means for spreading llie parly line and
lln- resl e.f it.
During the thirties Latin America became a very important instrument of
lhe popular front, as everybody knows.
and now inileiv again this ferment is
poing nn. 1 believe thai it's unquestionably true that Latin America continues
lo he a choice target of the So\ iel
1 saw some' statistics recently that
indicate lhal lhe Soviet Union actually
spends more money in its Latin \merica
propaganda effort them il does in any
country in lhe world. This would indicate lhe extent In which they believe
il s em importanl territory lo he- covered.
Combs: I'm always enthralled hy this
exhuming of lhe past, li is pertinenl
only for me- lo point mil al ihis lime thai
;n ihe lime ihe late Presidenl Roosevell granted recognition lo Soviel Russia, he did so al the insistence of the
°nlire financial community of mosl of
die statesmen in our country, nf all nf
'he responsible business leaders ,"'■ lei
us seiv. ei preponderant majority of
them. This was ;i move so universally
applauded anil so bilaterally accepted
I'v his Republican opponents ilieil the
question of the wisdom of it weis never
seriously questioned al thai moment.
BUCKLEY: It was very seriously ipics-
Combs: Well, it may have lain by ei
'ew, hui may I say thai lhe problem of
recognition is. eis you know, ei diplomatic device ami that if he made a mistake by extending ne (ignition then the
presenl Republican administration nf
''nr country is making ;t mistake in
tnaintaining lhal recognition when il
"mid hv ei stroke nf the' pen withdraw
"• So this is mil entirely ei sin lo be
'aid only al lhe door of the tomb of llie
'ate Franklin I). Roosevell.
I'l CKLEY: I would like' lo eonllllcnl
[nal when Mr. Combs talks about ex-
'"lining lhe past he ought lo recognize
-hat, ee- Santayana put it. those who
''"ii l read history an' condemned I"
''I'M- ii. Ami certainly he doesn't gel
"nywhere hy simply pointing mil lhal
*e continue to recognize the existence
''/ the Seix iel I nil.n. ergo it relieves
''fiiiiklin Roosevell of ihis particular
f^ponsibility. We musl remember tbat
!' there heul been ;i universal clamor
tor recognition, Hoover would have
•seeded to it.
BURT: Professor Hodges, in your opinion,
0 what extent have the Communists been
.Uccessful in South America? In particular,
s there a possibility that recent uprisings in
ar|n America were Communist-inspired?
HoDCES: In the firsl place, I think
"'■'i we should note the fact that the
f,';d Communist cardholders were
"sliiiial,al eit 300,000 a year ago. The
Membership has dropped to 200,000.
°w. thai i- deceptive because ii means
0,1 re shaking oul the fellow travelers
Facts FORUM NEWS, August, 1955
—Wide World Photo
Guatemalan President Carlos Castillo
Armas shown as chief of rebel forces during
the rebellion against the Latin American
country's Communist government.
on ;t one-to-ten ratio. You get rid of
only the we-eek people.
BURT: Mr. Bishop, to what extent are the
Communists successful in their drive for ultimate conquest of South America or Latin
Bishop: I don't think they are very
successful at all al the moment, but I
think I agree with Presidenl Castillo
.Armeis who inlel me thai ii is ei perpetual danger, ll is not a thing to be
judged b) linw high the thermometer
is today. Presidenl Annas pointed oul
theit communism look over Guatemala
with a total membership of 2.500 out
nf 3.000.000 people-.
BURT: In other words, it doesn't fake many
of them to inflict a lot of damage?
BlSHOP: All you need are men in lhe
key posts and Arbcnz, the former Communist president, had men in key posts.
lb- had the chief of police, the chief of
secret police, the minister of propaganda, the minister of the interior, the
minister of war, and the presidency.
You don't need much more than that.
They took over the ministry of educa-
liein and found that they could convert
teachers to communism without making ihem parly members at all—merely
lev sending down directives saying that
from now on you will teach this brand
of hislorv. and you cither leach that
brand of history or you're out of a job.
BtJCKLEY: President Armas takes the
position that any Latin American country that is face to face wilh a Communisl uprising ought to do several things.
One. of course, it ought to pay particular attention to needs of the population
in that particular country. And also it
ought to be ready tactically lo come
hack at the Communists and employ
tactics that arc particularly suitable lo
whatever the nature of this uprising is.
It's a matter of history that in Latin
America lhe confusion tbat has existed
as to lhe meaning of Communist con-
spiracy has hindered tremendously the
Hodces: I have been shocked by the
material which has been coming to me
from Guatemala, including grim pictorial material of atrocities. 1 Ihink that
we now must make ibis clear to the
American people that these regimes are
murderous frnm top to bottom. Is that
BlSHOP: It's correct. I saw all of
—Wide World Pholo
Communist deputies wave their hands in defiance of a measure removing all Communists
from elective posts in the Brazilian government. The measure, adopted in early if48, came
during one of the most turbulent legislative sessions ever held in the South American country.