-· ;ts. Thrn·· 1,.eH froni ~into l,,· o!lw Ji.1..U: ~I 1. a rl' al : it,-rlL II clr11Lh of ii lt'1ul1•r' lO\\('r ort ')' i' th1' Opt•ralt'IJ. may ill' the uhi wnr re· ulliin;ilt' doubt. II r hi,Lor\ wd at th• ·01Tft'._~j\I ,.,r,, ilf'hn­\ nwricUll or \\Oriti ip of 1h1 )"" here in lo 1 ... 11 11 ' till' nio-1 In ,.,rr' ·ate pcn1 r n· litl'r•1 f'N1('l' ·b' Jw:-ir of hl'in~· ith their ace? clo "nnl licatcd It' 1i:;l ,,erl' l(»l. :in11 1 all 11111' I i11di1"• 11' ,. urwh·d ni111I ;11iil lu·arl. Tlw Communisls an• !!<'n11i1wh :lt·dil'all'd lo JH'<H"I'. Tlwy Ji,1• for pr1w1·. flwy "ill "illin:!fr di1• for JWOl'f' "Pruf'1·" i• lllf'ir un•liak1·al1lt· "oal , 'IOOT: \\°hal on Parlh do till'\: nwan hy p1•ac'I'. lh<'n? · Ill\\ 1uz: \\'hat is pt'<ll't''!' \\'ar is a lalr or lwinir. \\"ar is lhal sil11alion 1d1id1 "'isls .• CJ 11hat is 1wa1·1·? \Vp must n•l11rn lo lhr diuf,·c·lil'. l'par·c• is llH' synlhP:..;.is \\ hic-h t llH'flrl'~ \dw11 tlw prn::!Tt'":--iYC' lhc"··is of tomrnu­nism ha• ulll'flv CJ\!'ndwlnwd llH' n•­af'lionan anlilht·-i' of lilwrl\". or fn'l'­dnm. and in an annihilal i1.11! 'il'lon •·ommnni•m has !'Oll({llt'n·d 1lw \\orld and 1·-talili,J11•d lhr 11ni1 Pr-al di..ialor­, Jiip of tlw prolrtarial. th1" 1·n•u1i111! P<'a"''· f.on-•·qu<'nlh. 11 ... ( .om1111111i-1-· d1·dil'alin11 lo fll'!H'I' is 1'<1'\' lo 111tcll'r­' lanrl .. i111'1' lhl'Y an· lhl' · hi•lori1·allr d10,pn parly lo ,:On'i1m111alt· this l"'!lf'(:. lhr} an· 1111· parl)' of p1•a1·1" E1NY 11C'I lhat lhl'I do I011anls this 1'1111 is a f11•a1·d11l act. Ir tlwv shoo! you. 1111•\ lakr a pt·iwl'ful μ-1111.' tl1t·1· put n 1wan·­f1_ il liulld in your warlik<· brain. thl'Y ~"" you a J•Paf'Pf11I dt·alh. and lh1·1 hury you in a pral'l'ful l!nl\I'. \\ lw;1 tlw a1mi1·· of tll(' Cnmmuni.·t Chinr••» for P'1tmplr. :uh an<'C with lanb anti Zun:-. anti homh="' and lnivorwt .... litt1·rin" lhr fi1•ld \\ ilh dracl. "liat is ii? It i·: lhr ad\ '1111'1' or ''"' fon·1·s of 11e·a1·t·. I' .... ,.,. is \\ ondf'rful. • 11001: l't•iwrful 1·01•,isl"""' 11 ilh c'.'lll1111111i-1s is likt• pra1·dul ('{)('' i'lt'llf't' IV1lh a hunf!l"I lif!rr. isn't ii'? Onn· ht· l'Uls }'Oll. you an• l10Lh al Jl!'!H'I'. 'll\l"IUZ: \\ lw1 \\(' i"llOr(' !ht' 1'!111· '"'its of tlw .o i 11 i>I m11H a1 ·1 t· . '" 11 ore' th"' u-1' and intc·rprl'l tht·nt lll....Qur t nu I IOllU s 'I .. . ) C'OIHl' 111· i!la11hi11!! .ind 1111· d1•lusio11al idiob dt·· IHllin!! !ht· h•wl of tlw diakni<' Cont· .!!l!!ni-1. Thi, c·on1·1·pl in tlw mind of thl' Com­~ llt111i-.b 1ha1 \\t' are at \\HI' nu111ol lu 1 ~non'(1 in a11\ -..iluation. It i~ u .. tnw 1'Hlay a~ 1·H·r· ii '"1s that ha' n m;.111 li.!lt1kcth. iu Li.>...hc·1 rt so is h1· · I 1 01·­'. tot lak1· lwo lo make a quarrl'I. i\11 iclt•a Ill t}ip mind or Oil(' is t'llOl lμ'h. l>uri11 ~ tl1t• wnr a~uinst ]npan, l 'Hts a_ do1 lor in !Ill' llris"111w C1·1wral IT is­l'llal in \11,lralia . Into 1h1• ho,pilal tl11•\ 1•~oui?ht a man "ho lolcl 11w lw had pul 1" f1nl!l'f tl1>1111 hi• throat to mak" him­•!')[ \omit IH'<«llN' llw) ank- \\l'fl' "ni11u 1'.1 kill him llri-lianl'. Au•lralia. at ti"~ 11 tnl' ""' thl' hl'adquarlt'r' of tht• i\1111•ri­" 1n fon'I'• for thr 1·onqu<'~l of Japan. l looJ..l'd al him 11 iLh >OlltC a>lo11i>h­~ Pnl n111l nskP<l. " lfow rlo you k11011 Py' re going lo kill you?" 1 1_1c Trpli1·d, "l saw them 11al1·lti11g 1111 11 nlc 1 ""' kn inμ- my di1111n." I •aid. ··\\II\ an• tlwy uoi11u lo J..ill \fJI) !., r r lit· 1q1li1·d. ··1 don"t J..1w11." I •1111uht for a rf'a•nn 1h:1I \\ntild al ;•\f'T: l'!ll:t''1 'E \\"1', ,,,_,,,,I. 1<1;,; 11·,1-1 pa1t1all~ 1•,plain hi- ,1ttilud1., ""ll.1- \~Hlr '~ iE1· hren runninμ- .around '' ith llw 't anb! ··Oh. 110. nothinl! liJ..e that." "Thry"r" not i:oinl! to kill you," I said. . hYP!-' lhr) nrC'.'' '' I know llwy'n• nol." " I J..now tlwy arl'." Il l• "a~n °l unμry. I fp \\ u~n "t \Piling-. 'houtinf!. sl'rraminμ-. I IP clicln"t haH' fif'n-1'. p•·rwlralin~ <')'<'s. 1!1• look1•cl a' !'-('11!->ihlc as tlw a\Pra~t· pl·r .. 011 \OU \\IHild med anpdwn•. \II that ;,a, '' ron.::r ''as a peniliar dt>lu-.ion.:tl ich•a that ill' had in his mind. in,i•lin!! that lilt' Yank' 111·n• μ-oin~ In J..ill him. I clia!!110,1·cl him '" u 11w111al c·a'" of paranoia and si·nl him do\\ n to tlw m1·111al 11i1rd. But 111• did nol appt'<tr n·all~ ill. 1 Ii• \\ ifr 1·an11• in. a11d ,Jw look him hom1'. A """k lal1•r he <'amt• lo Ill!' ho,pilal. ;wl'11111pani1·cl hY hi- 11 ifr. for a rerlifil'alt'. I -aid ''" him. ··1 hop1• you\!' irot lhal 'ill~ """"'It''' around from how•1· to how .. 1·. f!J\ ing 111-.·ad lo the huu'"" i\ ,.,_ ha11rllin!! the mon<'y. play in!! "ith tlw d1ildn•1;. ap­parrnth · qui le normal; hut >'l'rrclly p,-talili•hecl in hi, l'On>rious and unco1{­" ·ious mi11cl "'" !hi, id!'a that thr Yank> \\Tl"l' μoinμ- to J..ill him. Tlwir t•\ery aC'l hP i11lnpn•t1·1l in that lif!hl. .\ man 11111'1 prolrrl him-PIL 11 .. look a ,Jiotμ-1111. ,a111·d off 1111' l1arn•I. 'll""" off lhP >to!'k. aud l'arri1•d it around purely for ,,.Jf-proii'c·lio11. 111' 11alkt'<I into the puhlil' lmalon: ht· •a\\ tlw \11wrira11 offil'l'r: lw k11t•\\ hi, lift• '"'' in cla11!!1'r: ht• '11"'<111 lo tn·mhlt·: lw pullt'd out till' μun. •hnl him d .. ad. ancl ran for hi- Jjf,·. \ \\t·1-k la11·r ht' rt'· pPaLt•d 1lw •an11· pro1·1•,,, \\"hat he l1t•lit·\f·d li1·1·.im1· th" -our<·,• of hi, l'011du .. 1. hi- d1ara1'11·r. and hi­d .. -titl\. \t our pnil. 11t' 111ull'rt'''imalt• tht' '.°'"iμnific·aru·p of lite domi11nli11g idt'ib of tlw mind. It clid nnl 1aJ..t· 1110 lo 111ak1• a quarrel in thnl i11-l;1111·P. \ cl..Ju,ional id1•a in tJ11• mind of lh1• Olli' lllan WU' 1•11ou!!h to l1·ad lo 1111' d1»lrt11 lin11 of lhl' -Wide World Photo Peasant girls carry sickles in parade in Prague, Czechoslovakia. alio11l ill!' ) ank, Olli of \'Olli" 111i11cl."' 111· die! nol say a "ord. l le hun !! hi' lu•ad. i-mi lPd al my il!11(1nt11t't'. 1d1ill' hi. \\ ifl' said. "Oh. those Yank~. 111•\ dri,1·n 1111' mad :1hout tho"' 't anb." \ "l'l'k lat1·r an ,\ mrri!'an offil't'r 11Pnl into a pulilic la1alon in Qu1•t•n :itn·t·t. th<' main ,tn·t't of Brisban!'. a11d "'" >hot c!Pao "ith a •a1111-off ,holf!llll 11 i' a--aila11t r:tC'!'cl ""a). Till' pnlil'e pn»umNI 1ha1 1lu• criminal was a man lik1• unto 1lwm•1•l\l·s. I It- Jlllhl haH• hacl a moli\l' akin to th!' u•nal moli1<.'' for murd1·r. For !''11mplP. rolilll'n-. j1·alnusy. rt'l<'Of!l'. akoholil' fury. They im esti­!!. ll!'cl I'\ Pr}' '' ay Lhl'Y kn!'\\ how. Thn rnuld 11ol l!l'I om• 1'111('. \ """k la11·1-. in a -ul111rh ol llri-ha111· 1·all1•d \\ iJ,1on. anotllf'r \ 111l'ril'a11 o[fi­f't'I" "~i-. ~hol dt•ad \\ ith I It,. '.'ol.lllW :--awn· .,rr -hol!!u11. Thi' timt· 1h"' appn·· lll'11d1·d lhl' criminal. It \\,t• thi, 111.111 11 ho111 I had ln •alt•d i11 1111· l11"pital. JI,. "as on a hakt'r's d<'lh <'ry \'Un. going 1110 lllH1-p1·1·li11μ and \11•ll-i11IP1tlio11r,J \nwrican offi"""'· \ff' hm I' a l'"W\.L Jli!JaJlt:L It al po~il ion i 11 !lw world !ncl J.l -Il.ic..._.L.0111· llllllli:o-l:"i ht•Jj('\t' \\C <Jf(' al \\;ti'. J1C'Jj e\itl •T \~ jlJP •1! H ., ,. lht-> 1 • jp l"rpr..f "' 1•n· af'I '-~ \\Llf act. arnl 1h1•\ h ·u1• ;1nued tlwm. '"""' 1-ith 900 million tll'npl" and all tlu• lcchnjqur-. of modrrn ..,fi,.nc·p ·uul propaganda lo dt·~lnH u .. lwforr "t' J1•-lroy lhl'm. Thi•, an· 110J •lupjd; tht•\ arP in-.:ai1r. ::-\1011T: Thi' Con111w11i-1- ""an· nul 'lupid: thr\ an• in>atlf'!" Thal '''plain­" lot. llr. ~d111 arz. S111111nz: lhl'Y ,i111·t'r<'h ill'li1·"· thaL \nwrica i, dt'l<'n{1i1wd lo 1~1ili1ari)y l'o11- q11<'r tlw l'nlirl' \\Orld. This 1l11·m1; n11h likt• a 1Arai11 1hro111th tlw offi1·ial Llwo­rl'! il'al lit1•rnlu11• of all tlw ( .u1111111111i-1 a111horilit•-. . TaJ..l•. for l''<tm11lt•. /11J1 ·rnali111111/i.111 and \ alionalism. I>\ I iu Sh:10-d1i. Thl' (( untifltlf'(l 1111 Pua,1· fd} l'ai:e 11 Is Latin America I Going Communist? 1 Latin American authority Jim Bishop recently tou red Guatemala for f irsthand information ---c.heckin9 the events leadin9 to and the afte r-effects of a revolut ion against its Com· munist -directed governme nt. The executive ed itor of CATHOLIC DIGEST a r.d author of THE DAY LINCOLN WAS SHOT discusses t he sit uat ion with ANSWERS FOR AMERICANS pane lists: Professor Charles Hodges, professor of international politics at New York University ; William Buckley, Jr., ma:Jazine editor and America's youngest best-selling authori and George Hamilton Combs, network news commentator and former Demo· erotic Congressman. BURT: How does Latin America f it into the Soviet pattern for world conquest? B1 1101': I think that tlw "hole arc>a of lo\\l'r \\t'•lt•rn \ mt·ri1·a fits into the> So, iet 'dwmt· for ''oriel rnr111ur-l hl'­l'au- t· harrin~ an allu"k on llw l"niled "tale• it,!' If "hidr 11 oiild prt'ripilale a third \1orld \\Ur. I 1hi11k i1'- mrwh rasic>r lo l!l'l ti> rmhroilrd in our m1 n hark­\' ard: mul'h c>a,i1·1 lo If\ to fornrnl trouhl<' lo the south of u~. Canada i almost impo•sihlr lo lakl' mrr with communi•m. Thal !!'a\ l's you ilH• Hnalln countries lo lh1• south and 1·,1w<'ially the people ''ho do nol undl'r,tand com· muni .. m. For in-larwc>. in G11a11•nwl.r. I think I found 1lw k"' lo \\In thl'r<' ar<• '" man\· ommuni,l piirl\· ranlhold .. r-. The In'­dian- i11 th1· 'iliaμ'•'- found that they <'011ld nol f!O ln a put'hlo and go lo a danre or l.u1 a l>1·1·r unl1·-. thn· had a ommunisl. <'art!. \ml rl'l lhr1 °clidn't undc•r:;la.ncl c-omm1111i--m. So it ,; a. c·a ... ,· lo μ'i\c thrm a ran! fr""· not charg-~ lllf'm any f1•t• for il. and tl11·11 throw thrrn into jail if tlwy didn't ha\c a rar<I. Thal rnakt-s Con1111unisl party mrmlwr-. I !ODCE : '"' at:n·1· "ilh \Ir. rn,hop that Latin -\1rn•rim is tlw had. door lo llll' l "nil('(f "tali·-. It'• tlw lu-1 ,la!!!' in thP 11 orld pall1·rn of ll1•d to1111111•,l. We Page 12 arr fun·11 unw1l. a11d I think 11 r ,hould lakc> ad1•quall' ''''I'' lo prt'\1'111 a rJj,. a-t1·r. I think. it\ 'Pr~ import\111l to n·('nμ· ni11• ihat ilw lrand ha, J,1•1·11 lipp .. d for yt'ar-. I !!O lo ilw n.rlional lll'adquarl•·r­of 1111· C.omnwni-1 parl1. lal..1· a look al ilw litn.1l11n· 11 hidt i- a lip-off "' lo "hat i- rnmin;.! up. I 1hi11k 1h.1t I his i, the sif!n lhat 111.'11· in for lroulile pt·r­manrnlly in l.alin \11w1i1 ·a. BURT: Then you would say that the Soviet is making de finite atte mpts to infiltrate South Ame rica and lo do everything they can to st ir up Communist uprisi ngs? l!u11<.1s: I 11oulrl -ar ihal. I'd al-o likf' to poi111 0111 ll"rl 1111 a1TP--il1ilil\ of -1ralf'!.!i1 anrl nili ... rl rnal1·rial- lo llw l 'nilt'd "1al1•, in liml' of 11ar and for our t'\f'i.HHli11° c·t·n11om\ j .. imporlant. BURT: Mr. Combs, what is your analysis of Latin Ame rica? How does it fit into the Soviet pattern? Co\l llS: I -hnulrl s11 in lhrl'l' wars. lnitiallv it Iii- in \l'I; tirlilr "ith thl' O\l'r-all fHllll'fll of '' nrld · n·' olulion \\hidr >iill r!'main- ilw ohj1'f·ti\I· of tire Cnn11nuni,l parlv and till' Con111111ni'I philo-ophy. S1·1·nnrl h. it ha-. an almo'l laf'lir·al ""'"' in till' ultimal<' .'m il'l alll'mpl 1111 1111· I nil1·d IJI!·-. \ nrl third. it fib in 01•1u11l1n11·h 11ith 11,,. pn·-1·nt L'l'IJ11<J1lli1· cli-1"' ,rlion- in Lalin \nll·ril'.r, "ilh 1111• flO\l'rly of many of il> pC'opk· and 11 ilh ihP ,.,,.ial di-lurl>a111'1'' ""'' 1111n·-1 11 hi1 h ah1a1, pro\ irll· f<·rtik !!rOtlrHI ror ( ~omnu 111i ... l P\ploitation. I n·;di11• that tlu·n· an· ''"111• 11hn rl11 11ol -11li-rril>t· lo my thl'OI'\ ihal '1 h11n~n man i• a pol!'nlial dup<' of 1·on11111111i-n1. hrrl I s11g-g-1•,1 thal lhi' r· i.1 \4'1"\ -.1ro11~ r._wlor. irull't-d. lit f i>. I LI : \\..JI. an 1111-hun;!I') man i• al-11 a pot1·1tl ial rlrqw. BURT: Mr. Buckley, are you going alo"9 with Mr. Combs on thi s? llr < 1,1 1 1: ) "'· prdl) 1111wh "'·.' 1hi11k 111• 011,.frl lo 11·1111·mlll'r ihal La1111 \m,.1 i1·a 1,.,..,~ ,.,.,.,, """'id1·n·d '"'" of th•' n·al plurn' '" 1111' C:o11111111ni,1- for ,,.,11-· 111 fail. cl11ri11~ ilw l111•11li1·- I 11onld ''" thal 1111' ma jn1 C11111m1111i-1 l·fforl i11 il.11· ''orld. apart from Ct·rnH1n~. "a:-. 111 I.al in \n11 ·1 i1 .. 1. Tiu·\ '"' up II'\ ol11tionary ht•L11 lq11".r· ll'r• in \r"<'nlina and in \fr,irn and "' C:nlia. F11rt111r.111 ·h ill<' Latin Am!'1ici111• ""n~hl on lo th;. Comm1n1i,1' al 1hnl linw. and d11rin!! llH' l111"nlil'' ihn'(' "" lio11' n1tlla111'd, till' Communi>l parl) Thl'1t l.a1i11 i\nll'ri1·a IH't>t•1·dwd Frn11kli 11 lloo-<·11·!1 i11 ]<);\'l not lo r<'<'O;!nizl' th'[ Sm il'l l 11io11 a111l ~a 11 • him all J..ind'.j i11furrn~llio11 ,d1011l llli'ir l'\JH·ri1·1u·t• \\ tl 1 <"olllm1111i-.111 tlu· ... uJ1\1•r ... ion and th1' ll•l' of dipl11111ati1 Ju.,11lq11arlf'r' "' ·' FA TS FOIUJM NE\\'S, A111111-<I, 1!135 llll'Jll lh1· r 1>11 r·anu• 1111' , .. and 1 rroi11u ;"'" ·~ In J, I nio1 r " i11dir•n 'l"'IHI Prnpa l'f)llf111 1·n11• I it". .• nn C01 f'\h11n orrlr r "' 1111 \f'ft " "'ia. Ji, •·111 irr llu· ,1 1 llw n• ii-. n tlwm. applar hv hi• 'f11r-1i1 '1·riow n1" liorwd Cm fr11. h ff'f'og-1 1 r11a1j,. l;tki· " pr, .... ,.11 ,,llr , .. n1ui11t: f'fllold II, • O l;rirJ "' "''" 1'1 ll1 ( lhut " h11111i11 d'"o1"1': 1 ·. rt·li1p il!\\\\h \\p 1·01 flf 1111· l'rarrkl ff·,11011 If 1111·1 f Or rf'o •tr·,·1·clt·• BURT 10 wha1 !"'ccessf is there Latin A " ll)I Iha( II li1taJ I "'litnal 1111·111!11· \""·I 'n11·r .. t? on m­of ~s ork ng O· ts JlC'Opil'· n<T:o. and (' f('l"lik at ion. • 11ho de• lhal " clup•· ,,r ti thi- ,. ·y man i~ 1ing alo~9 1'11 .. o. I hat Lalin •11{' or 1hr ·or ,,.ar-· '""'" ,,,, >rt in di,. \\3~ ill a•adq11•1.r· ·o and '11 meric•lfl'" .; al th:11 thr<'<' nil ,t part)" Fra11l-h11 μ11i1.l' thf I-ind" of [' Ill '(' \I ilh and thl' ·r.... a- ~· nwa11' for 'Jlr"ading the party linr ancl lh1· rt ·•I of it. !luring till' thirlirs Lalin \mrri1·a 111·· 1·anw a \ l'ry important inslrnn11·nl of tlw popular front, as en·ryhocly know ... and no" Inda,· again lhi f<'rnw111 i­i: oin~ on. T heliPY~ lhal it,s UllfJlll'~lin11- nhh· ln11' that Lalin Amcrira co11ti11111•s lo hi' n t'hoi<'t' targt'L o[ the Sm il'I I 11io11. f 'aw •OlllC' Siati•lir' TN'l'llli\• lhai inclirnlr· that llw c O\ iet l'ninn a1 ·111alh­pt •11d' 111rn1• monP\' in it ... T.nlin \nwrif'a Prnpa~a ncl a c·ffort than ii clo1·' in an\· 1·011111n in tlw 11orld. This 11011lcl incli ­ral<' llH' {',l<'nl lo 11 hirh lhn lwlic•\ I' i1· .. an imporlant t1•rrilory lo h1· r o11·r1·1l. l.rt\Jns: I'm ah,.1p; enlhralll'd },, lhi .. "'h11111in!! of lhl' pa .. t. II is pc' rli111 ·111 nnh· for n11• lo point oul at lhi' linll' lh:tl al llw lim<' llw lair Presidl'nl lloo-1'­\ t•lt p-ra11lt•d rC'('O~niliOll lo ~O\ jpf n11..;­' ia. 111· rlicl so at Ilic insisl1·n1·e of 1111• 1•111 irr fi11a1wial c·ommunil\ of 1110,I of lhp .. 1:111·-ml'n in our C'Otn°1ln·. of all of llw r<' .. llllll.,ihl1• l111<in!':-s lraclPr' nr. l<'i lls ~a~ . a pn·pondt•ranl major ii\ nf llwm . This 11as a mow• so uuiH·rs1ll\· uppla111!Pcl nnd so hilaleralh ac ·c·c•p11 ·;I liy hi .. llq111blica11 oppocwnh thal thr '1<u·-1i1111 of 1111' wisdom of ii was 111·11·r •·rinwdy qu1•,.1ionecl al lhat 11101111'111. . Bt !Id.I:): It was very scriou,.ly qcl!'s· liocwcl. Cmrn : \\'di, it may hmc hr!'n Icy a f<'11. lint 111ny l say 1hat lhl' prohll'111 of r1•ro ~ 11ilio11 is, as you k11ow . n cliplo­lllalir d1·1 iC'r ancl that if hl' ncacl1· a 111is­lakc• hy "'l!'nding rccog11ili1111 llll'n th!' Jtr1• .. 1·111 Hqnil clican admi11i-1ra1in11 nf 'Jtlr 1 · 01111tr~ is n1akin ~ a mi ... 1;1k1· in tnaintai11i11 :.r tlwl n 'CO!!nilion "lw11 it '.'onld },,. n slrnkr of the 1wn 11 i1hclr;n1 II . . o lhis is not rnlirel\' a >in lo 111' l.1ic) onh al lh<' door of tl;e lomh of lhc '•lie· l'ra.nklin D. Hoose1·elt. ll1 "" 1.1 ' : I 11 ould lik!' to r-01111111•nl lha1 11h1•n \Ir. Comb. lalb nh11111 ,., . l111111in !! 1111' pm•I he Onf! hl lo n•c·o!!11i11• 1ha1. a .. Santayana put il, lho-1· 11 ho don 't rc·acl l1i,1ory are t'011dc•1111u·d lo r1•li11' ii. l\11d 1·1·rlai11ly hl' clrw-11'1 •.•c·I <111111l11 ·n · hy ,. i111pl) poinlin;; 0111 lli:li \\p 1·0111i1111t• lo rt' l'0"11ize lhe C'\i ... tl'llC 'f' '1f lh1· SO\ i1 ·L l nio~. <'rf!ll ii r .. lic·\l's I r.,11kli11 l: oo-1 •1!'11 of this parli 1·11l;1r ~··-p1111-ihili1' . \\ ,. musl n•n11•111hl'r that if lh"n' had h1·p11 a 1111i11·r-al 1·1.1111111 for n• c·o~ nilion, liooYer would IHJ\l' 'll'r1·clc ·cl lo it. t BURT: Professor Hodges, in your opinion, 0 what extent have the Communists been ~Uccessful in South America? In particular, t' t.here a possibility that recent uprisings in Gt1n Ame rica were Communist-inspired? 11011<.LS: 111 lhc fir t pbcr, I 1hink 1ha1 111• ,.houlcl note the fal't that lhc 1'Hnl Commuuist arclholclcrs \\C'IC ,. tintal<'d ut :l00.000 a ycar aμ'O. Tlw \ 11·111l11·r-hip has dropprd lo 200.000. 011. lhal i- rl1•r1·plin' l><•r·ati-<' ii nwan .. 1''11'n -hakin !! 0111 thr fdln11 tr;nl'lc ·r- -Wide World Photo Guatemalan Presid e nt Carlos Costillo Arrr.a s shown as ch ief of re bel forces during the rebe ll ion against the Latin American co untry 's Communist governme nt. 1111 " Olll'·l<Ht·n ratio. l Oii f!l'I rid or 011h 1111• 111•ak rwoplc. BURT: Mr. Bishop, to what extent are the Communists successful in the ir drive for ulti· mate conquest of South America or Latin America? llis1101•: I clo11·1 1hi11h. 1111·) tll(' H ' I)' ' "''1«• .. ,ful al all al 1111' nH111w111. 11111 I 1hi11k I aμ' rc·c· 11 ilh l'n· .. icl1·111 C:a-tillo ,\rmas 11ho lold nw lhal it is a f'l'l"· pd11al cla11 ~cr. It i .. 1101 a 1l1i11 ~ lo 111' juclμ1·d It) hn11 l1i ~ h 1111' illl'rn1111nl'l<'r i' toda) . Prc•,icl1·nl \ rma, poinlc·cl oul that <·0111111uni .. 111 took mrr C11at1·111ula \I ilh a tot al nwml11·r-hip or 2.500 011t of ~.000.000 rwoplt'. BURT: In other words, it doesn't take many of them to inflict a lot of damage 1 B1. 110P: All vou cwecl an• mrn in the kry posts nn<l 1\rlicnz, lhe fonner Com­m1111isl pre:-id<'nl, had men in key JIO>lS. I le had thc chief of police, the C'hief or >'<'l'rrt police, the minister of propa· !!an<la. 1J1(' minisler of the interior. the ~iini8ter of war, and the prc idcll(' Y· You don't need much more than thal. They took o,·cr the ministry of cdura­lion and found that thr,· roulcl rom·rrl l<'ar hrrs to commm1i'n; wi1ho111 mnk· in!! lhrm parly 1111•mh<'r> at all 111rrrly lw <rnding down dirPctin•s Sl\'ill!! thal from now on you 11 ill trnd1 1hi, hrancl of hi,.tor\'. and you l'ilhcr IC'al'h lhal brand of .history or you'n· out of a job. Bt' l'.KLEY: Prrsirl<'nl Armus lakl', lhr posilion that nny Lalin Anwrira11 rnuu- 1 r\' 1ha1 is face to fuC'c wilh a Commu­nist uprising ought Lo do sc\'Nal 1hings. On<'. of coursc. ii ought lo pay parl il'u· lar atlenlion to nerds of lhc populnlion in lhal pnrlirnlar country. An<l nl:'o ii ought to he rradr larli<·all,· lo rome hack at lhe Co11111111ni'1' nnd !'mploy larlic that are pnrliC'11iarly •uilahlr to "hntr1·rr lhc nature of I his uprising i<. h's a mailer of hiqorY lhal in Latin Amcrira the onfu,ion 'thnt ha5 e,i,ted a:-; to the mC'a.ning of ommunist con· spirary hns hindrr<'d lrenwndously lhe anli· on11nuni't cffort. II onc es: l ha n • hern >hock rd hy the 111alerial 11 hidt hns !wen !'oming to me from Cualemaln. inl'l11cling grim pie­lorial material of alrol'ili1'>;. l lhink lhat 11 <' now nllbt ma!..!' I his dc•a r lo the \ nwrit'an l'""I'"' thal lhc•,,, rq!inw, are murdl'rous from top lo hollom. ); that c·orrec·t? Jl1s110P: It's correct. I saw :ill of -Wide World Photo Communist de puties wave their hands In defiance of a measure removing all Communists from e le ctive posts in the Brazilian government. The measure, adopted In early 1948, came du ring one of the most turbulent leglslatlve sessions ever held In the South American country. lho-o· pidt1n·- ·111cl lirnt1d11 llwrn hack l\ilh ITH BURT: Why is it that the Communists seem to deli9ht in e nga ging in atrocities? ll1•;i1111': 11·- !!Ot>tl prnpa!!a111b. Ii fri2hll·n- 0·1 ern1110· o·l-1» C<nrns: \\ hal di,lt1rli- lilt' about Lhr Lalin Arnrrir·an ,ilt1alion and ahoul the po.;-ihili11 of imnwdiall' proμrf'ss of r·ommu11i ... m llwn· j.., lhP f'f'0110tl1ic dj..;,. location 1d1id1 "a' 1·\a1·1·rlia11·cl In· our "ithclra\\al of pt1r1 ha-inμ from tat in \nwri<·,1 ,1l lilt' 1·11d of tilt' "ar. lluri 11~ J }U' \\.._ff I }H'j r l'C'UllOlll\. j f not infl,1to-cl. ''a' al lo•a•l a pn·l11 >olicl rrnf' hrrau ... p tlw~· ''''fl' t•,porlin!! a !!rt'al clc•al lo 1111' l 11il1·cl -1.rlc·-. lmnwrliatt·h fnlln\\ inμ 1!11· o·ndin!! 11f thf' \\Ur f.ati.n \ nwrir·.._1 ,,.._1 .... -.1w11di11!! rnonn likr n clrnnko·n -ailnr hf'rt' in tilt' I nilr•rl "tal<--. I "a' tal!..in!! n·nnth lo 311 f'\('C'lllht• or OIH' of Otlr larμ.1• at1tornnl1il1• <·nmpanic·-. I le· lnld me· thal anY n11tonHil1il1· \u111ld l1rin~ ~f'\f'll or Pi!!hl thn11-<t111I d11llar- nn tlw markc·I cln\\ll llwrc·: 1h1·1 """Id I"" ridi1·t1lnt1- ... um ... for \nw1 if.an l!ood:->. \ .. a n·~uh 1h.-ir •·n~tlit ,,.._1 ... -.0011 r\hat1 ... lt'<I. Tlw 1·\hau-ti1111 of illl'ir l nih'<l. lalt·­c ·n·rlit rnc·anl 1h.11 1111 \\ holf' of thr Latin \m,.ric-.111 ,m·a \\ 1- almo-1 prn-tratt·cl 1·,·onnmkalh. ~11ul i11ln .. 111 Ii \ 1•n "'l'rio11 .. cli ... turhmwt..: i11 tlw p1·n11orni1· 1·1p1ilil1- rium lhP 1)l'rni1·io11 ... '' l'iμht .. of r·omm11- 11i-m ""uld lie· mn-t df1·di11·. It\ for that rra-011. pl11- llll' hrnarl1·11inp: of tlro Ira•!' of po--ililc· 1·01111·1-ion. that rm u·ry m1wh alarnwcl ah1111t it. BURT: What should the United States do to keep commu:.ism out of Latin America? B1s11nP: I think Iha I tlw ( .01111111111i-1- r·oulrl hml' t.1!..t·t1 01Pr Luah-mala if lh1·\ hacl rallc·d 1lwrn•1·l11·- 1111' C:norl Tim«-­llapJ" U11!1 It \\ oulcl haH· !wen that '"''' iH·r·ati-<' all thl'1 "oulrl haH' lo do i- go In tlw po11n·1 1t<·opl1· I and lhno• arr more• of tho-t• than tht'n' arc• of th!' riclwr p1·11plo· 1 anti "'~. ··\\" an· no\\ !!nin!! In ,,.,. that \OU !!t'l t•quitahll' ''U!!l'~- ) ou no lonμ-t:r an' f!Oing to make' . l .2S 1wr cla). \ ou'll mat..,. fi, ,. dollar> a rL11 ." t'lr-. That kind. of 1hi11μ. I Lhiu!.., could h;l\c' t'11li•ll'cl llw '"Jll""' of almo>l anr- 0111• \\hn ha.., 11u \.;,nn,,Jt·d~t· of ''hat f'om­llluni, m rt•all\ i-. Tlw lul>t·I i-11·1 im­portant. ) 1111 rnuld halt' .n!tl a hill of !!onrl• to th• 1w11pl1 011 that. BURT: Now thi s situation applies in Gua­temala, but would it apply in the Argentine? 111-,1101': \ c·-. rl '"'11lcl appl) almo-1 1·\1·rndwn· 1·l-1·. "' 0111111. mo-t of tho-I' p«oplc· ha11• a11 irlc·,1 th,;t '"' an· tlwii n1nd1·-1·1·11din!! "011-in•. a11rl I think that ilw pc·opl<' nr'th1• I nitf'd '-.talc·- \\ho li11• .il a 11·11·1 pt·rhap, lc·n tinu·- lriμh1·r in llw 'n.ilP of lh inμ thu11 lht• en i'rn~1· 'oulh \nwric·an and c .. 1111,tl \ nwrin111 -houlcl !!t'l 11111rc· or a n·ul l1ro1l11·1h f1·1·I· in!! of kin-hip to\\ .ml pc·oplo· i11. Latin .111d '-.oulh \n11·ri ... 1. ratl11·r ihan .. \\•' knn'\ '\hat· .. fw .. I for ~nu.'· ( 11\IH,. Ii i1nnh1·- mall\ d1·li1·a1·i1">. I mu-t admit for "" "ill lw diarμo·cl ~incr 1910, ,111cl tl11·r\1· hl'rn thr party ''ith i1111·nt·ntio11 Jl'!!.1rcll1· ..... of ''hat \\t' do. !1 -1·1·111- In 1111· 1lr-ol1111·h impl'rati"· that i11 Latin \ m1·1i1·a .i- in all of tilt' ;,.lrt'a"' or tlll' μlnlH" HI' tnll ... t n·r·ng11i11• lhal \ nw1 in111 d1·,1i111 dn1·, nol lit• in 'ce!..inμ to prc·,pnf' tlw ,[alu' C]UO \\l11·r1• th1· prc·•1·11I •il11alin11 i- 0111· \\hid1 mili­tal1_...., a!!uin .... t tll!' t•f·n1H)mir· and "o'·ial imprm;·m1·111 of tlw prnplc·. Tl11·n·ron· it ouμht In IH· nt·cp...,...,an .. 111d <·f·rlainh 0!1\ i01i.. '' j .. dnm for ti"' tu iclPnlif\ ntn-1•111·- ah'a"' 11i1h thci-t• fnrn·- 1d1id1 111·11· Ollf't' ndlc'll "ilw furn· .. of d1·mrn·rati1· 1T,ol11tinn.'" .\l ... u \\4' ... Jiould ...... odat1· nur .. 1·h1·-. 1·nHllion ,ell) and in g111 l'rllllll·nlal pol in \\ ith tlw ma--1·- of the 1wopl1• 11 ho an· 'l'f'kinμ In thrm' off \l'l'I 1111pl1-.1-a11l dir·tatnr­ ·hip- in n·rlain of 1110-1· I.al in \nwri1·a11 1·'1'f .. 111n. \11\\ lhn go thr1111d1 all nf 1h1· forlll' of clc•moc·ran .rncl th1·\· ha11' otlw1 pa1li1·, and 1111· 11·-1 of ii. Tho· !"""' 1- that thi .. pi.Ill~ ah,a~ ... ,,ju .. tlw 1•lt•1·tion~ and al11a\• "ill. llw poinl ahot1l Lalin \ 11wrin1 i- lhal "'' 11111-1n'1 hu11· 1hi, doctri11a in· 1'trn1·pr11 ahou t dc·111cu·rur·\ .:t"' 111· !..11111\ ii. The·-•· 1wnpll' clo11 ·1 ktH"' \\ llitl cl1·11101·1 a1·1 i-. Th") don't l''I"'' i· 0•111·1· ii. Thn don't purlif'11lurly want ii. \\ hat '"' m11•t do lo li"k Co111rn1111i-1- clo'' 11 tlwn· 1hi ... ''ill .. ound ,.,u .. j, 1• loul 1111· 111·-1 \\ill lo licl 1·01111111111i-111 irr l.ati11 \ 111t·rin1 i- lo lid., tlw ~"' i.-1 Inion. Lo1111111111i-111 \\ill lake· rnrl' of i1-,.lf in Lalin \ nwrira pro1idcd it i· not "norclinalc·rl lo1 a national party the "a' -Wide World Photos At left soldiers of the Obre9on Army " di9 in" durin9 Mexican Re volution. Yaqui India"' ( ri9ht) advance on Vera Cruz. from their perch atop freight train. 1·ountri1• .... i11 t·\1'1'\ \\d) .. ,.,.~l11μ lo lwlp ilw 1wnpl1· n-.ili11· 1hr·i1 01111 •1·1f-ful­fillmrnt "hie h, of n111r•f'. if not mm­pl\' l..!1 thro1tl1·rl .• 1t lc·a-t 1 l'rl ,..,.iothl) c·omprnmi'l'rl b) tilt' l) I"' of f1·uclal dirtator-hip "hid1 ni-1- in ma111· of llw-1· Lalin \ nwri1·an niunl1i .. -. BURT: Would this require financial aid on our part down there? Co1111-= II '"'uld n·1p1in· •11l1,1a111i,tl financ·iul aicl. adrnilh aclrnini>l!'l't'll. nol p-oinf! lo tlw rlidatnr• hut ri!!hl into lilt' l'l'On0111\ of I fro- 1·ot1nl I'\. II l1i..J1 \\lJltlrl rai .. r .. 1U11dard ... or Ii, inμ. BURT: Are you sayin9 that we should have a Marshall Plan 7 ( O\IH" Of rnur-1 '"' •hnuld. and a '1·ry ,., lt'1ukd 0111·. Bl< i-.1 f \: I 1hi11!.. 11 i- l'\lrc·nwh naiH· and <1·rt.ii11h i1ulir·at1·- that \ l r. ( omh• ha-11·1 'lllilc' do1lt' hi- hom«11or!.. 011 Latin \nw1i1·a. Till' -o-ntllc·d rc•\olu­tion- tlw la-I ,..,.;,., of rc·\olutinn' in Latin \ nw1 ira. 1d1i1 h \Ir. Com!" It-rm• ··t11·mo(·ral ir· r1'\ ul11t ion""·· .. i m pl\ 1·han!!1·d till' form of ~011·rnnwnt. 1 n faf't.. ii j, no le·.- ,1 didalor•hip 11011 than ii "a'. L1·t·, ta!..« \1 1•\irn a' a nl•l' i11 poinl. \ 11·,ir·o j, d11111i11a1t·d In a parl1 1>!1id1 1·,1·11 h..i ... th1· \\onl n·\ol11tio11 in ii. Par· I idu H1•\ nl1wio11ario I u ... t ilu.-ional. and thi- pa1 l11 t1l.1r l'·lll\ h.111 ii- la-t rc·1ol11· lion in i•J:W. I 1hi11!.. th,11 '"'' tht• to-nth ii j, loda\ 1ha11!..- lo th,. ~01 i..i l nion- 1 f \\I' nudd ooh μ-t'l our .. t'l\t''." a forcir!ll pnlic·) lwrc I hat llll'ant 1111-irw-- "i1h 11'/!.lld In lh1· "mid l nion. tllt'n ,,r 11011lrl11't ha'" lo '">rn '0 111111 h aJ.11111 ii in 1.atin \ nwric·a. ll o1u.1-= I think it'- H'r) imporl<llll for ""' lo rt·r·u:,!nin· that you\t• !!Ol tw1.l prold1·111•. 0111' i- ilw lonμ·tl'rm po-itio" of tlll' ma""'· \011 I think that n' Innμ "' 1111·1 an· 11ncl1·1f,.d mo'I of illl'lll arr Iii i11μ. 011 a !. '\()() lo 2.100 l'a loril' clicl '' i1 li o11t Ull\ di\t'r~ifit-atio11 ,\ h abnC·\ t'f '":ro. In in;r lo lwlp tl11·111 011 1lral· lha1· .. lo11 1 t lt•f!Jl a11d \\(;\r not lo 1110' 1' If Ilic kl). .- r Ii -1·1·111, lo 1111· llw ollwr 1hin" j, 1h:1I '011 cd1111ot pit k .rnd d1oo~e ~uitt· :1:0 ,,,. \\ot1ld \\ant to in rrμ-arcl to 1wopl( \\ho .. trc· oppo .. inμ f·nmn1uni .. 111. I tht•\ ·n· ··ag-i11·· ,·omrnu11i...,m ,\,:\I' μnl 111 \\OfJ.. \\ ilh ih1•111, \u\\ lilt' poi111 j, thal \\t' ha\I' ~·'1 lo !!1'1 \ nwri1·ur1 l111-.i111•:-; .. in tl1t·n• do· in~ mun· and 11un1·. and llw ru1111\ t h ill~ i- that ir 11111 had a \t ar.hall l't.11~· C.1·11rμ1· ll a111i l1011 C111nh,. ''"' rnt1 1cln 1 ll•c· ihc• n11111n \\ hid1 \ rlt l think \ oll 1·t1rl lbt' 111 nllwr \\111d .... I 'μu <.donμ ,;ilh v01 J h111 in 11·11·1-1'. \\ <' don't haH' to 'I'"'~' ~i!.!t111lil'all~. I 11 Ill\ opinion. our l.:1l1 11 \ 11wril'a11 rwidd1ur ... an· our hf' ... f 1wwh 11111- 111 1111' \\ hnl1· \\nrlrl. \1'': Till. II I harl 1 a111H Th i11g I 1 nito• \ Janu luu~h ,,,,_ " l 11it1 1:111 ti I h1 \at10 natirn \\I' \\Jiq ""'' I ~1μ0. ' \!adj, ''i.h n \\ho ... th .. ltt '>tat1·, \\ rolf' l11in- t 1011!...' "a f1·1·1 h 11h1·1l11 ·"'· a I 0111 f'f) lna 11 , hun1,11 llon11r th .. th k1-i1· ~·•11111 II). 11 ll11t ''llloti' •d \a l•ortan i111. r .• nr·ial l>f lhr• 11 ill fi ll11· \11i111 ll1fl111·1 'it111i1 111 t Ii \\ •'. I ~ \("J' lw party lw fo1111• ~t' olht•t point 1• •·lt·dio11• wt Latin "'"' thi­)(' 1"0('\' ...... n't kno" l l''JH'li · want it nmuni-t· .,a ... i\t' 1111i ... 111 in t' ~O\ i1·I of it.i·lf it is not th(' \\i_I\ "orld Photo• 1ui Indians •I l nio11 a fnrt'iμn t':--:-- \\itli th1·n "t .-h "'""'' mporia111 ~ :.rot '''t1 JIChiliOrl t a-.. Ionμ tlwm :trl' lorit· di<'1 hut-o<''"r Oii ti1'11· lo rno'I' I~ j ... thHl quilt' a' I) pt•opk ii,m. If \C' _!!OI 111 Jta\t' μe1I tlwn· do 111\ 1hi11~ <11t1'O lii"c'l1"1"'I , \Oil ('till ,;ith yo'j Lo ... pt' 1 ~\ our Lulll .... , nci!!h· /)an Smoot lJi w'll."i.'U'."i the UN \ t' 11 I I do )"Oil thinJ.. o[ till' Cliarlt'r o[ f 1lir· l nil<'<i \ ation»r * * * * Lt~1,s <·on .. idt'"r the to11i · from l\\O oppu ... il<' point ... of 'ic"-thi-; ti mt• l:tki11j? fir..,f the arl-!'llflH'UI .. or "0111t' ''ho <lo not lila• th<" l '"i. T1111.n. ,. ,[rn11f! intliration that ·\l ::rl'r Iii-- and \lolotm actually 11rolt' tlw ( harl<'r of the• l nilt·cl \ation•. But thi­e nnnol lw pro11·11. 1'111·r<' is"' id1·111 ·t• that thP hil!h ·>Ollllli inf! pn•amhl1· lo thr Charl1·r of tlw l nitPd \ations llll• 11rilt1·n h1 llmilri \ldnuil-J..i. 0111· of till' Sm id. l nion·, l1111~lw-t llol·h•·1 ik rt'\ 01111 io11ari1·•. 11 ho li.1- loe·e·n a ""' il'l rqirt·•<·nlal ill' in till' l 111te·cl \ .1li1111• 1•1t·r -in1 ·1• il ''"' "'l up. 11111 thi- 1·,11111111 I•<' prol!·n C'itlwr. lhe e·\,wl author,hip of tlw l nit1·d .. ltio11:-. ( .lia1tt•r i .... in foci. an inh·r· national 1111 -11·n. \\ 1• .\nwri1·an"' today J..no11 ""lflh ''"'• \\roll' nur C:on'-litution in 17B7. 0111> liurnln·d and ~l\n.'nly·!"C'\t'll year~ ·•~o. \\ t' J..11011 it \\Us 11 rillen hy Janws \ladi-011 . \\ e• kno" c•1 rry chan~P that ''"' mad1· in \ladi~on's ori::rinal drur1. \\ho "it1!!~t· ... t1·d tlw dwn~t·. and ,,}ty, ll11t the· l11••l n•,.•nn·h brain-. in th\' l nitt·d li!lc-• ha11• lw1·n 1111alolP lo find out 1d10 1•rott• tlw Charte•r of ill!' l nil1'd \a­l1ori-.. IPtl ,t•ars a~o. u, Id'~ di .... mi"!-> thi ... ~idt· j ... '.'lt1t·. r....i· ... lo11k ut tlw tlornmrnt i1'1·1f from a p1·1· re·1·th ue·ul ral point of 1 ie" to ,,.,. 1• l11 ·tl11·1 11111 1atificatio11 of thi-. d1arle·1 a. <I I rc·all has hc'<'n l!Ood or had [or hllr e·o11nlr1. ~ e111 11 ill [ind in thi, e harte·r 11111111 hiμh ·•oundin.~ platit11d1·, ulioul l1unwn '"·If,..-,. and l'q11alit1 and r1·0 ll11111ie· ju-tie·•'. And if you simph n·ad th1• thinμ- lo\i11μly. ht·~i1111i11~ ,,j1'1 1111' l1a-i1· a--umplion that it 11as 11 rill!'n h1 ~heul 111·opl1· "ho 11 anted to lwlp human 111. 11111 1·a11nol lwlp }wing tal..l'n in. llnt if 11111 "ill maJ..r a nitiral. un· e·1noti1mal 1-ornpari-011 h!'IW!'!'n thl' l 'nil· "" \ ation• Charlrr aud two other im i"lrtant 1 lw1 t1·r- of f!Oll'flllll!'n t nanwlv. 1}11. ron-lilulioll of tiH' l 'niou of .'OI id oe·i,tli-t H"l111hli"' and lht· Cnn-titulion eif th .. l 11it1·d ..,lal1·- of \n11•1i"a 1 ern ''ill rind .. fllllt' ... 1artli11μ- thin μ~. PR EA MBLES A MIABLY AMBLE '1111·11· '"'' n1a111 ph"'''" iu tlil' l nil•·d \11i1111, ( il<llil'I 1d1if'i1 \\!'II' nil\ irHhil •11fl111·111 e·d h1 the• lan!_(UaJ!I' of 1111' (.oil· 'itution of I.ill' l nilt•tl ~late·· tlw 11·11 111 -l li111· of the• prl'amhlt· f111 t'\,llllfde:: \\ ''. th1· p•·oplc• of the L'nit!'d \alion.,_" I· Af'T: FOltl'~I '-:f:\\'S. l11 y11xl. /!I.; 1 Charter l1Uu1ur1111011111 I \fll 11 \\"""" "" \l'f"li ,,,' ''Ill("If' '"~, -United Pren Photo Th<\rt• art• llli.HI\ .... 1ale11w111 .... j11 1Jij .. llnilt'ci \ation . (h;llll'r 1d1it'h appt'ai lo tlw 11,1rm-lwartcdn•'" and <>p1·11ha11cl1·cl ~t·n1·ro,i ty 11 hif'h dol'• i11d1·t•d dwradl'r· i1r \nwrin111:-.. Then• n1T uwnY ~tall'· nwnls in here about hr111 e•1 ;.r) hod) ou~ht lo havt• pt•ac<\ plt•nl 1. and pro>· p1·r1ty. And. ol c·our"" l'll'I 1 >1•n,ihle \nwric-an 11ould liJ..,. to f1•1·I that 1•1c·n Jll'l''"n 11n earth rnultl ad1i1•11· lilt's; 11011d1·rful l'1HI-. Hut 1•hl'n 1011 μ!'l lw­hind th<' nin• •l'nlinwnb and namirn· tlw phiJo,oph) of ::ro11·rnnwnt 111 ilh-11 into thi~ diarll'r of tilt' l nil!•d \atiun-. mu 11 ill find that il i• tal..t·n t•ntir!'h From 1h1 Con .. titutiou o[ the 01il'l l nion. Till' l1a,ir American philo,oph) of ;.:m 1·r11nw11l is not rl'nel'll'cl nt ni11 point nr in Hiii li11e• of thr l lnil!'d Nations Charle'1" '1'111• philo,ophy of l(Oll'l'llnH'11t 11 rillt•n i11lo th<' l\111l'rin1n Co11•lil11tion i-. that fll'Opit' d<•ri1t' tlwir 1il!hl, from <.od thal J!Oicrnnwnt tlw1..fm1• rn11,1 l1 ·a11' thl'm alont' and take no1w of tlwir riJ!hls a11ay from thrm. -.o that lhe·1 11 ill lw fn·t> as incli1 iclual- lo pur-ue for th1•111..;1•l11·•. 111uln Cod. 1h1·i1 01111 idt'ak Tlw philo,oplir or J!OIC'l"lllllc'lll \\rilll'n into tllf• Con,lil11IH1n of tlu• ..;Ill il'l l nion ancl into till' ( harlt•r or 1h1• l nitt•d \ation" 11·j1•1·1- tlw id1>;1 of di, irn· po'' t•r in l111ma11 affair ... and im· plit•s that all ri μ-hb and pri1 ill'J!I'' c·on11· rrom /!ll lC'l'llllH'lll. \1111 , hoth tin• Con­• lit111 io11 o[ th .. Su1i('[ l 11iu11 and tlw Chart<'r or the l nitt•d l\ati111i- an· filll'd 11 ith ,1a11·1111·111- about all of tl11• riJ!hl,, pri\ ilq!t' ... and malt'rial goo d~ that 1wu pl1• 01l"ht Lo ha11'. llol h of lhe••t' dorn · rnrnl; th•• Chart1•r of tl1t• 1·nil1•d \ation- .111cl the· Con•titution of tlw "°' il'l l 11i1111 hold that μ011·rnnw11I -lwuld !'i11· the· 1wnple ,,, ni.111~ riμ-ht> and pri\ ih·!.!1· ... a11d mat1•rial J.11• ...... in~:-0 3'"­~ o\f•r11nw11t nm afford. MISTAKEN "TA KEN IN" The Charl1·1 of 1111• l nitl'd \11tion, is a Soc·iali-t drw11nw111 or po lit ii· al or· ~ani1alion. ju-I "' 1h1 ( .011.titutinn of th<', 01 it'L l 11io11 i,. In tin· l \ rhart•·r. tlwrr ] ... 1·11n11oh hi 0 h-... 011111li11" ... t•11tinw11l lo 1•11lrnnn· th" μ-ullilolc· anti 1~1i-1aJ..1·!l. Hut th1· philo•ophie·· nf !!C11t·rnm1·11t in tht• l \ Charll'T and i11 lh1 ""' ie·t Con•liluliou an• id!'nlie·.rl. Thr Amni1·an !lotion- of i111li1 idual­i:-- m: or limited. llt'~alhti !.!0\1·111mt>nl: and of tlw cli1 iiw and i11ali1•11ahl1· ri!!hl­of hun1an liPinμ-!"> arp 111'\t·r t'\Pll ~tiμ· f!l»led iu th•· Cha1IPr o[ th1· l 11i1<•d \ations. 111 ral't. till' l \ Chu111·r do•·­not C\"!'ll prl'lPncl In ,land for fn·1·do111. IL stand.- ror fll'•IC'e· '""' pll'lll). /!llil\"an· tl'<'d hr I!"' 1·rn1111·111: and it ><11-riri1·e·­rrl'edom In thl'•e' llHllPriali,lit· !!oal, 11 hid1 :::;el!'iali,i- .111el Co1111111111i•I~ J.1·· lir,-e that μ:o\ 1·rr1mc11l can ~1llain. Thi> lwlp- lo ,.,,il,1in a 'l<lle•nwnt onn· made hy Charle•, \laliJ... dl'i!'f!all' to th1· l nill'd \atio11, frnrn I e•hanon. \t c1111· tinlt'. \Ir. \h1liJ.. 11;1' lu·ad of tlw l nit .. cl \atious Jlurnan Hiμ-hl• Co11nni-•i1111. I le ..;aid that all of the· c11 li1 iti .. , of tlw l \ ag1•11ry fl .. \t•alt>d a ( .nrnm 11ni'.'lt oril·11t~1- tion and n10ti1 at ion 1•11·11. 111i11d 1 ou. tho,1• a('li1 itie. 'upporll'ci and 'fl"n"~rl'd hy 11on-Com111u11i,1 or \\ '1» 11•111 d<'lt•"a t1·-. That is not hard lo nnde·r,1;11"{ For pe•9pll' 11orkinμ- in tlw l nitl'd l\atio1i-. 11ithin the fram~11ork nr tlw l"\ Chart1·r. tl11•rt• i- onh 0111' philo•opl11 of f!Olt'rn· 1111·111 1d1ie h t''111 le·μilimall'l1 nrirntate tlwi1 thinkin~. the "oe iali,t phil1H1pl11. 111·1"""' that i- tlw 1111h philo,opl11 1Hi0 l­te ·n i nlo lhe l \ Charlt•r. He·mt·mhi-r that tlw l \ l111111a11 Hi .,ht­(. ornmi»ion 1d1id1 ChaiJ,., \laliJ.. ~'a' tulJ..in!! about i" th1• l \ a!!t'11n 11 hi1·h \lr-. Hoo>t·1cll pn·,id1·d ;"''' a Ion" timl' the al!!'nry 1d1it'h dn·" up th~ l \ Declaration or lluman Hi::rht" Ir y OU want lo [ind for \ 011r,1•lr till· 111i,L:1kahle 1•1 ide•nn· that till' l nil NI \ation" j, ;.t C:omm1111i~1 t·o11-..piratorinl pint to impo"' tilt' ~111 il'I •1 -11'111 of J!01. e•rn111t•111 on tilt' 1d10lt· '""ltl. ""1111inr the· oriμ-ina] •Oun·,., y our,df. ,!'I a t'Opy or tlw \.01i-titution of tlw m il'l l 11io11.and i-ompare Chapll'T '\ of that l.n1htitulio11 \\ ith the Cnilrd \at ion- dnnonwnt rall1·d tlw ··t nit••d \ation- lle·1hration of llumun Hi!!l11-:· Th« l 11i1t•d \ation ... D1·daration of ll11111a11 Hiμht- j, a for­mal -tat1·n11•11t 111acl1• 111 tilt' (;powrnl A~ · ,,·mhh of lhl' l nil!'d \atie111' in 1918 anti proc-luinwd lo lhl' \\Oriel 1·1t•r •inc< as ll'fll"l'•l'lllin!! tl1t• kind or ~0\!'rlllll!'lll 1d1i..J1 all nation' 'hould slri11• to a..J1i1·11" This l nitt·d !\a1io11-. ll1•dara­lin11 of lluman Hidlls i- a -tall'llH·nl or l "nitl'd \.ition' id1•al-. It ha- Jw .. n hroadt'a,1 thro11!!ho111 1111• \lorltl. pulo- "· -United Pren Photo U.S. Secretary of State Stettinius presented the first draft of the "world security charter .. in San Franc isco in June, 1945. Seated ore Alger Hiss Cleft l and Andrei Gromyko. li•h!'d in millions of !'Opi<•,. and giYen "id!' frt·(• di-lrihution O\l'r the ('arlh for the purpo-P of "'lling thr slandard- 1he !!Oal lo\\ a rd "hid1 all nations -houl;I ;otriH'. \II nation, "hid1 cndor'c this l'nill'd Nation, D<·daralion of Hu· man Highls say hy tlwir cnclor:;cm nt that if th1•ir institutions and sysll'm of govcrnmrnt do not ('Onform lo thr ideals proclaimed in thi d1• ·la ration, they will striYe to alter thrir institutions and vs­trm to make tlwm <·onform. '\011. this d!'daration is not lq:(ally binding on any nalion. incl' it \\Us formally proclaimed in 19-13. l '\'E. .0. pri' al<· oq~aniza­tion•. and the l 'nilt•d Stat<·, gowrnmrnt ha\I' madP inl<'n,i\!• propaganda rffort to pop11lari1r it to !'Ondition thr minds of the Am!'ric·an pPopl(• lo a!'cepl ulti­mat!' I)' a lrraty "hid1 will incorporate lh!'sc idrals and "hid1 will then be lcirnlly hinding on us. In other wonk lhr Pnitt•d talcs gov­ernment has cndorsi·cl lhP ( nilccl Na­tion• Drclaralion of Human Rights and, in rndorsing il. has mu.Ir n promise lo the world that it "ill lry lo hring its inslilution, up lo th<' idPal hnr pro· daimt·d. LH'r sin!'!' thi• dt•<·laralion \las written and prodainwd in 1918. the prople "ho "rol1• it haH' lwrn pn•paring the treaty to impl1•m<'nl it. This trPaty is called the CO\t'nant on lluman Rights. COVENANT TO SUPPLANT CONSTITUTION? The Co,cnant on lluman Right wa completed sen·ral yrnr ago, approved by the Truman admini>lration, and sent lo the Gnited lalPs !'nalc for ratifica· lion. The enatr l11nH'cl the thin" down becau~e il wa' afraid of it; but the C°'·enanl is till wandering around in Page 16 the du,ly c·alat'o11tb, of inlcrnalional burl'aucrac·). and "ill Uf!'Uin come before the <·nalc of the l 'nited Lal(' for rat­ifiralion. If th' , i·nall• !'\Cr rntifie, this o\enanl 11. a tn•al). lhl'11 this clocu· mr11t will l11•t·o1111· tla· Co11'lil11lion of the l 'nill'd Stal1·s i11sll'ad of the Conslitu· lion 11<• no" hm•· """au'e treaties can U('romu 1lw supn·nw la11 of our land. O\crriding 011r Con-lilulio11. LN" lake a look al it. En•ry year our Pn·,ident prodaim · a special l \ J)p('laralion of II 11111an Right­Day. calling upon the .\mcrican people to pay homa::1· lo thi' clon1m1•nl. It is quit(• 1·onn•i\ a lilt• that "ome day this donunenl. hy llll' treaty procrss. may supplant I or al l1•a,t liN·omL' a part of) our O\\ n ~on-.1i111tinn. UN-USSR DOCUMENTS MESH Lcl' al lea l gla11!·c al it. Article 2:~ of tl11• l nilC'd 'a1io11s Dec· laralion of ll11ma11 Hights: ··1·:,erYonc has thr ri!!hl lo 1\0rk ... and lo ,:C')ual pay for eC')11al work." Artidc l IB of lhr onslilulion of the o,·i!'l l'nion: •· .ili1<·n- of tlU' l" R ha,·e the right lo "or!.. ... and pa) menl for lh!'ir 11nrl.. i11 a1·(·ordancc with its quanlil) and quality." ..\nol!U'r datN' of 1\rti C"lc 23 of the l'nilc•d ;\alion' lkdaralion of ll11man Rights: "fanyom• has lh<• right lo form and lo join lradr unions." Artide 126. Co1Hitution of the ov· iet Union: " itizens of the C H are insured th right lo unit ... in trade unions." Arli<·le 21 of thr l 'nilrd '.\'ation Dec­laration of lluman Hiμ-hb: "E\'eryone has the right lo n·-l nnd l1•isure." Artic-11• 119 of LIH' Constitution of the . O\ icl I 'nion: "Ci1i1Pns of the I S. R hm1· lht• right lo n·,t and lei•ure." Tfw,e nn• jusl sample,. Co111parl' thi' l 'nitrd \at ions Declaralio11 of I luman Righh \1 ilh Chapll'r X of thr Conslilu· lion of th1· Sm i<'l I '11ion . Thry arr idl'n· li<'al in philo,ophy, and the l'nil1·d \n· I iorhi l><•darul ion of llurnan H ii::hls io. in ma11r in>la11<·<·s. a dir<'tl lift from the OYi!'l Con,lilulion. If Llw l nilt•d \alions l111n·<111<'l'nls e\'Cr g!'l this l '1iil<·d \ation DPdaralion of 11 uman Highls iuC'Orporatl'd i11to a treaty 1d1id1 our !!O\ernrnenl U('('t'pl» the l 11il<'d Siall•, al that point ''ill no long1•r IW\l' tlw old Con-1it11tio11 1hal il ,.larl(•d 0111 11i1h in 1789. It 11ill ha\<' ha•i<'alll' th<• C:on,lilulion of ilw l nio11 of • O\.i<·l S1wiali•l HPp11hlic·>. Thal·, an ea,iPr and ,li!'~N \la)' of d<•,lro) inf( Anwrirn than ln in f( lo do it II\ for('C of arms or l'\l'n iull'rnal su ln·cn;ion. Yo11 <·a1111ol diH11is., this hy saying. ''\Ve il, ilrnl sound,; had. hut it \\011ld lll'\c•r happl'n lo 11,. lll'eause our go'" rrnnwnl 11111ild11°l 1wrmil it." Our gon·rnnw11l. al our c·xp<'11,r, prinl<•d and di-1rili1111•cl thi, parlinilnr l'rlitio11 of ilw l \ lltodarali o11 of ll umun High ts. This pamphlPL "a> puhli,hed by the F1•dnal Oflir·r of Edu<·ation as a hand· hook for l<'aC"hrrs. Orll' i11,lrnelio11 to trachers i hrrc 011 page 21: " \ lake a list of the minimum cro· nomic, oociul. and (' ullural ri!!hls to 1d1id1 the otud!'nls in your school ha\I' a righl if !heir diμ-11ily as a p<>rson is 10 he pr<'•!'r\!•d and if their prrsonalitir:; arc lo d1·,1·lop fn·l'ly." \'i 'lw1h1•1 tlw gcl\n11111en l offi!'ials "ho distrih11l<•d this p:unphl<•l al your "'Jll'nH' realize it or 11ol. they are her!' in,1rncl· ing the puhlir d1ool tt•acht•r, of A11wr· icn in the ll'chniqm•, of Co111mu11i,.L pro· paganda lo Ill' u>t•d on your children i11 your schools. Hutifi calion of thr l ;:-; hurter a a treaty \\US onc of tlw mo;;l hurri<'d· thou f( hll<•ss, and da11gerous acls in 1hr history of the l nilcd StalPs S<· 11 al<" The Senators may lhink lh<') de"•n<' a rai'c l111t 11ol for that kind of p<'r­f orn1nnl·c. A f •w more sud1 ael' ns that "ill conH'rl th!' \nwrican Hepublic into u O\ ict rrpu hlic. • • * * * Thul wni; one !'i<lc. The other s ide wi ll couu• nexl . Lt·t' ... <li .. cu..,~ the llN Charier from the point of ' iew o{ th o.;ic w l10 liloc the * * * * * T11 E U11il<'d al ions hurler reprc~cnl' the most worlhwhilc and promising clTort cn•r made hy mun to s1•c·11n· the blessings of fll01u·c n11d pro,pcrily for all the p<'opl<•s of all the nations of thr world. Thr de<·p·f1•1l IH'!'ds and inlrntion• FACTS FORUM NEWS, August, J955 ...._ Sign it dent Tri Below, I •hid1 i •·d Nat a1nbl<· f'runci; •1nlilc " \\'c lions. .,, nt·rat 11 hir·h I 111110Id firm fa 111 th('' Ju-r ... 011. \\cHnt·n 'lid to i11.ti1·c· <tri~ inrr •if int~1 ·ll1d 10 l1•r ~Ian .. \11d 11JC·p .:in 1•1otl11·r '1ur stri 1~·~1·p a lhp 3('('( lit11tio1 .hull 11< 10lt·re-t. •ond1i1H f·c·n11orn 11ellpl1•,;, "Ila, lo arcoi r,ur rt·~ r.1'Jlr1· ... c·1 ,~11 Fra ljll fl<l\I n of lh!' e 1 ·s. H ian· thb lluman :on>tilu· 1r« id<'n· ill'd \a· ights is. from the t•o..nlC'rah ·Iara! ion I into a a1Tl'Jlll>. \\ill no II !hat ii .ill hme 1· l nion That·, ·:-.troyin~ hv fo1Tl' .ion. say inμ~ t would )Uf go\'· cxpcn~c. arlil'ular · l111111an I hy 1hc a hand· h<'rC on um cco· if(hts to ool lune ;on is to onalitico ials "ho C"'\pt·11~t· in'.'>lrud· 1f Anwr· 11i,1 pro· children tcr as r:t hurried. s in 1hr c·nall', clt\'.'>('f\l' of prr· hat "ill ; into o ·r side · from 0 /i/.c ·present; ·omising cure tfrr rity for s of tfrr 1.•I, J955 -United Press Photos Signing of the UN Charter-Above, Presi­dent Truman witnesses signing by Stettinius. Below, Gromyko signs for U.S.S.R. 11hid1 in-pin•d 1h1· founclinf! of till' l nil· •·d \ations arl' prodaiml'd in tlw pre· amJ,fp of the Chartc·r signed at San rranci ('0 Oil Junr 26. 1915. The pn·· Jn1hle reads: , "\\'c tire Pt·oplcs of the l ' nitl•d \a. hon.. clt·lrrmincd to sa1·<' surrredinf! ~•·nl'rntions from lhe srnurg1· of "ar. hid1 l\\ in· in our lift'linw has l1ro11ght 11r1tolcl 'nrro11 to mankind. and lo n•af· ~itrn fuilh in frnulamrntal human right'. 111 till' clip;11it1 ancl worlh of lhl' human l11•r,on. in tlw l'CJ11al rip;hl' of nwn and 11 onw11 and of nalion~ larf!I' and small. •11d to c•,tahli,Jt l'onditions 1111d1•r 1>hid1 i11~1i1·1• and n''fHTI for 1111' ohlif!al ion' ;tri~in~ from tn•at jp~ a11d otlu·r ~011n·p:-- 11f intr•rnalional h11, q111 f,.. 111aintui11t'd. ;111d lo promolP 1.;,of'ial proμT<'"'~ and l1t'I· 1•·r slandards of lif<' in larf!t'r freedom. " \ nd for llw-1· ('lld• lo 1•rndin• lnll'1 · '11Jrp and fh,, toirt·thPr in !H'i.l('l' '' ith oru· l1101h('r a-. ;.rood n('iμhbor .... and to 1111itt· ' 111r sln•n!.'lh lo mai11tai11 inln11alional Pta,·1• a11d •1'<·uritr. and lo 1·n,un•. h1 1h.'' a .. n•ptanc" of j1rirH'ipll'~ and thl' i1;. htution of n11·1hnck that arnwd forn· hull not h1• u•l'd. '<II<' in tlw 1·0111n11111 'lllr·r<',l. and to employ i11l1'rnatio1wl ltlar·hincry for the promotion of tlu• ' 1·0110111ir u11d ,orial ad,·anC'l'llH'nl of all fl~opft·., ··11a\'l' r"'ol\l·d lo combine our 1•fTorb lo Urcomplish these aims. Ac('ordin~l y, '•11r rt'"-pt.•cli\t' Go,enu1wnh. tliro11μ-h '•·ptl'•1·11tati1"' a,-,('mhled in llw l'ily of fan Fran.-i,,.o. 1dw haw c·,hiliill'd 1h1·ir 1•11 pmq•r, found tn fol' i11 μ-ood and rlut· ~·>\<'Ts FOHt:M :\EW~. !111111 <1, u1.; .1 form. ha.-e a~rcl'd to the prl',l'llt Chart1·r of tlH' t •nited '\ations and do lwrrll\ <'~lalili~h an intrrnational or!!anizatio;1 to he known as the lnilrd \ations.' ' P1·rha11' you \·r IH'Y<'r heard. or n·ad. this preamble to the l 'nilPrl 1\ations Charl1·r. Bui doe"1'l it ound sonl<'ll hat familiar lo you? 11 should. 11 i, pal· IPrn<•d aflrr. and i11 p;n•al nwii-urt• par· all1·k the prl'aml1h· In llw Conslil11lion of the Gnitt'll tail's of nwrica. Th<' cnlirc l nitl'd \atior" Charl<•r. in fan. i a t"~ntieth C'l'nlun l'\f>Tl'"ion of thr 1 cry principlr$ Pmliodied in our own Constitution. Thr CharlPr nwrely 'fll'lls out, \\ itlr mon· clarity and in mon• 'fl<·<'ifir lanl!· nagr. tlw rights. pril ilr~<''· nnrl clu1i1·, ,lf1id1 p!'opl1• in a frt•<· snrirl) arC' I'll· ti1lrd to. Tlw rights of ma11 are' prndaim,..J in tlu· charlC'rs of go\l•rrunenl of many nations. But ii remainPd for lhr l nit!'rl Nations lo enlist the rooprration of rrp· n-s1•11tnti1r' from all nation> in tfrp form· nlution of a slatrnwnl of prirwipll» 1d1irh propo><'s a r·omn11111 slarularcl of achit'H'nwnl for all pl'Opll's. "A MORE PERFECT UNION" American ha1C' nol ad1i1·n·cl prrfrc· lion in ~01ernmcnt. hut \\!' han• hrt'n working toward "a more fll'rfrrt union'' sine gon•rnmcnl hc~an undl'r our ,on· 'lit
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