why should so many countries want to
belong? The- I nited Nations lias little
direct power in itself. It is an association of independenl steiles. not a world
government. Its resolutions have no legal
i-fli-ii until governments approve them
and decide to do something about them.
TALK TO AVOID WARS
But the I nited Nations provides the
means l»v which representatives nl nalions ran meet and diseuss their problems. By leilkinu them umi they can
avoid war-. By studying and discussing
together, they can deride how their governments ran help lo make things better
in the world.
Th.- declared purposes eef ihe- I nited
1. To maintain international peace
2. To develop friendly relations
among nalions based mi respeel for lhe
equal rights eiml self-determination of
:l. 'lei cooperate in solving international problems of an economic. -ne ieel.
cultural, or humanitarian character, and
in promoting respect fur human rights
.nul fundamental freedoms fm' all: anil
1. Tee he- a center for harmonizing
ihe aeiieens of nations in attaining these
Those are lln1 principles on which the
United Nalions Organization is based
the principles which motivate I nited
Nations activities. I- there anything dangerous, or subversive, in those prin-
Let's look a liilli- further at lhe I nited Neiiinn- Charter:
"To fulfill these purposes, lhe- I nited
Nations en-is in accordance wilh these
"I. The organization is based on the
principle eef ihe- sovereign equality of all
"2. Members are In fulfill in good
faith the obligations they have assumed
under thc Charter;
'"',. The) .in' lee settle their international disputes by peaceful means;
"4. They are lo refrain in their international relations from tin- threat ier ie-e
of force in anv manner inconsistent
with the purposes of lhe I nited Nalions:
"5. Thev are in give the I nited \;i-
lions every assistance in any action il
lakes in accordance with lhe Charter,
and to refrain from giving assistance lo
any state emeiinsi which lln- organization
is taking preventive or enforcement action;
"6. lhe 1 nited Nations is lo ensure
lhat non-Members acl in accordance
wilh these principles so far as is necessary fm maintaining international peace
"7. I In- organization ie- nol in intervene in matters essentially within the
domestic jurisdiction of an) slate. This
provision does not apply, however, when
—Wide World Photo
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., purchased the
area pictured above at a cost of eight million 500 thousand dollars as an outright gift
to the UN for permanent headquarters. The
purchase price included all property in the
above area with the exception of a small
block which New York City agreed to obtain
and turn over to the UN.
enforcement action is taken with respect
to threats lo the peace, breaches of the
peace, and acts of aggression. '
This seventh statement of principle
ilieil the- I nited Nations is not to inter-
vene in matters essentially within lhe
domestic jurisdiction of anv state—is
in itself ei refutation of lhe charge lhal
ihr I nited Nations Charter has undermined the sovereignly of the I nited
In ihe lew instances where domestic
policies have been changed lo coincide
with ihe statement of principles and
standards of justice set hy the United
Nalions Charter, Ihe decision has been
made lev Americans themselves hv
American judges who have had sufficient
\isiien to recognize thai if our own domestic policies conflict wilh universal
declarations of human rights, the deficiencies lie nol wilh Ihe I nited Nations
Charter bul with our own Constitution.
MARRIAGE OF FOREIGN-DOMESTIC
We arc gradually coming to the realization, moreover, lhal we can no longer
arbitrarily separate domestic ami foreign
issues. \s Dean Acheson anil John
Foster Dulles have stated, in llu- complexities and intricacies of international
tension anil modern diplomacy, it is no
longer pn-sihlr tee label mir is-ur domestic eiml another foreign, for even the
mosl trivial domestic problem may have
a real emd acute hearing on our inter-
The problem nl reconciling human
rights and national rights cannot be
evaded, li musl be worked eil continually, because the line between universal
rights .mil Ine eel rights changes wild the
evolution "I international communication, culture, society, eunl organization.
Under international law. ei staler
domestic jurisdiction is determined hy
international obligations. .Any controversy or dispute which involves lhe interpretation or application of an international obligation is therefore nol within
any nations exclusive jurisdiction.
International obligations arise from
treaties. Only a sovereign nation rem
make ;i treaty, hut insofar as a neitiun
has assumed obligations hy treaties to
respeel or protect human rights, il has
qualified its domestic jurisdiction.
The United Nations Charter is a
treaty; emd. undoubtedly, lhe I nited
States government, in ratifying lhat
treaty, heis assumed certain obligations
in respect to human rights which th''
I nited Steiies governmenl did not previously have under the Constitution.
"LET NO MAN PUT ASUNDER"
Hut there is nothing improper or
dangerous in our being interested in
ways lo proleel and guarantee human
freedoms in lhe world. The I nited
States does not and musl nol avoid aiding such endeavors. We musl nol permil
ourselves lo he infected with the hysteria
of the UN-haters, simply because in a
few instances we have raised ihe standards of our own laws as a resull of participation in the United Nations.
The I nited Villeins is and musl remain lhe keystone of Inited Slales foreign poliev. We cannol possibly hope
io have a peaceful world unless we
have a meeting place- where eill lhe- n;i-
tions of lhe world can nieel emd i'\|>l' —
their views and bring their grievances.
It is significant to note thai since the
formation of the 1 nited Nations, only
Iwo nations — Communist China and
North Korea — have committed ads ol
aggression which threatened the peace
of the world. Neither of these nalions
weis a member of the I nited Nalions:
emd thev were not. therefore, bound b)
ils purposes and principles. Is il no'
possible In believe thai if these- two nations had been permitted to join in <"'
operation wilh other nalions through il"'
1 \. lln- course- of recenl history might
have been differenl and infinitel)
lie-pile- ihe ten-year record ol i'1'
United Nations despite the irritating
turmoil of prolonged IN discussion'
and controversies it is probably in1''
thai very few Americans have actuall)
re-eid emd studied the document on wlii''1
the I nited Nalions is founded: t'11
Inited .Nations Charier. Most peop'e
probably do not really understand **■
iel. as Eleanor Roosevelt has said, u"
things we do not understand are ll"
things we fear. If every person in Ame*J
ica would take the time to read a"'
Study the United Nalions Charter unl'
he really undent 1 its purposes ai"
principles, there would he nunc ol ''''
hysterical fear of the IN which tl"'
SUperpatriotS arc now able to incite.
FACTS FORUM NEWS, August, H>5i