ation for Social Action, The Protestant (magazine"), and
the American Jewish Labor Council.
8. All Communist fronts are expected to serve as instruments of Communist espionage seeking out information and passing it through proper channels and serving
as an occupational cover for espionage agents while their
premises serve as convenient mail drops.
9. Communist operatives on the payrolls of the various
Communist fronts are given a livelihood and valuable
organizing experience at the expense of sources outside of
the Communist Party. Thus the International Workers
Order with assets of over $1 million employed Party
stenographers, clerks, organizers, speakers, writers, teachers, janitors, and others in connection with its two thousand lodges.
10. Certain Communist fronts are organized for the
purpose of promulgating Communist ideas and misinformation into the bloodstream of public opinion. Examples
of such organizations are the Allied Labor News Service,
Federated Press, and the Labor Research Association.
11. Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Communists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, train organizers and operatives, recruit new Party members and sympathizers. These are no
ordinary schools seeking mere culture or academic degrees.
Such schools, whether open or secret, are operated by
Communist Parties throughout the world under the
supreme direction of Moscow under a common pattern.
Schools of this type have been:
Abraham Lincoln School,
Jefferson School of Social
Science, New York
California Labor School,
Samuel Adams School, Boston
Seattle Labor School,
In Canada such Communist indoctrination was conducted
chiefly by study groups whose operation i.s described by
Canadian Royal Commission in its report of June 27, 1946:
A further objective, pursued through the study group, is
gradually to inculcate in the seen t membership of the Communist Party a habit of complete obedience to the dictates of
senior members and officials of tlie Party hierarchy. This is
apparently accomplished through a constant emphasis, in the
indoctrination courses, on the importance of organization as
such, and by the gradual creation, in the mind of the new
adherent or sympathizer, of an over-riding moral sense of
"loyalty to the Party." ° ° '
The indoctrination courses in tlie study groups are apparently calculated not only to inculcate a high degree of "loyalty
to the Party" and "obedience to the Party." but to instill in
the mind of the adherent the view that loyalty and obedience
to the leadership of organization takes precedence over his
loyalty to Canada, entitles him to disregard his oaths of allegiance and secrecy, and thus destroys his integrity as a
citizen (pp. 74, 75).
12. Communist fronts change in accordance with the
current Party line. Thus when the Party line w as stridently
anti-United States in the early 19.30's, the Communists
launched the American League Against War and fascism.
In the face of the growing menace of Adolf Hitler in the
late 1930's, thev projected the American League for Peace
and Democracy advocating collective security with the
democracies against fascism. During the Stalin-Hitler Pact
(1939-41), however, they created the American Peace
Mobilization which picketed the White House against
lend-lease and the defense program. After Hitler attacked
the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, and Russia became an
Michigan School of Social
Ohio School of Social Sciences,
Philadelphia School of Social
Science and Art
School of Jewish Studies,
ally, tin's organization was transformed into the Americi
People's Mobilization which supported the war effort
Immediately alter World War II. the line changed again
and fronts immediately blossomed out against the Amen]
can defense program and against our foreign policy, sucl
as the National Committee to Win the Peace, the American Peace Crusade, and similar organizations.
13. Front organizations enable the Communist Parr)
to mobilize what appears to be a body of public opinio!
outside of the Party in support of their campaigns, projects
legislation, or demands. In many cases the statement ol
such an organization is printed bv the press without investigation. The names of leading sponsors command attention. These organizations claim to speak in the name d
great masses of Americans whom they do not actually rep
resent. Since one front organization will support anothet
they manage to pyramid their membership claims to fair
14. Front organizations serve as a valuable recruitin
ground for new Party members and supporters.
15. Certain fronts are formed to provoke racial friction
such as the United Negro and Allied Veterans of America
Council on African Affairs, National Negro Labor Council
Benjamin Citlow, former Communist Party candidal'
for Vice President of the United States, former member o
its politbureau, and a former member of the Executrv"
Committee of the Communist Internationa], has explain!
how a front organization is formed:
A front organization is organized by tbe Communist Party
in the following fashions: First, a number of sympathizers
who are close to the Party and whom the Party knows can be
depended upon to cany out Party orders, arc gotten together
and formed into a inn lens which issues a call for the organization of a particular front organization which th, Party
wants to establish. And generally after that is done a program
is drawn up by the Party, which this provisional committee
adopts. Then, on the basis of this provisional program, all
kinds of individuals arc canvassed to become sponsors of the
organization, which is to be launched in the verv near future.
A provisional secretary is appointed before the organization 's
launched and in , verv instance in our day the secretary who
was appointed was a member of the Communist Partv. ° °
And as president of the organization we would put up sonic
prominent public figure who was willing to accept the presidency of the organization, generally making sure that, if that
public figure was one who would not go along with the Com*
munists, he was of such a type that he would be too busy to
pa) attention to the affairs of the organization. ° ° °
Oi, the committee that would be drawn together, a sufficient i,umber of Communists and Ci liun'st Partv simp.i'
thizcrs, who would carry out Partv orders, was included, .nil'
out ol this number a small executive committee vvas organized
000 which carried on the affairs ol the organization. SO*
called, and this small executive committee, with the secretarYi
really ran the organization. And this small committee and the
secretary arc the Instruments of the Communist Party, will1
the result that when manifestos or decisions on campaign-
are made, those campaigns arc ordered by the Communis*
Partv (hearing of the Special C uittce on Un-Americftfl
Activities. Mil. 7, pi). 4716, 1717, 471S).
Various American fronts are each affiliated with a P.
cut international front from which thev- receive directs I
literature and other aid and to which they give unresetj
and active support. Representatives of American f'r"
are to be found at international conferences ol these orjj
izations. These organizations interlock and cooperate dj
ly. The following international Communist I runts
among those functioning at the present time;
World Federation of Democratic Youth
international Union ol Students
World Federation ol Democratic Women
I v< is Forum News, June, -
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