emphasis on trade and economic assistance. It is this economic aspect of the Soviet "new look" that I would
1 his Soviet economic campaign is a varied one. It
includes the barter of surplus arms into areas where tensions were already high. There are highly publicized
purchases of agricultural commodities from a few countries where mounting surpluses have exposed the vulnerabilities of economies lacking in diversity. Incidentally
the Soviet bloc, with typical cynicism, has re-exported
some of these commodities to markets that the original
sellers normally would supply. And the Soviet bloc has
made loans to a selected number of countries.
This policy has been directed especially toward certain
peoples in the Near East and South Asia. There the Soviet
rulers believe that they can also exploit historic grievances
for their own ends.
But the new Soviet policy roams far and wide. Even
African and South American countries are receiving Soviet
What is the import of this new economic campaign of
the Soviet bloc countries?
The first thing to note is that Soviet capital exports divert
resources from the Soviet people who still lack many of
the ordinary decencies of life. On this we have the testimony of Mr. Khrushchev in his recent speech to the 20th
Communist Party Congress. There he stated:
"It must he said that we do utit yet have- an adequate quantity of consumer goods, that there is a shortage of housing, and
that many of the important problems connected with raising
the people's living standards have not yet been solved."
Still quoting Mr. Khrushchev:
"Production of many important foodstuffs and manufactured
goods still lags behind growing demands. Some towns and
communities are- still insufficiently supplied with such items as
milk, butter, and fruit. There are even cases where supplies of
potatoes and other vegetables are irregular. There are also difficulties in supplying the population with certain high grade
The Soviet Union, of course, has the capacity to do much
to lift up the living standards of the Russian people, which
Mr. Khrushchev described, and tei give them opportunities
for greater happiness. There was indeed a moment when
it seemed that this might become the Soviet policy. Mr.
Malenkov. as the Prime Minister who first succeeded
Stalin, advocated more consumer goods and better quality
goods for the Soviet people. But Mr. Malenkov was
quickly removed from leadership, and his successors
resumed the policy of forcing the Russian people to work
primarily to build up the power machine of the state. The
output of consumer goods — food, clothing, and housing —
was firmly relegated to a secondary place.
Under these conditions, can we accept at face value the
Soviet professions that its foreign economic activities are
primarily designed to help others?
Actually in this campaign the Soviet Union is seeking
to advance its interests.
It is important, therefore, to examine how the Soviet
Union sees its interest.
1 HROUGHOUT its 38 years of existence, the Soviet pattern
has been unvarying. Whenever the opportunity has arisen
the Soviet Union has swallowed up its neighbors, or made
satellites of them, or subordinated them in other ways.
The future may well produce a different Russia. But
today changes in creed and conduct are looked upon as
ways to make it easier to achieve old goals of conquest
If there is less apparent intolerance and less reliance o»
violence, there is perhaps more reliance than ever on clivi'
sion, enticement, and duplicity.
On December 29, 1955, speaking to the Supreme Soviet
Mr. Khrushchev stated the fundamental precept: "If cef'
tain people think that our confidence in the victory of s<r
cialism, the teaching of Marxist-Leninism, is a violation t»
the Geneva spirit, they obviously have an incorrect notiofl
of the Geneva spirit. They ought to remember once and ft"
all that we never renounced and we will never renoim"
our ideas, our struggle for the victory of communism."
In his lengthy speech to the 20th Party Congress, Mr'
Khrushchev promised "fundamental social transform11'
tions" — this means a Communist party dictatorship—'1
any nation unwary enough to allow its political life to 1"
undermined by the Communist apparatus.
We must assume that the intent behind the Soviet ecf
nomic campaign is to subvert and communize the nation'
that are its targets.
1 he United States is engaged in programs of econom1'
assistance to the less developed countries. Our prografl"
have been in progress for a number of years and M
totaled billions of dollars.
By these programs, we too hope to advance our lep"
mate national interests. We have never pretended otsj
But again the crucial question is: What are those in'e
ests and how are they intended to be served?
Our interests will be fully served if other nations OM
tain their independence and strengthen their free instif*
tions. We have no further aims than these. We want
world environment of freedom. We have shown this tifl*
after time by electing to give freedom where we cot*
have had concpiest. Our historic policy, reflecting the *
and the views of our own free people, is wholly coinpati''
with the interests of the less-developed countries as th"
leaders themselves have defined them.
The political leaders in the economically less-devclotj
countries are entirely capable of judging the purposes ■
principles of other nations. They are, for the most H
men of political experience. In many eases they have D*
an active part in winning for their countries political itv,
pendence. They have no desire to preside over the '
of that independence.
The wisdom and patriotism of the political leaders
the newly independent nations are among freedo1"
greatest assets. These men are not blind to Soviet purp"
and past actions.
But we must also recognize that the Soviet communl\,
experiment has won for itself a considerable popular l'r,^
ti'ge in the less-developed countries. In these eou°*8
"industrialization" is a word of magic. It is a slogan '
the people have come to believe will solve all don»e* j
economic and political problems. The peoples of V\\
countries do not like to be dependent upon the i'1' I
trialized West for manufactured goods. For the most J]
they now have political independence, but they do n° I
have what they consider to be adequate economic •"
The neighboring Asian peoples have seen the S° ,
Union within a generation develop itself into a l1"'J,
industrial power. These- observers are but dimly avvu1 j,
the fact that the Soviet rate of progress was possible ' |
because natural conditions favored, and that even &
Facts Fohum News, June, *
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