—Wide World Photo
A UN observer (right) in Jerusalem as
he watched for violations of the UN truce
between Jews and Arabs. With him is an
material could he- allocated to .serve the
peaceful pursuits of mankind, il was a
ceill to mobilize experts in the application of atomic energy to the needs ol
agriculture, medicine, and other peaceful activities.
One of its primary functions would be
to furnish adequate electrical energy in
those areas of the world which arc desperately starved for power. And it proclaimed the intention of the I nited
States to dedicate ils strength to serving
the needs of mankind. It offered the possibility of demonstrating to the peoples
of the world thai the greal powers were'.
after all, intensely concerned with human
aspirations rather than producing implements of warfare'. Man's greatest fear
could become, overnight, a source of his
Bul President F.isenhow cr's proposed
was not just a projeel feir the scientific
peacetime allocation of alomie energy.
If that had been ils onlv purpose', wc
need not have advanced it through lhe
I nited Nations al all. No. my friends, its
great and historic promise was some-
thing far more inspiring.
PAST ATOM CONTROL EFFORTS STERILE
All prior negotiations fur the control
of atomic armaments heul been sterile.
A demoralizing impasse had he-en
reached nn the entire subject nf disarmament.
For eight years we, eiml the Soviel
1 nion, heul failed In agree nn lhe basic
principle which should govern either lln
reduction ami regulation uf atomic weapons, nr the limitation of conventional
armaments. Only a few days ago. this
impasse was eejeiin underscored when
Ambassador Wadsworth nf the 1 nited
Stale's delegation told lhe United Neiiiems Main Political Committee lhal the
Sei\ii'i I nion slill did not seem prepared
to take lhe same- sp-ps tei reassure the
world, which we have 1 ■<-t-ri prepared to
As feir back as 1916 we had gone a
king way lo show our good faith. W by,
less lliiin a year after lhe war potential
of Ihe atom was discovered, we presented lei tin- United Neiiiems ;i plan
which would have made possible an effective- international control of this new
force, ami encouraged its use hv edl nations fur peaceful purposes. This plan
received llu- overwhelming endorsement
uf lhe Assembly in 1948. ll has been
stalled ever since.
In ihe Atomic Energy Commission,
lhe Soviet I nion flatly rejected its control features. In the Conventional Armaments Commission, lhe I .S.S.K. reject-
eel the proposals for a system uf elis-
closure emd verification uf armed forces
and armament because it did not include atomic armaments. And so, we
tried again. We proposed in 1951 that
the wink nf these two Commissions he
merged, and a new commission was
Wc repeatedly joined with France
and the I nited Kingdom in submitting
proposals which woulel place numerical
ceilings on the armed Forces nf the
U.S.S.K.. China, the United Stales, the
1 nited Kingdom, and France. The Soviet representative gave them scant eon-
siib ration and denounced them as cynical anil hypocritical.
So far as atomic weapons were concerned, as you all know, lhe Soviel
I nion from the very beginning has
deceptively insisteal upon a prior outlawing and abolition of these weapons
before lhe creation of satisfactory controls eunl inspection procedures could
We, feu mil pari, still held fresh in
our minds the- imninn of lhe 1921
Naval Conference eil Washington. We
were' neil and are nut going lo he- leikcn
in again hv ei plan In destroy our own
arms in reliance upon some other gov-
ernment's paper promise.
This is why wc have insisted upon
and will continue lo demand, legal control and inspection procedures hv an
international agency, as et condition lo
any reduction or prohibition nf atomic
There you had il: a complete stale-
mate. And tin- hopes of mankind shrank
in direct ratio as the stockpile and de-
structiveness ol man's latesl scourge in-
Into this bleak and disheartening picture was injected the dramatic proposal
of Presidenl Eisenhower lasl year, ll
carried the electrifying hope that the
marshaling nf atoms for peace, even on
;i small seede'. might reverse the I tend
toward ei fearful mililarv buildup.
ll was inspired by the belief thai if
the Soviet Union would join with the
I nited Stales and other nations possessing atomic material and know-how. this
act of cooperation could be lhe beginning of a new pattern nf understanding.
The plan weis one lhat could not possibly injure any government. And its
greatest virtue was that it avoided the
suspicions and irritations which had ac-
companied proposals for world-wide inspection and control. Yet, il. too, wai
rejected by the Soviel government.
And thai governmenl seiid. in effect,
that before they join in any peacetime
effort to develop atomic science for the
benefit of mankind, the free nations of
lhe world musl renounce all mililray us''
eif nuclear weapons. Of course, you a"1'
I know there is no logical relationship
between these iwo things. And we are
nul going tn throw down our strongest
shield againsl aggression without an
adequate safeguard for the security of
the free world.
Put we definitely do nol propose to
Iel Presidenl Eisenhower's plan die Instead, Secretary uf State Dulles recently
informed lhe I nited Nations of our in*
tention tu press nn with our desire to
enlisl ihis new force into the service "'
To explore the possibilities of peaceful uses of atomic energy, wc will direct
our efforts toward lhe enlivening nf il"
international scientific congress in nice'
under lln- ;uis|iiea's nf the United Nations
nexl year 11955 |.
The program outlined by Secretary
Dulles envisages the opening in the
I nited Stales, next scar, of a reactor
training school where students froi*
abroad may learn the working prim1
—Wide World Pr,o">
Secretary of State Dulles called for th«
creation of an international agency for "V
peaceful use of atomic energy during mais
address at UN General Assembly Sept. '
FACTS FORUM NEWS, August,