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employed only for instruction and technical defenses," the
defendant reserving for himself the right to present "the
William L. Patterson, former national secretary of the
International Labor Defense and presently executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, has written an illuminating article entitled "The International Labor Defense
and Courtroom Technicians," for the Labor Defender of
Hay, 1933, official ILD organ. The tactics laid down then
""'iii a pattern for those followed in all recent Communist
rr'als. The instructions laid down by this well-known
pornmunist are most explicit:
The class struggle begun on the streets or in the shop is earned into tl,,- courtroom. ° " °
Many of the friends and even members of the ILD have seriously questioned its methods. ° ° ° International Labor
Defense lawyers arc engaged to serve it chiefly on the basis
of their ability as "courtroom technicians."
A lawyer has to concern himself only with the juridical
aspects of the case, lie is not asked to engage in the political
defense of the accused, but his legal defense of the accused,
because of the nature of the cases the ILD is engaged ill,
becomes at once political * • °.
The ILD believes that onlv mass pressure can bring about
the release of a class war prisoner; that pressure must he
Supplemented by legal defense. The legal defense must lie of
the most expert character. Every legal technicality must he
"sed. The more far-reaching the knowledge of the lawyer
retained by the ILD. the more easily and effectively can the
Work,', !„■ shown that the guaranties of justice extended him
by the ruling class are meaningless.
Communist' Front Organizations
Communists speaking openly in the name of the Com-
rjtmist Party and frankly as disciplined agents of the
,>V|i't I nion could make verv little progress in winning
""Verts in the United States. Wherever and whenever
"'V have secured power in anv country, it has been the
. s"'t of a calculated policy of deception. One of the most
Important instruments of Communist deception is the
r "", organization. Without the aid of ifs numerous front
■ ionizations, the Conununist Partv would be an isolated,
t'|ls'"iiifii.int sect. With the aid of its network of fronts,
, '' Communist Partv can and docs exercise influence far
,. '" proportion (o ifs actual membership. It is in a posi-
" to establish contacts not otherwise available.
.A (.'oniniunist front organization may be broadly de-
(. "'<! as an organization formed at the initiative of the
mniunist Partv of the United States or another country
'' Communist International (Cominform) and operat-
jP Under Communist instruction lor the accomplishment
or more current aims.'1 The actual aim of the Com-
i, llls| front is not openly stated but is concealed behind
u 8h-sounding and attractive reform objective. In excep
iiii'1'.' cases ''k(' ''"' American Youth Congress the Com-
,"s,s have taken over an organization originally organ-
non-Communists and have transformed it into a
"iiinisi front. A front can be local, national, or inter-
' !°'"t! in its scope.
,l(' building ol front organizations has been laid down
ective by Otto fvuusinen, secretary of the
lor all (.'oniniunist parlies in the
ing words uttered at the Sixth Plenum of the Execu
te" Primary d
'J,il Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 deicribea '!„■ C ,,,,,isi-
,,'"!„,;-' «»li is follows i,, Sec. 3(4) (p. 1), "Tbe term 'Coi nisl-fronl
Rv",,.'. "'" rneans an) organization ,,, the United si.it, s (other ll,.,,, " Con i-
;,s defined in paragraph (■'!) of tliis lection) which
dominated, or controlled b) ■' Communist-action
ily operated tor lite purpose ol niunu ;,,,l and
. ...lion organization, a Communist foreign government,
"Id Communist movement referred to ,',, Sec. 2 ut this title-''
Ileal II" . ,, 1 i "' "TOini/jition as ,1c:
1 t.deP' C"'i/, ' "l,l,IK directed, i
be to" , „>,„;"'"". and ,11) is ,„,„„
,.f "sbnll' "><■ „ " l Communist-action
'"» sn" I I Communist movel
vs. June,1 ls Fori v, News, June. 1956
five Committee of the Communist International held in
The first part of our task is to build up, not only Conununist
organizations, but other organizations as well, above all mass
organizations, sympathizing with our aims, and able to aid
us for special purposes. * " * We must create a whole solar
system of organizations and smaller committees working actually under the influence of our Party [Communist (magazine), May, 1931, pp. 409-423].
The real purposes of the Communists in building a
front organization are never those which are publicly
slated to attract adherents. The actual objectives which we
cite herewith, may be varied and may overlap in the case
of any given organization.
1. As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the
United States, Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Communist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, discrediting the United States.
Spreading defeatism and demoralization. At the present
historical juncture in world affairs, all Communist fronts
serve this primary purpose. Specializing in this field, however, there have been such organizations as the American
Peace Crusade, the Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to
the Atlantic Pact, the Congress of American Women, the
American Youth for Democracy, and the Committee for a
Democratic Far Eastern Policy.
2. Certain organizations specialize in pro-Soviet propaganda such as the magazine New World Review (formerly
Soviet Russia Today), the National Council of American
Snv iit Friendship and the American Russian Institute.
3. Where the Communist message cannot be carried
mosf effectively by the Communist Party among particular
groups in the population, special fronts arc formed for the
purpose, such as American Youth for Democracy, Labor
Youth League, Congress of American Women, the National Negro Labor Council. International Workers Order
(foreign-born groups), American Committee tor Protection of Foreign Born, and the various foreign-language
papers of the Communist Party.
4. Sometimes fronts are used to appeal to special occupational groups still with the same broad general purposes
in mind including, by way of example, the National Law-
virs Guild, the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and
Professions, the Photo League, and Farm Research.
5. To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers,
fronts have been devised making special appeals in behalf
ol civ il liberties and reaching out far beyond the confines
ol Ihe Communist Partv itself. Among these organizations
arc the Civil Rights Congress: Emergency Civil Liberties
Committee; National Committee to Repeal the McCarran
Act: Trade Union Committee for the Repeal of the
Smith \cf: National Committee to Secure Justice in the
Rosenberg Case; Bridges, Robertson, Schmidt Defense
Committee; Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; the
National Law vers Guild; Spanish Refugee Appeal: and the
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born.
When the ('oniniunist Partv- itself is under fire these fronts
oiler a bulwark of protection.
6. Communist dissimulation extends into the field of
political parties forming political front organizations such
as the Progressive Party and the American Labor Partv-.
Tin' Communists arc thus enabled to present their candidates for elective office under other than a straight Communis! label.
7. With an eye to religious groups, the Communists
have formed religious fronts such as the Methodist Fedcr-