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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1956 - File 069. 1956-05. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 13, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1329/show/1328.

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Facts Forum. (1956-05). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1956 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1329/show/1328

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1956 - File 069, 1956-05, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 13, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1329/show/1328.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date May 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript - ••• , , 'II PRICE 25c People Must Choose V. P. ~Ir. ln-ing Eding<•r, 1.5 \lel\'in Avenue, Brighton '3.5, \lass,1dwst'tts, is a man with a plan - a plan in which ht• has h!'en able to inkr('st st•\ t'ral nwmhcrs of Congrl'SS. \Ir. Edin.f.{er suggests th;.tt more thought and cons1d('ration should he gi\cn to the scle<.'tion of m('n to oc<:up}· the Vite-Presi­dency. Ill' writes: Th(' choic<' <;hould not com<• ahout hy arhitrary s<•h•ction, ,~ hich i" contrary to h.1<;ic clt-mocratic principlt•-. or thi'i country, hut hy th1· c·hoic(• and \Ok of tht' pt·opll'. \\"(• do not haH' thi<; prhi­lt'J.! C' tod,\y .. , , Tlwrt• i'> no \oic:r and no choice, and it is no h<'llt•r th.m a Hu.,~ian t·h•c:tion. \Ir. Eding,.r's plan is that cI,.legatcs at hoth c·onn•ntions would St'lt'<:l .1 thrP<'-man slatf' for \'it'<:-Pr<"sicl('nl, which would appear on th!' \Oting Idiot. \'ot('rs woulcl h<' pnmit­tcd to \·oh' for onlv on<• man on th<• sl.1tc tlwv choos('. Onh tf;,. sl.itt• of th<' party win­nin~ tlw pn·sidt>;1tial <·lt·dion would h(• ton­sicl<• r,.cl. and tlw cancliclat,• llil\·ing th" most ,·ot('s \\'Ould })(' dett('<I. In this way the \'ic('­Pr!' sidcnt can lw sdcet"cl by th<' popular 'ot<· of th<' p"opl<'. "I urge the r<'<lcl<·rs to C'<>nt..1c:t their rC'prC"­sentatin• s in \\'ashington lo do somcthing about rd11rning this privilege to them," '' riks \ rr. Edinger. • • A Healthy Bite of Jelly Beans . .\crnrdmg to Tl1c Bee of Phillips, \\'iscon­-; in, S<'concl graclt.·rs in th( tity schools, und<"r th<• instruction of \!rs. '\!'cl Slocurn. mcd hnc<• wed.h for a "61 J"lly B<'an" garnc, which paralkls th" $61,000 Qucstion pro­cr. un of T\' fanw. Th<" ,·01mgskrs ha,·e cl{'\'ist·cl a tompktl' s<'tup, in.eluding an isob­tion hooth wh<.·r<• tlwv mil\' cl<"lilwratc> on the qut·stions in on<• of tl;e 2.5· catt'gori<'s pro,·id­t ·cl. .\mong tht•s<• catt•,gorit'S an• sp<'lling, arithmetic, sci<"nC<' and r('acling qu<'stions. \ Ir. Boh Ta) lor, 1767 P Street, :\.\\'., \\'ashington 6. D. C .. who has S('nt us this informt1tion, o;;u,tO.!<·sts that tlw ganw might he made still mor<• enlight('ning for our youth if teachers who wish to adopt the idea w(·n· to incorporate tilt' inC'Olll<' lit\ p.tyment on tht• jt·lly l)('~tn winnings. ''\\'" '"'"' '"'<·n told." h" eornnwnts, "that undt'r inconw t.l\ r11l('s a youmi:..,t<·r would haq~ to \\·in fiq• hundn·d j<'lly lw.ms in order to tak<" horn<' si\ty-four .... "ff the cackling of g<·<·S<· """cl Rom!', who is to S;ty that a l<''"Y of j<'lly f)('ans from ) outhful wiruwrs might not s1wc America':>" • • Feeding His Lambs . \ rt•ad<·r has fnrward!'cl to 11s copy of a bulletin from tlu• ~111w1 intt·nclt"nt of Sayre­' ill<' ( \. J 1'11hlic ~' '""'''· \Jr H. S. Pol- 1.itk ( S11p ·rn1knd<·11t's llulldin '\o. 11, Dc­ct'lllher 6, 19.5.)J, in which he acl,·ist·s: 'Ve ar<' told, hy th!' Stat!' O<·partment in ch;lr~(' of C'nforcing tlw ant1-di,crimin,1tion <;l.ttuk\, th.1t th<· re i\ a grcl\\ in\,! frt·linl.! in 'ariou\ p.1rh of thi· <;l.ll(' \\ ith n·,1wd to th(• ('(·h·hr.tllnn or Chri\tnu<; h~· 'J>t.'t·i,ll oh,1·r. .rnt·t·, .md t·,t·rciws in puhlic ~d1001. ... It m.1y ht• \\hi' to t·011'idt•r, lll'i.:i1111i11!.! .1t ouc:t'. hcl\\ tlw C:hri'>tlll.l'i Pro!.!r.un to lw ofTt•rt·cl in ~our \t·h'">I could ht• re-pl.1111u·1l <;o ,1<; to dt•-t·mph.hi,t• tlw <;t•ct.iri.m rt·li:.:inu'i •"P!'ct th1·n·of .ind to t•mph.l\i'l' imtt".ld tht· folk­lort · ,alut·'· ... It i' tlw opi11ion or your Supn­intl ·ncl<·nt th,lt "ithin thi• nt•\t thn•(• to tl·n Y'""'i it ''ill ht• n•c111in•d hy tlw court<; tlut tlw 'iJH't'ifi­c dh rc·lii,:iot1\ il\JWc·t or tlw cd(•hration h<• ch•lt·t­('(! from puhlit• '>t·hnol proi,::r.lm\ •• tnd tlut it ''ill hf·conw il l<•g.d to ll't' '!1111(' or tlw hynlll\ and .111tlwm\ th.ti arc· now quilf• c·ommon. and that ii \\ill l11·«ornt• 111·c·t'''""" lo moid pai.::<·anh in­\ Ohing thr nali,itv, .incrl'l .l!lcl \imilar prop'i. It i., \11\.!Cntc·d th,1t it micht lw ""f'll to lwcin lo rr­pl. 111 thi'i progr,1m in thi' dirc•c:tion <;O tll<lt the dum:W-0\('r i\ \o graclu.al il'> In IH' untl(llkt•ahlt• to tlw CC'rwr,11 puhlic 0\ N a 1wriod of YhH'i. Tlw qu<'stion aris<·s as to whetht'r the pur­pos<' of St1<"h <"hang<'d t•111phasis is, as st.tt<'cl in th<" hulktin. to an>icl clist'rimination. or wlwtlwr it is part of a m11<"h largt·r pl.in <·mant1ting from th<' l\r('mlin which would ckstrov our rt'ligious fo11nd.1tions In· taking: th" Cl;rnt 0111 of Christmas for our ~hildrcn. • • Workers - American Style \f ailings rt'('(•i\'(•cl from thr \'oluntecr Prc­<" inct \\'orkt•f\. Cold Fmtlwr \\'0111<"n of Cali­fornia, Bo\ ~O:lh South Anm•\, \'an \u)s, California, indi<:att' that an admirahl<" job is hPing don<' h~ this organization in informing oth('rs of cit·\ <·loprrn·nts in Congress, as \\'(•II .ts lo(«d lt'gislation pc·ncling, in r('('Olllm<·ncl- 11H! <.·urn·nt litt>ratt1rt' of inforrnathe \al11e to tlH·ir mt•mh<•rs. If you would lik1· to pl.111 such a built-tin for any group to whith you belong, we sug- 1.!c·st that you writ<• to tlw \'olunl<'t·r Prt'cinct \\'orkt·rs for a s.1111plc <"<>PY of their mailings - simple and effcctl\·e. • • Orlando J-C Shows the Way \ rthur \ \'. Sdilich('n111ai('r, 601 Clayton St., Orf;tndo, Florid.1. writ<·s: Tlw p11hlit· '>t·hooJ., h1·rc• in Orl.indn. likt• mo.,t countit·'> throu~hout tlu- 11.1ti~m, \\t•rc· 'fl ll\(·r­t ·ro\qlt·d th.it tlw Junior Ch.1mhc·r of Comnwrct· clt·cidnl {JI) '>0111~ '·''' .1diu11. n.1thn tlun dl.llll'­ini.: .ill th1· n·d t.q>t of .mntlu·r d(·c·tiou to r.1i-.c• <.t·hool l.l\t''i, tlw .1 .,n1·1.11im1 m.uh· .1 dirl'<:t .. C: \ ,_ \ \~S BY \f \IL" lo c·q·r~onc· in tlw c.·01111f\, to 111.1il in 11101u·~ for lht· <.·01htr11c·1!"'1 of nc·w d.1\'>­mo111 .. ! \\"ithill l ft•\\ \\I (•k-\, thOU\,tnd~ or cJol­J, 1..., \\l'rc• r.1i,1·d, .111d the· c.1mp.1ign i'> \till 111 • 11·tion. lh1· clin·t·lof\ or CL\ "iSUOO\f"i. I'\\. •• h,I\ c• .1ln .1dv rd1 ''~·d morr th.111 S J0.000 .• Hid told th(' trmll·t·~ to \l•li·c-t thr <;it(• for tlw fir'>t cla\'>room to IH' huilt h~· tlw non-profit or~.111i­z. 1hon. • • On the Political Scene \ lany n·aclt'rs h,t\'(' writt<•n to us r('gard­in1.4" third p.nt~ 11H1\('rtH·11h .rncl tlwir a< ti\·i­ti< ·s. I lo\\"t•\ t·r, ..,in<·<' it i... rn·(·<·..,s.try to '"·ork W<'ll in ach·an('(' of our puhli('ation clJ' r<'adt'rs' n-ports conc·<·rning su<"h organ1 tions as For \ nwrica, \\'c the Pt'opl<', or t TP\ilS Constitution Party, han• h<'cOm<' o clatt'd hv tlw ti11w Facts Forum .\'ell.".~· real <'S p11hlication. It is signifkant, howe'l.·er, that the f A11H·rim rallv lwlcl at Carn<'gi" I !all. \ York, on \ \;ashington's birthday fill"cl hall with 1,600 pn•sc•nt, d<'spit" a pradl hlatlout of th<' pr<'SS, and that 1,000 ,_. t11r11('d a\Vil\. \II S<·ats wc•n• rt'S<'n eel sold out \\'t·;·ks in •t<h an<"e as a rt'sult of l t1·rs and a word-of-mouth campaign. lkad1·rs who wish information n•qo1rd th,. icon \ \IEHIC.\ 111on·11H·nt ma,· r<'CJ' from Ct·rwral Bonn('r F"ll"rs at I 00 l C rwdiu1t \\"('IHH', \.\\'., \\'ashington 0. I). a <·npy of FOH A\IEH IC.\ 's political act progr;11n. J.rcc \lr-11 S/l('ak, 7.1 1 I Zimp"I Str<'<'L \ Orlt .. rns IH, Loursiana, is a puhlication wl prm id1·s ('\('t·ll<'nt <"O\'(•ragc on the adi\J of all new party lllO\'<'lllC'llts. Information n·garcling \ \'E T llE PEOP may lw ohtain<'cl by writing 35 E. \\';1C Dr., Chita!(o I, Illinois. • • Bible Balloon Project For tlw past four years, the Billy J.• I filrgis Co111111iltt•1• of tlw lnternation;d 0 crl of Christian Chttrth<'S has r('l<•as<'d I n11111h('rs of halloons ('arrying portions of Bibi,. to tht· <·011ntrit·s h<'hind tlw Iron C tain. 111 J0.5.;, :i.;0,000 portions of th" JI• printC'cl in Czt'eh, S!o,·ak, Polish, H 11'~ and Ct'r111an were launC'hed. T lws<• c;trr <«t<·h capahk of lifting five portions of Bihl<'. <'an float gr<'at distanc<'S, some 11~ as ·).000 land mil<"s. Cl111rdu•s and incli'l.·icluals throughout Unrl<•cl St.tl<'s h<' lp finance this crt1' against ('Ollllllt111ism . Dr. Brlk j.mws l largis, 1.516 So. Bo111 T11fs.1. Oklahoma, int<•rnationally k" t•vangc·list and radio pastor, who h11s pt·r" alh <"OnduC'tccl <•ach of tlw twt'h·e );1t11 in~s. in r('f<'rring to C'ritieism"i of this pro hy th<' Co111m11nist lands, tC' ll "i us: Tlw daim that tlw opprc•<;<;rd 'i011lc; m Cn111 ni\I LuHI\ t·njnv rc•lh?iou<; frf•Nlom i<; 1111trt1<'· onlv n·lil!iou~ Jpach•1\ functionin~ lwhind \I Iron C'nrt.1in l'H(' Hf•d p11ppd<;, 'tOOl!l''i of cow. Tlw rc•porl<; we• h.n 1• n•c·t'iH•d from C0111 lli\I Jand<; ~J>(';lk or n·liciOll'i Jl('f\C'('Utioll oppn•<;,ion uulikt• nnything known in "'' hi<;tory. ·\<·c·ord111g to Dr. I largis, "Distrihuti(lfl th1· Sl'riptiin·s hy thi"i clramati<' and u111 mt"thod is h,1\ in!.{ a soft(•ning ('fft'd 011r h;trd, C'nwl atlu·istil' <"Ontrol of th(• (roll t.1i11 ('01111tri<·<.;." This ('Oncl11sio11 was rt h.1s<·d upon i11for111ation lw has rct i frcu11 four ;111ti-Co11111111nist groups \\·iif lwhi11d th<' Iron Curtain 11 undcrgfl. atti\ itit'S . . t \\'li11t wonld you likr to sec 11\ <"<>11111111'~ Constrn<"t" e s11.l{g<·_sti~ is fo:Jii C'ation, rc·<"ognition of p.1tnots, I conntTt('d with th<' rn·ws all ~ ·e \\'t'' including illu ... trativ(' photograp:1s or_ ~ o;;hots. Pl.1c·(• vour ordt'rS hy writ 111 H1·ackrs lkporl, /' acts Forum Xc·tcs, p. Tt•\aS. IN 1 that th<' f :ie llall, \t lay fillt•d ill' a pr1.1di al 1,000 w H'Sl'f\<.'cl \ f(.'St1Jt of pai,gn. ion reg,1rd t rna\· rcqt al 1601 C 1gton o, [). >01itical act ·l Strl'l'l,' lie;ttion wl the adi'i 'llE i'EOI' 15 E. \\'<1 o Billy J.~ ation;d 0 r<'l<·as.«I I •Ortions of the Iron of th<' Jl1 lish, Hu""' "hrse c;1rr >rtions of , some •1 ~ ro11~ho11t this cn1" So. Bo11 nallv kn1 o ha~ pr' 1Cln· J,111t this pro s: lc; in C(ll11 ~ untnit'· o~:.~h!:f'1 \t from C11111 r'i('('1Jliflll I in 1111 istrilmti1111 and 1111 •ffcl't pO( he Iron \\"ilS re 1<1S rt•l't ups "·cir~ undcrf!tl11 sec in 'S for Jl'. its, ,\-ii' e "·ch1 1s or ' writ in 't·ics, P·· TH IS 'ADR.t "R !CfIT-TO-\v O HK " LAWS RIGHT ? , , , Volume 5 Number 5 Moy, 1956 2 lAn Co,cm:SS\IAN" - Points for Letter \Vriters R11th Boyer Scott Yotn .\h:..1ATUHE Co:..cnESSIO:>AL DrnE«TO!IY Dots RADIO FnEE Ei.:nOPE PnO\IOTE TllL CAl SL OF FnEEDO\t? 9 J 1 Whitney ll. Shepardson, Preside11t of Free Europe Committee, Protests RFE Criticism 19 24 29 39 58 59 63 63 6.J. 6.'5 65 6.3 liri Brada's Reply to Letters of Protest ~ndensation of How TO SAVE $7.5 BILLION A lE.\H, Fra11k C. Ilanigh cn El!t Co,1~1UNJST PAHTY, U.S.A. -A Ilandbook for 1\111erica11s . .. Part lit ~::.;0• AA'TDVTVSET WITH THE FACTS FOHU\1 PL.\'1 '-0 . , HEDULES 11· \TEST Rt,LES Ii l\\l\C LETH.HS TO TUE EDJTOHS P ttp THE CAUSE OF FnEEDOM . • p0 Lt Qn:sno's A\D POLL QuESTION \V1,,u1s s 0 Lt lh:suLTS tacA, FOi\ THE :\lo"TH l1hoto Credits: Pof.:e 9, Huth Boy(·r Scott, llMri'i & b\ in,1.: Back Cover, Mount Hushmon.: '\,ltion11I ~fomorial, \Vide \\'orld H \Cl\. COVEH: \fount llushmore '.'Jationnl \lt-morial in the Black llills of \V. South Dakota was established in 1929. On the granite fact• or Ow mountain four gigantic stone lwnd ~ hove b<.•cn creiHt•d, or GMrge \Vosh· ini.::ton, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore HoosC'vdt and Abraham Lincoln - N<.:h measures 60 frC'l in h<'ight. Thclic ore tht• \\Ork or the sculptor Cut/On Borglum, "'ho dit.•<l in 19-H . TO ORDER FACTS FORUM NEWS REPRINTS To t'nt'ourage distribution of thought-provoking articles appearing in J.'acts Forum l\'cws, we arc making reprints avaihtblc when it is war· r.mtt'<l by the interest of our readers. The following articles ha,·e b""" reprinted and may be obtaint'd at prices shown, delivered: orn,,,.1<l I c· L<.·ssthan JOO l\dtt '. an( ITC.:USCS Con, .1 lOc each "al Bcti ,\/orccll (Feb., 1956) (l~luUon of tht• U. S. ~lly -page folder) ( Jan. , 1956) l5t' l'<lt'h 2 article containing: 1 ~:&cs or l«ss lOc «ach .) lo 4 Pag<'s JOc eaeh 8 Pagl's lOe caeh JOO ;oo 1,000 :;,OOO or more 9.00 HJ.00 75.00 35.00 per 1,000 l 1.50 70.00 1.30.00 1.00 18.00 :32.50 20.00 pl'f 1,000 7.50 '35.00 60.00 2.5.CXJ per 1,000 9.00 10.00 75.00 35.00 per 1,0()() I· \(TS FOHU\f is nonprofit and nonp.uti\;m, "upportiuv: no 1>olitical c.rndidate or piltt)·. Facts Fon1m'.s atti\iti<·.s ore designed to pr('St.·nt not just nnt• \it•,\-· of, 11 contr~>\'t"'r':>i•ll h\Ut', hut opposing \it·\\--;, ht•lit•\rnJ( th<lt tt lS the riJtht and th<' ohli· i:11tion or lht• Amnican people tht.·m<i<'h<'s to l<·am ;.111 the fa<.:ls ond <.'Ome to their o,.,_.n condusiom. SJ(;:\"ED AHTICLES opp<'nrin$l in FACTS FOHl'\I :\F:\VS do not ncccss11rily n·pr(.'\t.'nt the opi11ion or the editors. ""l SC!llPTS suhmHted to FACTS FOHU\1 :\EWS ,houl<l bt• accompanied by st .. unpcd, st•Jr. addn·swcl t·nv(')Opes. Puhlhht.•r i.\S\UllWS no rt'.SP<lll· 'iihil ity for rl'turn of unsolicited manuscripts. SUBSClllPTl0'1 HATES in the U.S. nnd U.S. 1m,,t.'>\iom, $2 pt•r year, $.5 for thret• ye .. 1n. All o th«.>r countri<'s, $3 per year. To subs<:rihe, see p,1J:"t' Al. /acts Forum News READ ABOUT The Director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, Rene d'Harnoncourt, in writing of Modern Art ond Freedom disagrees with the article which appeared in our February issue, Art For Whose Soke? by Esther Julia Pels. Communist Party, U.S.A. The fourth and final install­ment of the Hand book for Americans prepared by the Sena te Internal Security Subcommittee. ~he Case For and Against Foreign Aid. What is the relation between foreign aid and collective security? Between poverty and communism? Does our aid win us friends and good will? These and other pertinent questions will be discussed. ~outhern States and lnterpositon Proponents' and critics' views on interposition and its relation to the question of segregation will serve to clarify the issue for our readers. CIJ_\""GE OF ADDHESS: Send old addrt>~s ( (''•ll'tly ·•'i imprint<•d on mailin'{ )ah(') or your WJ>l of tht· m.ui:.ui1w) nnd 1ww ;.utdrt·s\ to I· .\CTS FOHl1 \I ~EWS, Dt·p;1rtmt·nt CA, O.tll;1'> 1, T<.·):as. J>k.1->l ullow tlnt.•t. \\t.'t.·ks for clrnut:"t"t.l\Cr. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: EWS, Jfay, 1956 Page 1 Right-to-work laws promise to be a major campaign issue in the coming presidential election. No doubt the newly-wedded AFL-CIO will wield its tremendous political power against these laws, while proponents of such laws will be equally vigorous in their support. In the tradition of Facts Forum this vital and controver­sial question is examined from opposing points of view. Are "Right-to-Wor "' M .\:\'Y people regard the current movements toward compul­sor} union membership as ''ayward cancer cells, spreading malignantly through the bloodstream of America. One newspaper has labeled compul­sory unionism "depersonalization."' Submergence of self is another wav of putting it. To join or not to join .:_ it seems that this will no longer be the question if unions have their way. Workers will be forced to join a union. It has been said that unscrupulous politicians, gangsters, and some labor leaders are banding together in an ever-increasing manner. Losers from such an alliance are, first, the workers; and, second, the public at large." ,\.hen the time comes that a worker cannot work at a job C\cept by be­longing to a union, with subsequent support of same, he becomes, in effect, a ,·ictim of "government without con­sent of the governed.":! Granted, union membership hy compulsion does make the union strong. At the same time this captive membership makes it possible for unions to e\pand and pursue courses ,,·hich may be at variance with the .. :\ [ al~orin'! \fnn Look-, nt Lahor," by Jo-.eph \. lhnl, 1Jw TalJld, \IM. J9, 19.3:'5. , .. Forced \ft·mht·"'hip Sh·,ll'i Your Frf-e1lc)m" pamphlt t i'>"i tu-cl h~ ,.1tion,\l l\iR:ht to \\'ork C.'• o~­mittt-- e, not d.1kd, p. J:). "'J h• (',1 f" for \'olnnt.try Unioni,m." p.tmphld i~ u~<l h\ Cha ml t:'r of C:omnu·rc.·t· of tht• l° uikd ~to.le • \\ hmgton 6, D. C .• not d.1h:d, p. 8. Page 2 say those who feel that compulsory unionism is other name for creeping communism. Arguments those favoring right-to-work Jaws are as foli0 workers' viewpoints. Compulsory unionism vests great power in a few. _\nd, while labor unions have many great and honest leaders, they have also small and dishonest ones. While good leaders may build might) ma­chines for worthy purposes, bad lead­ers may later operate them with evil intent. All thev need is the chance. \'oluntary unionism is the best de­fense against bad operation. 1 Critics cite, to illustrate how far the unions have come - the wrong way - an excerpt from Samuel Gompers' final presidential addrC'ss to the AFL Com ention, El Paso, Texas, 1924: ... I want to urge ckrntion to the funda­mentals of human liberty - the prindpl!'s of \'Oluntarism. l\'o compulsion. 1f WC" S<·C'k to force, we b11t tear apart th,1t which, unitt•d, is invinc:iblc ... It may be hard for many to believe that this ''as the message of Gompers, that "Grand Old \Ian" of Labor. Com­pare that approach to the unions of today, which, some allege, are getting fat and happy on the sweat of the workers. Again, from the speech of Gompers: So long as we haYe lwld fast to Yolun­t, iry prindpl<·s and ha,·c been act11ated and inspired hy thC' spirit of servic<', Wl' ha\'t.' sustain<'d our fonvard pro~n·ss and we han• madt• our L..thor mo\ ('lllC'nt son)(•· thin~ to he r"s1wct!'d and accorded a plac<' ••· l'he C.\<;(• for \'ol1111t.Hy l'11innhm," iv1lH·d hy Ch.1mhn of Comrnn<-r ,,£ tlw l ' nikd .St.th-.;, \\"o,h­iui;: ton fi, D. C., not d.1ktl, p. 9. in the comwils of our Rcp11hlic-. \ \ 'her<' M AG1 have bl11ndcn·d into trying to fore<' ,, r ne1 icy or a dt'cision, even though wisr right, we haw impeded, if not intern11'1 lircd "t \~o tlw realization of our aims. I 'o sp kn pi ... Base yo11r all upon vol11ntar) I litt] ~a -, n lh e 1t. Tl dplcs. . . . at ti It seems to he the consensus ( Sib! ie la] tainly a revolutionary consens11s h·"•' neg · to ~ day that a citizen has to belong .10 J1 f?vteo~~g a~ pay union dues to a labor organiz s f in order that he may be pennit1' 1 Often ° 1.m work and earn his livclihood. 1 1aid oc 101 tenet is contrary to our free ( 1 1 ~0\\larcl rB~ cratic system of government. JtJI amp· lates individual freedom and r1¢ 1 1 i'•im ir~ wl choice, and it is uneonstitu ti•o 11·:1J I 11Jn'".. d' IfS ! well. Economic slavery might ,vt-r "'~of lif~ the lC'rm applied to forcing a ptr 10 to join an organization in or cir ~tt~.' 1• mse xopfl a enjoy tlw privilege of working.r. . t th~ain bac Soml' declare that not onl} dorf •nging Ct. violate the constitutional rights ~1, , llte P•"t people, hut it may well perP. 'ast h l l •r' .,., c an~ f)arasitic union contro mem Jl ·,!' • ne d 1oncst or not. And, worst of nl!·.~1 tlie h, orniJ tJv ~~ t I~e. irr there is littlt• nationwide opposi I , •blhousan, this social "disease," our kdcnt 1r l:iit 1shrni·n ernment, too often the. tool of 0 ; 'J'~~rts oft sure groups, has fallen m with tit < d· 1ndivi ized labor, state laws notwithst<l11j, ''1lc~'tinct di• As a matter of fact, the tcnclcnc' 1 'a~('!"}' ton courts to rule that states will 1(1 , 1, l'J • 10urs hihited from enacting labor ;;r ~ll}~1 ~ time tion where the federal govern111£;, r.~an \V( (Conti1wctl '"' ers, n to"Thf> Right to \\'ork." puhJi..,Ju·d hp. ( ~ ~i.a:~L_~o \\· H.il.(ht to \Vork Com1111tkt". \\'1t<;hi11cton. ~ ,, > >, \'ol FACTS Fonl '1 '\ n 1 s. \Ill!/· J ~l"ts Font·. EXPLANATION OF TERMS 1. CLOSED SHOP: Employees ore required to be union members ot time of hiring ond must remoin in good stonding during employment period. workers who neC?d not bC?come union members. 2. MAINTENANCE OF MEMBERSHIP : Union members must remoin members lin good stondingl for agreement duration. 5. UNION SECURITY: Provided in o union employer con­tract that union membership is o condition of em­ployment. 3. MODIFIED UNION SHOP: Employees who were hired before union shop was established will not be required to join the union. 6. UNION SHOP: Employees need not be union members when hired, but must join union, usually within 30 to 60 days, and remain union members through duration of employment. 4. PREFERENTIAL HIRING: Union members hired when available. When unovoiloble, employer may hire other 7. UNION SHOP WITH PREFERENTIAL HIRING : Agree­ment sets forth that union members shall be given employment preference, or that union shall do hiring. ~r WS Right? onism is 0 rgumeo11 as foll0" say those who contend that right-to-work laws will wreck labor unions, with worke rs a s the ultimate losers. This rea soning is given be low: "'·\\·her< l\f ACAZlNE and press propo- ' fof<'e '1 r nents of right-to-work laws, 1g+1 wisl'' tir .. \~or k"m g o,,vcr t'1 mc on th c i· r t intcrrut to etl tnpewritcrs, have gathered, so •tuntar.r 1 I littJP~ak, not to praise labor but lo bc­th; i e •t. They would hav<' one believe scnsus (' si'b!te t he labor movement is not rcsr)on-nscnsus brj . to a considerable degree for to tefnging about social and economic elon!( · 1V Jj1 • 0trns and hclpincr to enrich the organtZ• 1 es f '"' )crmitlt oft 0 millions of Americans. \Vith i 11 00(1. 1 sa1·"~, n odious and indelicate phrasings free d• to., Proponents direct attention l<'nl. 11 1 ' Varn ar~J Big Labor, that monstrous lnd rW ~lu; Ptr~ wh.ich, the ubiquitous "t~c( "t tio11.1l hl0o~' is siphoning away the ltfo s : 1 ]\ ,vcII IVay of democracy, of our American tg i ·1 IJ( .,, of life. 1. g •o rder 1 tla•iron explain how unfounded ar<' the '.~\, 6 te11 .s of union security c!C'tractors, ;;• ~ioc' ~ tha~1 ~ background data about our ·iihts of lbg'.ng cultural scene arc important : perprl1 Vas c Past hundred years have w1tni·ssecl , ihcr>-' lb t change in typ<•s of employment. ' 1£ ·ill ~· th. he dominant typ<• of business today is 0 ' ·itiO'' ~ 1 uge, impersonal corporation employ­PIJ° s .. ,l ~ "t•h!housands of workers, frequently in e( Cl f I <111 P •shm!'nts that arc located in diffcr- )01 O of~ l'h~rts of !ht• country. . . with 1 I q· . ind1v1cl11al worker on his own is at ithst11t1\ ~nq disadvantage in trying to influ-denc~ 1 '•Re he <'Omp,1ny's decision regarding his 1Vitl bC I l'Ji s, hours and working condi tions.' or le~ ·~!tier<: time was when the bulk of ·rnn1t;1 l;i~·an workers were self-employed ·d "" '' Crs, mechanics, etc. They were ~ .... itJ•ht h, lfJ .. ~o \\:ork l .1'"~." Fact.r F<>rurn Ncw1, ~ », \"ol. 1. ~(1\ F OHL:\1 -. ws, ,Uoy, 1956 their own bosses; tlwv worked the hours whieh suited them best. ow, however, culture changes have shrunk rural employment and rural popula­tion, and enlarged urban population and urban employment. Some 80 per cent of the present working popula­tion consists of those who work for wages. The remainder arc either sclf­employed or arc employers." In view of the foregoing pcrccnt­ag(' S one may sec that four out of five workers are dependent on employers for jobs. And, working for the cmploy­<' r, they are subject to his working conditions and schcd11lcs. The individ­ual is, in the main, all but ll<'lpless in trying to influence the <'mploy<'r in matters of salary, hours, etc. \Vithout union security he might as well joust with windmills as try to influence Big \lanagcmC'nt. He is Forc<'d to accept salary and working conditions which arc thrust on him by his !'mployer. II!' is, in brief, a puppet on a string, to he dangl<'d at will by a possible big, bullying management, a management which may well treat him with polite inconsideration and be attentively in­dilTerent to his outraged outcries. This is where the union comes in. Through organizational strength the union speaks for the individual work­er and lC'nds the strength he lacks. Through the union he is strong t-'Thr lliL!ht-to-\\'ork ContrO\-<'"'Y·" I~a1Jor's Eco­nomlr RcL it'u:, J.111uary, J 9:36, \'ol. I. enough to "stand up and he counted." This was recogniz('d in the \Vagner Act. Also, it was carried in Section 1 of the Taft-Hartley Act: £,perienec has proYccl that protection by laws of the right of emplorecs to organ­ize and bargain rollccti\·cty saft'guards commerce from injury, impairment, or in­terruption, and promotes the flow of com­merce by rcmo\'ing certain recognized sources of industrial strife and unrest, by eneouraging practices fundamental to the frimdly adjustnwnt of industri.11 disputes arising out of dilfcrcnccs as to wagcs, hours, or othl'r worling conditions, and by restoring equality of bargaining power b!'twccn cmploycrs and cmployccs. The banding together for mutual protection and advancement goes hack a number of vcars. Since the Civil \Var, farmers · have organized into associations and cooperatives, seeking help from the government and stabilization of markets. Also, the American Bar Association is another example, as well as the American ;\Jedical Association, to which almost all physicians belong. The union shop developed in the printing trade before the Civil \Var.3 This, then, is why unions regard the st.1tcs' rights-to-work laws as an un­necessary evil. These laws prevent (Continued Oil Page 5) --::::f1i<' Hieht-to-\Vork Contro,·N'Sf," Labor's Eco­nomic Reriew, January, J 9.56, Vol. I. 0 U. S. D<:pt. of Labor, Bur<'~m '!( Labor Stn~is­ti<:" ll, Ext('nt of Colkctit·c Bar,.:ammg and Union lfc<·ognition, 19-16, Bulletin No. 909. Page 3 fs ing e tu (Continued from Page 2) already taken legislative action. Addi­tionally, state laws are the No. 1 tar­get of national labor unions. It is said that if union officials are allowed to have their way, the sixty million working people in this coun­try, two-thirds of whom belong to no union, will eventually be able to keep no job without a union's say-so. Call it social dictatorship or whatever - in this case a thorn by any other name is still a thorn. There will be both eco­nomic and political domination of the country. Especially is this tme since the marriage of AFL and CIO. And now the wary wonder whether a cre­tin offspring will inherit the earth, literallv. The 'newlyweds have announced, as objectives, a repeal of the 18-state right-to-work laws, as well as amend­ment of the Taft-Hartley Act. And, if the wedded bliss continues, the coun­try may well "enjoy" an unofficial labor dictatorship. The farnrite argument of union offi­cials against a man who works at a job and accepts raises, bettered work­ing conditions, etc., secured for him bv the union to which he does not belong, is that he is a "free rider." This, most agree, is a half-truth, clev­erly camouflaged more often than not by ernsive gobbledygook. Ile is no more a free rider than is the man who benefits from the work of various char­ity, community and religious organi­zations to which he has contributed nothing. By the same token, state the scoff­ers, could not unions themselves be termed "free riders"? Certainly they pay no taxes, but they receive govern­mental services through the medium of any one of a number of agencies. The "free rider" thing was back­handed by the Supreme Court of 'ebraska in a decision that the union shop contract between the Union Pacific Railroad and several railroad unions was illegal, this under the First Amendment to the Constitution. The Court made the following statement: Assuming it would be reasonable to re­quire free riders to pay their proportionate share of the cost of collective bargaining ... we do not think the means selected has any real and substantial relation to the object sought to be obtained. First, and primarily ... his right to join or not to join a union, has no relationship to the object sought, and, second, by re­quirinp; him to pay initiation feC"s, du('S and ass!'ssnwnts, he is required to pay for many things besides the cost of collective bargaining.• Taking note of the fact that unions had welfare Funds, participated in lob­bying and political activities, etc., which were not directly associated with collective bargaining per se, the Court said: In some instances, compulsory mcmb('r­ship would c·ompd support, financial and otlwrwis<'. of poli<'i<-S which an employ<'e might cl"""' objc•<'tionahle from the stand­point of fre<' go\'{'rnment and the liberties of the individual under it. To eompd an c•mployec to make invol­untar}' contributions, from his compc>nsa­tion, for such purposc•s is a taking of his propc·rty without due• process of law.' It is common knowledge that, as a rule, the employer who forces com­pulsory unionism on a minority of his employees doesn't like the task. Ile docs this to placate the unions, so that he may stay in business. Leaders of labor unions realize that mass picketing has been prohibited by fl"The Rie:ht to \Vor1c "'ational ~C'wsletter," Amt. t.5, 19.5.!J, Vol. I, '.\:o . . 5, puhli~h<"d by thf" ~ational Rie:ht to \Vork Committ('<', \\'nshington, D. C. Tfbfrl. WIOI-" WOHl.D PHOTO The late Samuel Gompers, AFL's "grand old man of labor," testify-ing before a House Judiciary Committee. Against compulsory union-ism, Gompers soid, " ... Bose your all upon voluntary principles." state law in many places, and th "!A_ picketing always leads to violcnc 't<J evertheless, they go ahead with th mass demonstrations, wanting t frighten the workers who wish to rt tinions lJ turn to work. In times past some e1T 1n any 01 ployers used to intimidate workers 1 In actua the use of "goon squads." The courl 10 low-\1 punished them for this. But no,1 they hav days labor unions are so strong th coinmurn they are almost above the law; th ing stant can threaten to defeat mayors n. State r governors if they use public authorit ~Urse, st to put down violence.8 rights me Paradoxically, America spends TJl ~Uthority lions on defense, and it spends gr eminent 1 sums checking security risks. Yet tnaintaini seems unperturbed by the fact th: settled in thousands of citizens are losing th t The e1 civil liberties one by one. erininol ... One simple amendment to the Ta ~~hts as l Hartley Act (repeal of the section kno" isguisei as 14-B) would remove the states' righ' 110uld cm to pass and enforce Hight to \Vork L;1" ;1strictior and would wipe out the laws in all eight ley wou <'<'n statc•s. It shou ... The big labor union lcackrs, "'' national fon·<•d in their gil'(antic political p0'1 l'Con through tlw ... AFL and C!O merg tii;h Omic an· dC'tc·rminc·d to seek this amcndml'nt h;; tto-w Taft-llartl<·y in the next Congress ... ' fi • Orty-t• llris huv The Right Honorable Lord Tust lllarket ~ Denning, Lord Justice of Appenl. 1n v · · - En",.,l ancl, in a speech before a Phf <fli(f aa risoeuesr delphia session of the American i/lge of i Association, said that, although t~J , IVs With unions in both om countries pro,·1 Od the ni, workmen with greater bargaio' t'>o A. favor power, they also led to the cl0" nents ol shop. And a man had no right to 11 ' ~man nc there unless he was a member of :i r loh d ' 1 I A cl h h 01 lio oesn ti cu ar trac c union. n t is, c PI 11n ns, or if eel out, led to private tribunals '1f i ''lhsatisfact there was no recourse to courts o er when a man was punished. He rl1 ~nh nt.im the following statements: 'ltiitf)PY ' llt;it.h -ct I When a man joins a trade union hi th· c hk1 hound by the mies. They are said to J-1 t" IS is contract between the men themselvr> "r/Ot1s wo between them and the union. But the~. "',·lten<'r pa in no sense a contract freely ncgot1at i~ .. ter ho· man must acec·pl them or go without 'It} p I oyment.. . . ~ ''\\·nlout u1 l suggest that where the law foils s ~ "Ver puny is that it puts too much emphasis on ~"t Or an supposc·d contract between the man lliin <lro11nd his union and too little emphasis 00 lhi\ )(s he right to work. ~the \\·o~ke ... II is right to work is left o?';.J t'l\'Jr cril's, maraud .. rs. If he is wrongfully deprI'. (:;;rl Y disti his ril'(ht to work, the courts should 111 S of v<·nc· to protc('t him. They should als0 lt · man 1>1 '" 15 trct him against wrongful exclusion · ·•ed C·'X tr union." the . CXC'cu · r1 h Lord Justice DC'nning quotedf ~side)(Jot~k, Charles Geddes, chairman of thC , ~hn 1vh0 is ish Trade Unions Congress, as s:ii· liII ll'lay la (Continued on r~ f,,l't neccss •"'Wr•Hn•hou r Mm Pickri. Cnllrd FfJ'f ~~l;d job? Ri~hts." hy Da\"icl Lnwr('nce, N. Y. tfrrO l 1t"i\' One tr, Jnmuuy 4. 19.56. (If; 1<)C'rahJc .. 'The HiRht to \Vork - n Il;t'iic Mo~ol. 1 11_i 111 ndclr hy E. S. DillMd, Chairm;\11, ~ati0 ..: •_it to \Vork CommittN'. f" :="% ·., Cn~,. A. 1'""J0<' Hiu:ht to Work N':'ttionril Sew<lrttf' ~ 1 >' Cont:~ 195.'), \'ol. I, 1';o. 6, \\.'n'ihington, D. C. 10,d ,,.,C' not Cm1ti11ucd from Page 3) s, and tlw to violcnc .d with tht1 .vanting t wish to r :inions from extending. They hamper •t some c1 1n ~ny one of a large number of ways. workers l n ,1ctuahty these laws arc conducive The cou :h low-wage incomes. And as such But no" ey have a bad effect on 'the entir~ strong t h ic oin mum.t y. Low wages mean low liv-e law; th ng standards.' mayors a~ State right-to-work laws im olve of lie authortt Course, states' rights. Jn essence st;tcs' tights means an i.s sue of govcrnm' ent·1l 1 auu . • spenc s fll cm tonty between the federal gov-pends g~r ~cnt and the states with the shtcs ·is ks. Y ct maintaining tllat the fssuc should' be 1e fact settled in their favor. losing th te:h? entire thing is a matter of ti l~~nology .. For cxam1~lc, states' df ts .as such m laJ;>or relations merely 11.~gu1scs. Esscnt1ally, these rights t• ul.d empower the states to add state th-e1 tncri ons t o t I1 osc o f t I1 e federal Jaw; 1 Y would be in addition to them.r. lcadNs, re1 naJ should be obvious .to all that a litical IJO" l'(: on.ii economy rcquJTCS national CIO mC'r~ tiglnomic policies. If all states adopt mcndment ~ f t-to-w?rk laws, there might well '!ress .. . ' fitni ~rty-e1ght clilfcrcnt Ja,vs. atfr>nal · l Tusti< Illa k buy and sell in the national f~oArc .1ppc,· 1 . ih·• vra c·t . .\.f t.1 ltiplant . firms ' with plants plll nf nous states, might well run afoul ~~~i~an Pod a see?1ingly. nightmarbh hodge­h l tr·· la1 ge ~f mdustnal relations. lix state _ oug 1 0d,1.. 'hdvs h11·1th an additional federal hw 1es pr " t e · I 1 ' • bargai111 A. f· n1~ 1tmare wou d become real. the c]o" Jlonen'lvorite. argument of those pro­ «rht to ,,, il"' ts of right-to-work laws is that i,., · " 1an ncccl · · ·r J · her of a Jl' lnb d , . , s no union security. J 11s iis he 1J01 ti00 ocs':1 t come up to his expccta­u~ als ,,1i1 11n1~ti~r if the work.mg conditions arc :ourts of 11ther ~ actory, or 1f t~1crc '.Ire any cl. He rn· ''nha lJmh~rs o~ 1~ays m which he is '!''itl Ppy with his ]Oh - why let him t 1~t·hLe~ him move on to an~ther job 1'! . e likes better. ~'ti lls is a ridiculous philosophv. A ~(·~lls Worker knows he will fine! no lllittner pastures over the next hill no I ' er J . ' Yitho lO\~ many hills he crosses. ''"'ll tit un10~ strength to bolstC'r his ~\'~r runy might, he could wait for­~(' t a or an indulgent management to lhin round to giving him some of the this gs he lwlievcs he deserves. But ''th~r\\~o~kcr's weak cry, joined with (:q_lilv r~es.' coi:nhinc to form a shout t•rs · 0 f distm((111shed by the sensitive• It . management. •ticd15 ('Xtremely ('asy for a high-sal­~ lre ri eh<'cutivc to he objective about :nside gl ts ?f workers - he is on the ·~;1n \ hoo~mg out. But what of the ~ho~ o is on th<' outside looking in, rkiJ1 ay lack the formal education or ~trednc.ccssary to holcl down a prc­'~ ly 0~oh? Perhaps .this man knows ''nii l C' trade, and it woulcl 11ork a 1 ( <'rahlc hardship on him ancl his ~rti;°(!' Aeal1Ht "Rii!llt-t'!-\\'ork /,_au.:\" puh­ttitl,, t~« -~1•11~r!.,,mJ).~·r~1t11~tu\tn.d Or~.tn11:.1ti;m, not '\111s, .\lay. 19.56 Wlf>E WORl.D rHOTO Secretory of labor Jomes Mitchell. Mitchell, at a Cl~ notional convention, defended compulsory unionism and condemned state lows prohibiting such a policy. family to quit his job and move to another location. }.Jotives for having right-to-work la1~·s are leg_ion. States often pass anti­u111on laws m order to attract indush·y their way. B~ maintaining a low-wage are'.1, they thmk they can lure industry their way hy. an anti-union Circe song. Industry wluch does this can make a "killing" by manufacturing in a low­wagc area and selling in a high-wage area. For this reason, perhaps, the South offers considerable inducement with its right-to-work laws. This may h(• a contributing factor in the increas­ing industrialization of the South. Also, the absence of anti-injunction laws may he a factor in the growth in so11tlwrn developments." An editorial in an Oklahoma news­paper statccl that Texas and Arkansas arc attracting around ten times as many industries as Oklahoma. It stated, further, that these states had no more to offer industry than Okla­homa - in fact they were inferior in some respects. The reason advanced ror this was that Oklahoma doesn't ha\'(' laws assuring industry that un­ions will not impede them. The article pointed up that Oklahoma couldn't ('OmJWtl' \\'ith its neighboring states, nor \\'ith other states which had right­to work lcgislation.1 That right-to-work laws arc low­\\' ag<' la"s is more or less self evident. 011r nation is in need of a high wage ('('onomv. Our country has had an all h11t unlimited procluctivc potential. But more important is the maintc- ()uolt•cl in Okl.thomn Still<• lndu\lri.tl tTnion Cmrn<·il. CIO, J\ l .q~al, F:nnwmic mid StatiHirnl .\1irt<t1J of So-Ct1ll<·d ''lliglit-to- \\ 'ork" l .. e1-:i~lt1tlo11 J) , 16. t nance and increase of consumption. If we do not have cmplo) mcnt at high wages, we cannot find buvers.8 A depression cycle comes when wages fall and consumption su bsc­quently falls. The states themselves bear out this tenet - high-wage states are prosperous, and low-wage sta tcs are not. Further, the tenet is borne out by countries of Europe. Itah· and France, even with the United ·states' aid, are always hm·ing economic diffi­culty. England has fared better be­cause wages have climbed. According to law, it is the union's responsibility to sec that there are peaceful settlements of grievances, and tht~t the work is carried out. Surely the umon cannot do these things ade­quately if it does not have full control of all the workers and can insure man­agcmen t that non-union members \\'On't stop work, violating the union workers' contract. Also, to those \\'ho criticize the power of unions, they must realize that unions have to haYe power to discipline 11·orkcrs who vio­late their contract.9 Thus, if thl're is a minority of non-union members, thcv may \\'ell keep the union in hot \\'ater. The ational Planning Association pointed out that emplovers saw ad­vantages in bargaining ·with a wcll­disciplined union, and were prone to encourage workers to join such an organization. •o \Vhcn the union has a closed shop, there is elimination of friction to a marked degree. There is no competi­tion between diverse labor groups. '\o two or more unions "ill be \\'Orking the same side of the street, so to speak. The result of such competition would be unrest among the cmploycl's. \lan­agemcnt, too, would suffer from such a situation. \Vith a closed shop the union 11·01ilcl he in a better position to bargain "ith management. It would not hm c to seek to impress the workers and sub­sequently get them to join the union hy showing how strong thcv were hv wangling new concessions from ma1i­agcmcnt. A strong union, flrmlv en­trenched, would not ha,c to hl'. con­stantly proving its strength. Its strength would alreadv he a matter of record. Also, it would not seek new advantages when business conditions did not warrant it. Too, the workers themselves would feel that thcv had a personal interest in their jobs, inas­much as they had a voice in their \\'Orking conditions. 11 (Co11ti11ucd 01i Page 7) , Tiie Ca.fc Ai;minst .. Ric11t-to-\\'ork" T.ain, puh­! J~~(~:i•, ~: 2~~ngress of lndmtri<ll Qq,::aniz;.ttiom, not D P(:old<'n & Rutt!'nhNJ:?, Dynamics of lml1Htridl fmorrac11, p. 212 ( 19-12). 1"C'auu.t of Jndmtrial Prn('(' l:tll/1 r Collrcti1 e fff,?{~)1 ~11i,: - F1mdanunt11l cif /.alwr Pc11n·, p. 7 t 11Studi<·s in Pt-~onnt·I PoHcv ,o, 12, T110 Clo cd S/Jop ( 1939). pp. 6-7. . Page 5 ~ e4 (Contmucd from Page 4) I do not bdicvc the trade union morn­ment of Great Britain can live for H:ry muc:h longer on the basis of compulsion. \lust people hdong to us or stan·e, whether they like our policies or not? Is that to be the future of the movement? :\o. I believe the trade union card is an honor to be conferred, not a badge which signifies that you haH.· got to do something whether >·ou like it or not." Speaking to the same group, i\1r. J. C. Gibson, vice president an? gen­eral counsel of the Santa Fe railroad, said: ... Compulsory union mt·mbcrship ... rt·fll'cts an aw~tn:rn:ss of a threat to our free way of life inherent in compdling a man to join a pri\ ate organization before he can hold any sort of job in industry ... 1 Ic:rc, as in cn.•ry other instance through the centuries, an attempt is being made to justify the deprivation of individual liberty on the grounds that it is in the best inter­ests of ewryone, including those whose rights arc being curtailed or taken away. But in this casl', as in so many others, the reasons adhtnc:ccl are insuffic:icnt.L Fred A. Hartle>, Jr., president of The. ' ational Hight to Work Commit­tee and co-author of the Taft-I Iartley Act, declared that compulsory union­ism is the cancer of the labor move­ment. To avoid dictatorship he em­phasized that our country must stop compulsory unionism. Ile said that union shop with control of the work­ing man "increases the power of the union leaders over the politicians ... The drive for compulsion is a drive for power. The demands of some union leaders are insatiable .... They want e\·cntuallv to control cvcrvthing and ever. bod~- ... "' 3 • One application for union member­ship read much like a giant giveaway of rights. Exacting, in essence, bhnd obedience, it authorized the union to act for the worker before any commit­tee, board, court or other tribunal in anv wav that affected his employee st~itus. ~lore, it represented and bound him in the prosecution, adjustment and settlement of all kinds - in short, stripped him of all personal rights and free will. There arc Pightpcn states which ha\·e right-to-work laws. Twl'lve of them have banned forced membership in unions since 1947. Their contention is that these laws protect the rights of their citizens to work, and they may or ma\· not choose to belong to a union, as thev prefer. Of those twch·cs states which have hanned forced union membership since 19-17, all either match or exceed uuThe Ri!.!ht to \\'ork ':ltional '\(•\\<.;lt·th'r," Oct., llJll. \ o l. I, :\o. (;, \\ .l,hllll!ton. D. C. /111d ~ \u ·u~ta ( Ga. ) Claroniclt>, O<:t. 19, 19)3. Page 6 Former Representative Fred A. Hartley, Jr., and the late Senator Robert Taft, ca-authors al the Taft-Hartley Bill, curbing lobar unions. Hartley is now president al the National Right ta Wark Committee. national average gains in retail sal~s, bank savings accounts, p~r c~p1ta earnings, private auto reg1strat10ns, total firms in operation, and a number of others. These twelve states are Texas, Virginia, Tennessee, South Dakota, orth Dakota, Arkansas, Ari­zona Florida, Georgia, Iowa, c­braska and orth Carolina (Florida since 1944). The six other states arc South Carolina, Utah, Alabama, Lou­isiana, ~lississippi and 'evada. These have passed laws since 1947, an~ g~v­cmmcnt statistics arc hardly signifi­cant enough as yet to prove anything. Those in favor of right-to-work laws do not claim that they are solely responsible for the above ~ains, hut ccrtainlv the laws were an important factor, they state. . Fortv vcars ago Justice Charles Evans Jlughcs, in Tn1ax vs. Raich, 239 U.S. 3.3 ( 1915), stated: lt requin·s no argument to show that the right to work for a living in the com­mon oc:<.:upations of the ('OJllm11nity is of the very css,.nC<' of tll(' personal freedom and opportunity that it was the purpose of the Anwndnwnt to S{'(:un•. The Amendment Ju:;ticc Hughes re­ferred to was the Fourtcc•nth. 'ot onlv are such rights provided for in our' constitution, hut the) arc recognized in the Cnivcrsal Declara­tion of Human Ri~hts, approved b~ the Gc'ncral Asscmblv of the United Nations in 194S. Section 1 of Article 2.'3 states: EH•ryom• has the• right to work, to fr!'c ehoit<' of employment, to just and farnr­. tb1e ('Onditions of work, and to protel'tion ~tg:ainst un<·mploynu·nt. Article 20 pro\idcs the following: u• Thi· Lt· ,\l nnd \lor.\I B.1 .. 1 of llic:ht to \\'ork La" , di.,trihutt-d h\. Thi• \;,1tio11.ll Hic:ht to \\ 'ork Comnntlt·t•, \\' .1 hinR;IOll, I>. C ., p. 9 . l. EH:ryom• has thl' right to frt.·('(lom r p<·ac<·ful ass(:1nbl} and assodation. :!. :\o 011e may h<• eompdkd to hdoi to an asst>dation. In 1941 President Roosevelt sn1 that the government would nc\ force workers to join a union. "Thnt he stated, "would be too much like ti Hitler methods toward labor.""• Powerful labor officials can, ovc night, bring about an economic cri'. Tlwy can stop production of \·ital 1111 crals and metals and can stall tr<ll portation: By the same token, \~or~< ma\ he forced into mcmlJC'rsh1p 111 union that is Communist-domim1t< The workers will not be able to otv leaders \\ho the\' believe are not lo~ to our country.· These union leadc in the main, arc doubtless loyal \111• icans hut the labor movcnwnt has 1 bee·~' a bl,, to weed out all those do~1bt!ul loyalty. Thus, ~ompulsk1, un1ornsm g1Yes the Amcnc,m \\Of no choice' hut to belong to sucl.1 union; either that or forfeit his J' Too, no matter how abo\'C'lmard man mav be, it is a matter of rccO that late;· some stronger man will r• to dominate his group. \Ir. E. S. 1 lard, Chairman, 'ational Right \Vork Committee, stated in an · dress: If a labor union is op!'rat!'cl on di< torial prindplt•s, it soon hC'comes anotl foundation stone in hui~ding ·~ typ<.'. of.S!Jl ('rnnwnt op<.'rakd on d1ctatonal pnnc1P If w<' do not halt the spr<'nd of eoin1' sion in this Fidel - compulsion und<'r whtL tlw righb of th<' individual an· sacrifil 1 for the "good" of the state (that "g<• hein,g dl'termi1wd by onf' or a small μn of k-a<krs) - tlu·n we will hid our ,~·. pditin· frt.•(• t:nll'rprisl' systl'm good 1 and sac:rifit·e our freedom 01.1 th(~ alt•1# stupidity, manag:t·tnf.'nt a\ ari<.·t• and l ardic.:f.'. Unions, in their publications .' 1 othl'rwis<', do their utmost to con"~ workl'rs that a union shop is for t benefit instC'ad of the benefit of nil' officials. IIo\\'cvcr, ·~ mere c~ne-fol~ of American labor 1s urnon1zed. rt obvious that the other thre<'~fo1111 feel that th<'} have little to gain f unions. \Ir. Dillard n•marked further: It is rl('itlwr fair, Anwrit'an, nor c<ui· t11tional to plaL·t• a dl'dsion ('Oll<'f~1 fund,rn1t"ntal ptrsonal lihcrtit'S and 1 'id11al rights in the hands of other>· A111<·ric.rn historv and all hi1.,tor~ pron·d tlw princ:ipit• that "th<" m<"1 n~ fi<·s tlw t·ncl" to be tlw 1nost iniquitoll" cL.tngt•rous pr<'n·pt affecting: the inl'-'' of both the indi' idual and th<' whok ~ m11nitv. That is th(• Communist d~K - tht' ~dot trint• of c·ornpl<:tt• immornlit~ total disn·gard of Christi.in prindpkf tlw rij.{hts and cli~nitv of thl' indi' ic ll· (co111i1111cd "" f•' 1 ~~.'.'/;!;: ~\i~I~; to \\'ork - a Bohic \lor.\1 1" 1 addr<.· In: I', S. Dill.trd, Cluirrn,\11 , ,,11 11111' to Work C:om111itkt. 11/hid. FACT~ Fom \! '\1rns, \JO!/· j The a fold. F1 in ccrta What th ers. ... / lion, thE hide th ret·ruit t tific con th<· emp, site skill Skillet P<:di!Jou the unio iob. This forc:c in rt·gion, 1 "·orkers 1 "tt. It is do this o1 t«nce of ~('f\•i(:(• l d1iner>· ii \s for 11·ho doe: reaps all 1ccurcs f1 as a frl'c reaping \I is compa1 Commun ii •s his nci 1'he no regarded •nl{ ncitli l·1· \\ 1Joys all \\· orsc, sc 0rkcrs 1r ~t·n want c 1P privi an get th Trade u carry on 1•~n'·''1 llb er p. in u ~ass I this \\, 11ncr \ ion. th· lanv 111 'Ose \Vho \stelativc llJ. for \VO "'hre than ~· en he r P<~rk and ~ IOr boy. I 1.. ~as los •I• limo. I 1. n1a 1'11tch in th he rig) ili~Ught of th,/ llligh1 hr·e a. man liia kr1der. , r ''d tha c~ fn.•t:dom < I t1on. <·cl to belon >SC\'C It sa1 ould nc' ion. "That uch like ti >Or."tri can, ovr iomic cri~ Jf vital n1i stall tnll' .en, worke >ership in -dominat lble to 01 .re not lo~ ion Jeack !oval i\!111 1ent has 11 111 those ·ompuJso1 can work' to such 'cit his i~ vehoard •r of rc'CI' 1an will f1 •. E. S. P: I Right in an .i eel on did !tll('S anotl typ<' of~· al principl of con1111 under wh tr<.' sacrifit that "wJCI' small W"' id our cc ·m goodb' the alt.1r •e and ti.'I ?t.o (Continued from Page 5) The advantages of a union are mani­fold. For example, the union hall is, in certain industries, to union workers What the employment office is to oth­ers. ... Aside from every other considera­tion, tlw union is essentially the only ve­hicle through which the employer can recruit the labor force he needs for a spe­tifie contract. It is virtually impossible for the employer to get workers of the requi­•• te skill from the labor market at large ... Skilled craftsm{'ll cannot be secured ex-l><: ditiously in any usable quantity unless the union direds workers to a particular JOb. This din•ction may im·olve the labor forec in a particular craft for a whole rt•gion, as when several thousand iron Workers arc needed on a large-scale proj­l'< t. It is nupossible for the contractor to do this on his own or even with the assis­tance of the United States Employment Sl'rvkt.• unless the union recruiting ma­(: hinery is utilize<l. 1 h As for the worker in a union shop iv o doesn't join the union, yet who reaps all the benefits which the union 1ccures for its members, he is known <ls a free rider and a chiseler. He is reaping where he has not sown.'" This 15 colllparablc with a man living in a t111llmunity and refusing to pay taxes, •s his neighbors have to do. t The non-union employee might he egarclcd as parasitic. lie spins not, ~~d neither docs he weave, yet he \\~Joys all the union-bought benefits. 11. 0 rsc, setting a bad example, other fll 0rkers might follow in his path. Few s{n want to pay for industrial citizcn­t< t1P privileges if they see that they n get them for nothing. work without a place to work. It is the right of management to go out into the labor marketplace and bid for workers on any terms they choose. A man's right to work is at all times contingent on his being able to find someone who will hire him. And even then he may well be refused this "inalienable" right on the sliμ;htest pretext. Unions do not claim that there are not abuses of the union shop and closed union. However, most unions arc against discrimination because of race or color or creed, and they try to prohibit this discrimination by oth­ers. •4 Actuallv, some unions arc not in favor of a closed union. ·waiter Reu­ther made the following statement: ... In the UA W-ClO we have n<•\er ask<·d for a closed shop. ... \Ve endorse the principle of the dos(•d shop because in C<.'rlain industri<.•s W(' think it is essential. In the maritime in­dustry, for example, W<' lhink that tlw elosc·d-shop and the hiring-hall arrangc­nwnt is essential because of the nature of that industry. floweH•r, we think that the approach ought to he to meet tlw ahusl's rathl'r th.in to outlaw tlw prineipl<-; I per­sonally think that it is wrong for a union to han• a closed membership in which tlwy atkmpt to build a labor monopoly, in order to csploit the advant<tges of a non­opoly. . .. I think if you had legislation which said, "\Ve will give labor a C('rtain period to dean its own house and to mah• th<.'S<.' eorrl'<'lions itself," and it failed to do it you might then have to have correctin• legisla­tion; that is a helter approach rathl'r than outlawing the principl<• of the closed shop c•vt•n in those incluslriC"s wlwrc thC'rc arc no ahuses. 15 There are those who would have tlw worker believe that he is "smoth­ered" hy his union, that he has no protection against union abuses. This has no basis in fact. 1ot only docs the worker have a voice in his representa­tive union, but he has available to him remedies in the courts and the Na­tional Labor Relations Board. rn Addi­tionally, not only can the union mem­ber take part in the policy making of his union, but he has the opportunit\ to elect the men who negotiate with management. :\Ioreovcr, under the Labor-:\Ianagement Relations Act, em­ployees can ,·ote in a new bargaining agency if it docs not reflect their interests. A paradox of the nion Security and Section 14( b) of the Taft-Hartley Law is that the states' rights arc operative when a state wants to appl~ more harsh resh·ictions. But these states' rights arc not operative when a state wants to apply more liberal standards of union sccurity.17 When the Taft-Hartley Law was being debated in Congress, Senator Wayne :\!orris made the following statement: Thus, \\'e lay down in the bill a wry full <tnd cornpktc national policy as to dosed- and union-shop agreements. At the same time, the bill provides in S<·ction l~(h) howe,cr, that the national policy may be entirely disregarded and supcr­S<• ded by the States if they ck-sire to im­pose' a rnorC' rC"stri<:th·c policy on the samC' s11hjC'cl matkr. A more pointed instant(' of anti-labor bias could hardly ])(' <'mis­agcd than this alleged minor change in the bill." To show further advantages of union membership, unions sometimes act in capacities other than collecti\·e bargaining. President of Auto \\'ork­ers \\'alter Reuther asked Congress to plug a gap in the Social Securit~ Act as follows: (Continued on Page S) TC"rming the failure to con·r worJ..<"rs s11fft'ring from long-knn disahilitics "tlw :ations ." to con,·1~ is for tli ·fit of u11 one-fo111 . 1 Jl •llIZe( · rf t Trade unions not onlv need clues to ~try on their work, ln1t they need •n~illber participatio.n to dis?uss issues i~ ~ass on them m clcct1oi.1s. 0~1ly 111 this way can a democratic umon nctio 1l'J'/1r Cwtr A/,!ainst "Ri~lit-to-\\"ork" 1.au:s, puh­li\ lwd hy CIO, not datt'd. i:.o·rnft-llnrtley Act Red'i'imn,". llrarin.I.(\ lwfor~· tlw Committ<'<' on Labor and Puhhc \.Vt•lfon". U. S. Sc•nalt•. H:Jrd Con,1.CrC'SS, 1st St•\\ion, Pt. 1, pp. 410- 12 ( HJ.5c)) • 1"Tllr Cave A,t:"ai11ft "Ri/,!lit-to-\\'ork" I~nu:v, op. cit., p. R9. irce-fo11 gain frt irthrr: nor <.'<ll~ • ('()Ile.'('~ •s and 11 others. h histor~ ... nw.1n" 1 iquitotl~ the intlt whokl 1ist ck><:I moralilY. ·incipk~ inclidrhl· 'i>d Oii f'il; th \fan;·union members maintain that • Ose who do not see the "light," have \irt1ativc stupidity of 100 pc•r cent. l)io or workers in non-union shops, '~hre than one has got the "word" ~·o ek he awoke to the fact that all llor~ and no pay was making him a Ji. .r hoy. Indeed, when he dbcoven•d t,.,tll>as losing his pants, literally, his .\ htnonial might well he phrased, 1' 1tch in time saved mine." tfi0 he right-to-work laws arc oftl'n ·11i light of as right-to-wreck laws. lfi"? might he construed as meaning f,,.e a. man has the ri{.!,ht to work as a t~:ir{'rler. Clan•ncc Darrow once rc-e> cl that there can be no right to .. '!' 11• a~~~lf.trt.lt·y ·\C't H(•\ hic>m" llt'nrinj!\, U. S. ~d c;oninuttN· on Lnhor and Puhlic \V1·lfort'. il . '1J.!rc· 1, ht S«~\ion, Part I, 1>1>. .50·1·5 lt.~'°t11 ·11.i).rnc L. To1wr, The Clo~nl SJio,,, p. 169 t '"1 F \ 'Ont 'I l'\1ws, .'1ay, 19.56 Three-way hand ­shake of George Meany, Wolter Reuther and Adlai E. Stevenson in New York City, Dec. 8. Is this three ­woy 'shokc prophetic? W~lll WOHi ii l'lfOTO ~Tlw Ca~r J\/,!ai11vt "'Ri/.!Jit-to-\\"ork" l.au.-1;, puh· lhh('d h~ C'IO, not dakd, p. 96. M);J Conμn·.~dional lkcord 6·t.56 ( J9·t7). t e4- (Continued from Page 6) The merging of AFL-CIO has brought tremendous power to the union politically. Some believe that Big Labor officials, many who think in terms of "~le, the people!" are geared for a big political coup in the forth­eoming presidential election. Probably millions will be spent by Big Labor on propaganda alone in the 1956 election. And, needless to say, there are those "·ho will succumb to a line of reason­ing slanted skillfully for radio, news­papers and other media. Labor itself most likeh· will he a major campaign issue, anci whoever wins the Demo­cratic nomination - should he be elected to the presidency - doubtless will he indebted to Big Labor for be­ing the dominating force responsible. Perhaps the favorite philosophy of compulsory unionists is that such a ?to- Co11ti1111cd from Page i) mo"t ~t.·rious omission" of th<~ Social Sccu­rit, · Att . . . lkutlwr told the S<·nate Fi~anee Committ<·<· that the· American p<~>plt• e\pect Congress "to plug up this mo ... t <:onspic:uous gap" this ycar. 111 After all is said and done, if right­to- work laws gain a toe-hold, sub­sequent!~ · they will gain a strangle hold on unions. The result will he that the \\'Orker can't help but end up low man on the totem pole. It is time our citizenry arniled themselves of per­tinent facts, of the part unions have played and are continuing to play in the deYelopment of these, our United States of America. And as for all the current misin­formation regarding communism in 11'" Henth r A kot Conl!t('<i'i Act on Di'iability," \Fl.-CTO .Ynn·. Febnury 2>. Hn6. WIDE WOil! D PllOTO The late President Roosevelt at a broadcast from the White House . Said F.D.R., " The government would never force workers to join a union. That would be too much like the Hitler methods toward labor." unions, especially in the larger unions, George '.\leany, president of AFL-CJO made the following statements at Seton Hall University: \\'e, of American labor, firmly oppOS<' all forms of dictatorship. \\ c \'ig:orously support our free sysk1n of government. \Ve realize that, without a free system of government, there can be neither free labor nor free cnterpriS<'. Cornmunism and every other totalitarian despotism is tl1C' deadly enemy of fr"" labor unions. Frc•c- labor unionism and totalitari,rnism simply cannot coexist. They negate each other ..•. :\or can I emphasize sufficiently that communism is likewise the mortal foe of private capital, prhate ownership, and the private manag<•m<·nt of industry. . .. So far, communism has never gain<•d a position an}whcre except hy fraud, force, and ll'rror. In spite of all its loud prop;1ganda to the contrary, com­munism has n<·n·r g:h en any p('oplc any-system has its basis in our system of government - rule of the majorit~ This comparison delights such prop<" nents. A more incorrect analogy couh hardly he drawn; rather, American• have always championed the indivi.d· ual, the minority. 18 Our civil libert1r were blood-bought. Are we to k them be spirited away, one by one? The logical place for Communist• l Ioli~ in this country is in labor unions. An' labor leaders are being converted t democratic socialism. 10 This apprM' to be watered-down communism - 1 effect, the semi-sugar-coating of a hil ' terpill. 'D Perhaps Abraham Lincoln said best - "No man is good enough 1 govern another man without the ot~ cr's consent." f.~ ''"''Tilf' Ca..<' for \poluntnry Unionism," n pnrfl. l<'t is111u(•cl hy Clrnmh<'r of Commerce of tlw V111 State";, Wnshington 6, D. C., not datrd, p. 14. 1 am j ncongre.nionol Digest, F<'h., 19.56, p. 61, ' .1.5, !\o. 2, \Vnshins,:ton, D. C. thing fr"'" So far, \loseow has dont• ill' finitely more taking from, than gh·inS! ti other pc'Oples."' So spoke George I\1eany, presicll' of AFL-CJO, who has never t,1k1 part in a strike in his life. Also, •1' union official, he has never order< workers to strike or to organize pick Jincs.2' Docs this sound like party line P'1b ulum or opiate for the masses, as so~' would have us believe? A union c~1 : through its workers; truly, they are~ reason for being. Unions of the "·o ers, by the workers and for the ,,·o ers ... Our very Government itself is h•1" on such a democratic system. 11'Ad<ln·ss by AFL-CJO president Ccor,I!(' ~fc nt St·ton Hall Unin·rsity. Conμressio11al flt frhrnary 24, 19.56, pp. 2878-79. \ ~'"M<•ony nt thC' Summit." hy Harold LOnl ncy. Amukan l\frrcury, Fchniary, 1956. · system of ~ majorit~ uch propO' 1logy could American' he indivicl· vii libertir' we to k RUTH BOYER SCOTT by one? :r How d o I go a bou t • • • , "' •• • :ommunisl' i.>isb c, ,. .. mions. An You 'd do -ce""e mvcrted t something b · o'l:.e 1is appear a out. • • ~ \;S ;. unism - 1 1'. c)."I> , 1g of a bit ' ()\). :;;;;~~~ 'Dear Congressman:" oqm" n pnni~ of tht' Unit •d, p. 14. 6, p. 64, I 'I'be:r e ought as clone i 1·1 n giving I •, preside ever t;1k• Have you put off "writing Washington" becau e you don ' t have the " know-how"? 01· beca use you thi n k o ne le ller won' t do any good? R ead th ese s u gges t io n s, ref er to the li s t on the following pages, a nd th en end your tho u g hts to Wash in g ton! Your congressmen arc wailing to hear fr om you - the people! Also, •1' er order' nize pick• " Y OU'RE wasting your time, writ­ing Congress about legislation," Bill said to his neighbor. "An indivich.al hasn't a chance. It takes a big organization to llq·-0.. "••hor put 01 er a letter cam- 1;\n." I listened for the reply. ns;.layhc so, maybe not," John 11\it Vjrcd. "To make sure, I'm going to ll) tot le facts as I sec them in a letter \Vy congressman." I de ?at happens to letters like f ohn's? 0~(~1 dcd to follow the mail into the t~ I s of sPnators and representatives l111e earn for myself how effective "'''tors arc• from individual men and to 1~· The best way to gauge this ~~r 1 1sten to the persons who receive \f cttcrs. rs r ~ngr; 'ranees P. Bolton, Republican lk; esswoman from Ohio since 19-10, "~elc veabou~ ~!rs. ;\nna "!· C~!cman, lands battlmg widow, who !iii] 1Wrote suggesting legislation to '>its ~~es IC'vipd on pensions of wid­'\ V, Policemen and firemen. lrs. tlows receive such a pittance," lli.i1111 olcman wrote, "that surely tlwy 'll it.~ not be rcquirC'd to pay tax('S ~pl>c,1r. . . . \IJ, 11 <d •n Family Circle for January, lii4 l\.11 ~~'.'r lil<' t1tk, "Your Congr""""m 11 1<'<"<' of Your \find." Us"cl bi pn-t~ . ~l\ T' 'OHL\! '\111s, ,\fay, 19.56 "I was glad to introduce a hill at her request," says !-.lrs. Bolton. "Its provisions were incorporated in the 1 ntC'rnal Hcvcnuc Code of 1954 - ex­(' lllpting up to $1,200 of pensions and annuities from income taxes of all persons." Senator John J. Sparkman, of Ala­bama, Democratic candidate for Vic<' President in 1952, tells of veterans in his state' who wrote that they'd tried to buy GI housing in rural areas, but couldn't get mortgage lenders. "Their letters," he says, "hp]pcd to hring about the direct loan on er house's, which I sponsored and which has lwlp<'d thousands to g<'t homes who couldn't have otherwise." By this lPgislation certain areas of the countrv arp dPsignatcd as "direct-loan areas'" for GI housing. HOW TO GET ACTION \\'hat kind of letters bring about such immediate' action? The heart of "hat l IC'arncd is that your lC'ttC'rs "ill gl't attC'ntion if they arc legible, specific, clear, and brief, stating what you're for or against, and why. \\'hilP your idea won't go automati­call) into a law and may nevC'r inspire' a separate law, many such ideas ar<' incorporatPd into the big g<'nC'ral laws, like housing, taxation, and social secu­rity. \ typewritten letter is prcfrrahle, hut 1rntny handwritten letters com-mand respect because of their con­structive ideas. But h<' sure that the writing is easily read, and take extra pains to be brief. It's the 6- to HJ-pagp ill<'gibly handwritten letter that is a waste of effort. ;\limeographcd letters arc also dis­couraging. As one congressman put it, "\Ve don't know whether John Smith intended to send the letter or merC'I\ signed it as a fa1·or to his organiz<l· tion 's legislative chairman, who passed out 200 copies at a meeting." KEEP LETTERS BRIEF Keep in mind the tremendous de­mand on a congressman's time. If he reaches his office at 9 a.m. (some come earlier, some later ), he has only an hour till 10 a.m. committee meet­ings to read mail, sec l'isitors, rc,·ip\\ pending legislation, and sign lettl'rs. So Svc or six rambling pages may de­stroy the value of your Jptter. Your rcpresentatil'e may read his short let­ters and put yours aside for more time that may never come. Being hrief will also help you to he specific. If a person writes, "1 wish you'd do something about my hous­ing," the recipient doesn 't know whcthC'r the writer is concC'rncd with rental housing, house buying, or house building. \Vhom do 1·ou writ<'? BC'causc th<' liaison between Senate and !Tous<' is far from perfect, you're "·is<' to \\Till' both to your own represcntati1 c and Page 9 letter is judged on its merit. As one committee staff member told me, "Little people can have hig ideas." Any library or govern­ment office has the bluc­hound Congressional Di­rectory, with the names of committee chairmen and all members of House and Senate. There's a separate listing of committee as­signments of all members of Congress. Sometimes it's a puzzler to find which committee has a bill. If you don't know, you can write first to find out, or write to the most probable committcc, trusting that your letter will be forwarded, if nec­essary. Typical of the reaction to o highly controversial issue in Con­gress is this flood of moil stocked on tables and overflowing to the floor of the Senate post office. An overage day, however, brings about 100 letters to each congressman. These letters influence their votes and help to "keep them on their toes." You can assume in writ­ing that the Congress member or committee chairman is friendh. The crank letter or the 'itu­pera ti ve letter may be answered formally but is unlikely to influence legis­lation. Also, the perennial letter writer mav lose his effectiveness over the years unless he takes care that ea~h lct~~r pre~.ents ~! sound ''hat and why. Citizens propose new to ,·our two senators. the ach'antages in doing so are that they ha,·e a personal interest in your YOte and will probably refer your letter to the congressional committee concerned. They can give it added weight if. instead of sending it with a formal note, the, write the committee, ''\\'c think this suggc•stion merits your attention." It's an extra asset if your senator or representative is on the committee concerned. Ile may himself introduce your idea into the legisla­. tion. "\\"rite each person a separate let­ter," one congressman warned. "It's onlv human, when a letter is marked 'cop< " he said, "for each party to discount its importance, assuming the other recipient has given it full atten­tion." It's particularlr effective to present your ideas for legislation directly to a chairman of a committee. That way they will cc•rtainly go to the committee staff. \\ hich culls the ideas from all letters, puts like ideas together, and works some into actual wording of le<tislation. lt makes no difference to m~~t committee staffs whether the \\Titers ,ire people of prominence or ordi1ur~ · folk. The well-thought-out Page IO laws on a wide variety of topics. Some have such merit that a congressman goes into action on it at once. A constituent of Senator Karl E. ~lundt, Republican of South Dakota, wrote to recommend that pensions be taken away from government workers found guilty of subversion. "I intro­duced such a bill," Senator ~Iundt re­lates, "and it became a law in 195·1." Representative \Vright Patman, Democrat of Texas, recalls that one of his constituents, while John Dillinger was causing gangster terror through the ~lidwest, wrote: "Why don't you offer a bill by which the Attorney Gen­eral could offer a reward for capture or information leading to capture of such criminals?" ~Ir. Patman introduced such a hill, which became law on f une 6, 1934. "The law," he savs, "aided directlv in stopping the crin1inal careers of Dil­linger and others like him." Representative Russell V. Mack, H.epublican of \Vashington, cites a couple of cases from the numerous ones where he found letters from home helpful. "A lot of writers," he says, "protest­ed to me about the junk mail crowding their maillx>~es. l\s a result of com-hined efforts, junk mail is apparent YO junked." Congressman r-.lack also tells of ,.t crans who wrote him about the inju~ tice of not getting Social Sccun~ credit while in service. This coll ' mean loss of a pension for lack enough quarters of coverage. The h1 was changed to allow those \\'~ served between September, 1940, a• June, 1953, to get Social Security ere< if thcy were not getting other rcti mcnt credit during that period. WORDS INTO PRINT As a citizen you even have power to be a legislative witness without ever going to \Vashingto D. C. You can write a committee •11 ing that your statement be publish< in the collectcd hearings on a part•~ Jar bill. These publications arc widt and carefully studied. Probably k effective a method is to ask your gressman to incorporate your st•1f mcnt for or against legislation in t appendix of the daily Congressio Record. . You can also try to influence le!(" tion through the executive branch the government - such as the J'I Office or Treasury Departments or t Veterans' Administration. But 1 11 may be spreading your effort a h thin hy doing so. It's true that so legislation originates with a draft the executive agencies, but your cl gressmen arc elected to make l' I laws. You can also take official stands pending laws through various or¢· zations with which you're allied . .' views mav he communicated officJ· at eommittee meetings. This holds ti for state, county, and local hi'\' well as national ones. You needtl t uneasy about breaking a law by ';, ing your congressman. I nailec~. fear with the official statement: 1 hying laws apply only to those '' arc paid for attempting to infhtC legislation." As a private citizr11 1 are unrestricted in decent cxpre>' of your opinion. r In fact, if you write a Jcttr Congress, you're exercising the 01 .;1 constitutional privilege in the. fl~ Hights guaranteeing your ngh 11 petition the government for a rt" of grievances." , Even the simplest letter expr.c' a view on legislation is a pctill~1 , may have only one signature, .bu c­petition it commands respect if 11,,. tains sound and clearly exP'\, ideas. Just he sure to take thi~ c:1l11 advice of Hcprcsentativc Clair ~ t Democrat of California: "Don E IIO ~LA BAM, S!NAro ~ Lister John J R!pREso F'rank Cc•org< Cc·org< k<·nnel '\lhcrt Armist Carl E nohl'rt C 'Org< ~~l?oNA 11 N-"TOR! Rarn , Cari'n. -!pRES£N John J. St('\\ art ~~l(ANsA 11~ 4toRs ). \\' F lohn. L. -Ip RES£N1 i1. gcncralities. Say, Tm for 1 against) this for these reasons~, 3, 4.'" Such a letter helps 111•1 mocnicy work. ~· C. C: \'ilhur );1l11<•s \I t ~(·1 s Ponl) apparent YOUR MINIATURE tells of ,·e 1t the inju al Securit This coo for lack ge. The l•1 those wb r, 1940, a1 :urity cri;< ither ret1r· eriod. Congressional Directory INT 1 have • witncs> Vashingt 1mittce ;1• e publish1 n a part1c ; are willt obably JC. k your cO your st•11 ition int ingressiO rnce lcgi' e branch s the r nents or 1 But ) [fort a ]it ~ that so a draft t your c< make Y~ 11 stands lous or~· allied. S• ed offic1• s holds tr cal h11\; neednt b ' \I nw Y t nailcl!. nent: 1· those 11 ·0 inflot' . I citizen : exprc'' EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS, Second Session ENATE R1c11 IRO \I. :\'1.xo'\, Prf'sidt•111 of 1'11• Sl'IW/f' WALTER F. GFOllGE, Prf'siil<>111 pro Tempore • • L\'\llO'\ B. JOJI'\SO'\, :llajority Lectder \V1LL1 \\t F. K '\ O\\Ll '\ O, llli11ority Leader \II rorr('!-iJlOrulr11rf' lo ..,ena1ors and Senate lr:ider~ may hr adc1res ... e<l in l';lf(' or rl1t• SPll:lf(' Offire lluildin~, \Vai-l1ingto11 25. D. c. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES s~ \I Rn 11111"1, Speaker Jo11'\ \l. \l cC01rn 1cJ..., llajorit,r Lf'adt•r • JO"-FP JJ \\ . \ I IRTJ'\. JR., .lli11ority Leader \ll eorre..,pondrnre to re11resentative~ and Ilou"e leallers ma} he addre .. "ed in care of the Ilouoe Offil'e Building, Wa..,Jiington 25, D. C. ~LABA MA 11 NATORS Listl'r Hill (D ), \ lontgonwr~ John J. Sparkman ( D ). JTunts1 illl' -IPR£5£NTATIVES F'rank \V. Boykin (D), \lobik Cc•orgc \1. Grant (D), Trov Ct'orge \V. Andrews ( D ). L' nion Sprin!.(s k.l'nneth A. Robcrts ( D), Pic•dmont '\lht'rt Hains ( D ), CaclsdC'n Arrnistcad I. Sckkn, Jr. ( D ), CrC'l'mboro Cai'] Elliott ( D), Jaspcr llobcrt E. Jo11('s ( D), Scottsboro Ceor!.(c' Iludd lC'ston, Jr., (D), Birmingham ~~l?ONA S1NllT0RS ~<lrr: \I. Coldwater (H), Phomix Car] Irayd<'n (]) ), Phoenix -lpRE5£NTATIVES 1.ohn J. Hhodes (H), \ J('sa Stc·11art L. t;dall (D), Tucson ~~l(~NSAS l1N llToRS J. \V. Fulbright (D), FayetlC'vil le John L. \JcCIC'llan ( D ), Camdm -Ip RtsENTATIVES DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DISTRICT 1 2 DISTRICT 1 Oren Harris ( D), El Dorado Brooks Hays (D), Little Hock W. F. Norrcll ( D ), \ lonticello CALIFORNIA SENATORS William F. Knowland (H ), Picdmont Thomas IT. Kuchel ( H), Anaheim REPRESENTATIVES Hubert 13. Scuddc•r (H ), Sc•lx1stopol Clair Engle ( D ), Heel Bluff John E. \loss (D), Sacramento William S. i\lailliard ( H ), San Francisco John F. ShC'lley ( D ), San Francisco John F. Baldwin, Jr. (H), \l artincz John J. Allcn, Jr. (H), Oakland CC'orgc P. \lillcr (D), Alameda J. Arthur Youn~cr (H), San \lateo Charil's S. Cubscr (H), Gilroy Lcroy Johnson ( H ), Stockton B. F. Sisk ( D), Fresno Charles \!. Teaguc ( H ), Ojai Harlan Hagen (]) ). Hanford Cordon L. \lcDonough ( H). Los Angeles Donald L. Jackson ( H ), Pacific Palisades Cecil H. King (D), Inglewood Craig Ilosmer ( H ), Long Beach Chct IfoliflC'ld ( D ), \ lontebcllo Carl H inshaw ( H), Pasadcna Edgar W. Hiestand ( H), Altadcna Joe Il olt ( H ), \'an N'uys ~:.C. Gathings (D), West \l(•mphis j 1lbur D. \I ills ( D), Kcnsctt ~ • 1n1c•s \\'.Trimble (D). BC'rryville 1 ·is JI 2 3 Clyde Doyle• ( D), South Gate C lenard P. Lipscomb ( H), Los Angeles 4 .5 6 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 .5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 1:2 13 14 ].5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2.'3 24 onn1 '\ l\1·s, .\ fay, 1956 Page 11 Patrick J. Hillings (R) Arcadia James Roose,·elt ( D), Los Angeles Harry R. Sheppard ( D ), Yucaipa James B. Utt ( R ), Santa Ana John Phillips ( R ), Banning Bob Wilson ( R ), Chula Vista COLORADO SENATORS Gordon Allott (R), Lamar Eugene :\lillikin (R), Denver REPRESENTATIVES Byron G. Rogers (D), Dcmw William S. Hill (R), Fort Collins J. Eel gar Chenoweth ( R), Trinidad \\'ayne '\'.Aspinall (D), Palisade CONNECTICUT SENATORS Pn•scott Bush ( R), Greenwich William A. Purtell (R), West Hartford REPRESENTATIVES Antoni '\'. Sadlak ( R), Rockville Thomas J. Dodd (D), \\'est Hartford ~"?~ 26 27 28 29 30 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 DISTRICT At Large 1 Horace Scelr-Brmrn, Jr. ( R), Pomfret CC'nter Albert\\'. Cretella (R), '\'orth Haven 3 4 5 Albert P. :\lorano ( R), Greemdch James T. Patterson ( R ), Waterto"·n DELAWARE SENATORS J. \lien Frear, Jr. (D), Dover John J. Williams (R), :\lillsboro REPRESENTATIVE Harris B. :\lcDowell, Jr. (D), :\licldleto\\n At Large FLORIDA SENATORS Spessard Holland ( D), Bartow George A. Smathers ( D ), :\liami REPRESENTATIVES William C. Cramer ( H), St. PetC'rsburg Charles E. Bennett ( D ), Jacksom illc Robert L. F. Sikes ( D ), Crestview Dante B. Fascell (D), :\liami .\. S. Herlong, Jr. (D). Leesburg Paul G. Rogers (D), West Palm Beach James A. Haley ( D), Sarasota D. R. (Billy) \latthews ( D L Gaim•s' illc GEORGIA SENA TORS \\'alt<•r F. Georg<' (])), \'ienna Richard B. Bussell (])), Winder REPRESENTATIVES Prince II. Preston ( D), Statesboro John L. Pilcher ( D ), \leigs E. L. Forrester (D), Leesburg John James Flynt, Jr. ( D ), Griffin Page 12 DISTRICT 1 " :3 4 5 6 7 s DISTR ICT 2 3 4 James C. Davis (D), Stone :\lountain Carl Vinson ( D), Milledgeville Henderson Lanham (D), Rome Iris F. Blitch ( D ), Jlomerville Phil :\L Landrum (D), Jasper Paul Brown (D), Elberton IDAHO SENATORS Henry C. Dworshak (R), Burley Herman Welker ( R ), Payette REPRESENTATIVES (~!rs.) Gracie Pfost (D), l\'ampa Hamer H. Budge (R), Boise ILLINOIS SENATORS Everett \ !cKinley Dirksc·n ( H), Pekin Paul II. Douglas (D), Chicago REPRESENTATIVES 5 6 7 s 9 10 DISTRlcf 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 William L. Dawson (D), Chicago Barratt O'Hara ( D ), Chicago James C. :\lurray ( D ), hicago William E. :\lcVey (H), Harvey John C. Kluczynski (Dl, Chicago Thomas J. O'Brien ( D ), Chicago James B. Bowler (D), Chicago 1 Thomas S. Gordon (D), Chicago 8 Sidney R. Yates (D), Chicago 9 Richard \V. Hoffman (H), Hiverside 10 Timothy P. Sheehan ( H ), Chicago II Charles A. Boyle (D), Chicago l~ ( i\lrs.) ~larguerite Stitt Church ( R ), Evanston 13 Chauncey W. Recd (H), WC'st Chicago l~ 'oah H :\lason ( R ), Oglesby J5 Leo E. Allen ( R ), Galena 16 Leslie C. Arends (H), \lelvin 17 Harold II. Veldc (H), Pekin 1 Hobert B. Chiper6eld ( H), Canton 19 Sid Simpson ( H), Carrollton 20 Peter F. :\lack, Jr. ( D ), Carlimille 21 William L. Springer ( H), Champaign _o,·,' Charles W. Vursell (H), Salem 23 lclvin Price ( D), East St. Louis 2·1 Kenneth J. Gray (])), West Frankfort 25 j IN DIANA SENATORS Homer E. Capehart ( H ), Washington William E. Jenrwr ( H ), lkdford REPRESENTATIVES Ray J. :\fad den ( ()), Gar) SE NA T Bou Tho REPRE ! Fre< Hen II. R Karl Paul Jam< Bc•n Char KANSA l HNATC Fran Andr REPRES I \VilJi1 Err et ::\iyro Edwn Cliffo \Vint ~Etnuc1 S£NAro 1 Alben Earle RtpRESE I ~ohle \ViJlia John:\ Frank Brent , John Car! D E11ge111 Lou1s1AP1 SINA TOR \ llen J H11ssell RlpRE5£N Charles >\. HallC'ck ( H), Hensselaer Shepard J. CrumpackC'r ( H ), South Bend E. Ross Adair (H), Fort Wayne F.Edw 1Iaic Bi E:dwin Overto1 Otto E. l<inies 1' r. Ashti Cc'orgc ; ~~ 1NE 5 John V. Beamer (H.), Wabash Cecil ~I. Harden (R), Covington William G. Bray (H), \lartinsvillc \\'infield K. Dc•nton ( D), £,·ans' ille Earl \\'ilson ( H ), Bedford Ralph IIarwy ( R ), 'c•\v Castle, Route 4 Charles 13. Brownson ( H ), Indianapolis FACTS Fo1n '1 '\ E\\'S, 6 5 IOWA Clifford G . .\Iclntire (R), Perham 6 3 SENATORS 7 Bourke B. IIickenlooper ( R), Cedar Rapids MARYLAND 8 Thomas E . .\lartin ( R ), Iowa City SENATORS 9 10 REPRESENTATIVES J. Glenn Beall ( R), Frostburg DISTRICT Freel Sehwengel ( R), D<l\"enport 1 John ~Iarshall Butler (R), Baltimore Henry 0. Talle (R), Decorah 2 REPRESENTATIVES H. R. Gross (H), Waterloo DISTRICT 3 Edward T. Jillcr (H), Easton 1 Karl .\I. LeCompte ( H), Corydon 4 James P. S. Devercu'\ (H), Stevenson 2 Paul Cunningham (R), Des .\Joines 5 Edward A. Garmatz ( D), Baltimore 3 James I. Dolliver ( H), Fort Dodge 6 George TT. Fallon ( D ), Baltimore 4 DISTRl(l Ben F. Jensen ( H ), fa:ira 7 Richard E. Lankford (D), Annapolis 5 1 Charles B. Hoevcn (H), Alton 8 DeWitt S. Hyde (R), Bethesda 6 2 ICA NSAS Samuel N. Friedel (D), Baltimore 7 S!NATORS MASSACHUSETTS Frank Carlson (H), Concordia SENATORS Andre\\ F. Sehoeppel ( H), Wichita John F. Kennedy (D), Boston REPRESENTATIVES DISTRICT Leverett Saltonstall (R), Dover William 1 I. Avery ( H), \Vakdklcl 1 REPRESENTATIVES D1srRI DISTRICT Errett P. Serirner (R), Kansas City 2 John W. TTeselton (R), Deerfield 1 1 :\Jyron V. George (H), Altamont 3 Edward P. Boland ( D), Springfield 2 2 Edward II. Hees ( R), Emporia 4 Philip J. Philbin ( D), Clinton 3 3 Clifford H. Hope ( R ), Garden City 5 Harold D. Donohue (D), Worcester 4 4 '''int Smith ( R ), :\Janka to 6 (Mrs.) Edith '\'ourse Rogers ( H), Lowell 5 5 6 l<r ~·n ucKv William II. Bates (R), Salem 6 1 Thomas J. Lane ( D), Lawrence 7 s SENATORS Torbert IL ;\ JacDonalcl (D), \Jalclen 8 fs 9 .\lben \\'.Barkley (D), Paducah Donald W. Nicholson (R), \\'areham 9 ing 10 Earle C. Clements (D), :\ lorganfield Laurence Curtis ( H ), Boston 10 e 11 REPRESENTATIVES Thomas P. O''\leill, Jr. ( D ), Cambridge 11 l~ DISTRICT John \ V. \lcCormack ( D), Dorchester 12 'ohle ). Gregory (D), ~ I ayfield 1 Hicharcl B. Wigglesworth ( R ), .\Iii ton 1:3 ston 1:3 l~ \ViJliam II. Natcher (D), Bowling Green 2 Joseph\\' . .\lartin, Jr. (H), 1\orth Attleboro 14 15 John \ I. Robsion, Jr. ( R), Louisville 3 16 Frank 'helf ( D), Lebanon 4 MICHIGAN l'i' Brent Spene(• ( D), Fort Thomas 5 SENATORS 1 John C. Watts ( D ), 'icholasville 6 Pat .\le 'amara (D), Detroit 19 Cari D. Perkins ( D), JJinclman 7 Eugerw Siler ( H ), Williamsburg 8 Charles E. Potter ( R ), Cheboygan ~o lolJ1s1ANA REPRESENTATIVES 21 DISTRICT q·' Thaclclens .\1. \Jachrowicz (D ), Hamtramck 1 ~- 11 ~:3 1iATORS George :\leader (R), Ann Arbor 2 2~ .\lien J. Ellencl(•r, Sr. ( D), Il ouma August E. Johansen (R), Battle Creek 3 25 Htrssell B. Long (D), Baton Houge Clan• E. Hoffman (R), Allegan 4 -EpRESfNTATIVES Gerald H. Ford, Jr. ( H ), Grand Rapids 5 r DISTRICT Don Hayworth (D), East Lansing 6 Eel\\ arc! Hebert ( D ), '\t'\\ Orleans 1 Jesse P. Wolcott (R), Port Huron 7 lale Boggs ( D ), 'ew Orleans 2 Alvin \1. lkntley (H), O\\osso (chvin E. \\'illis ( D), St. ~ l artim ille 3 Ruth Thompson (H), Whitehall 9 ~\ c•rton Brooks ( D), Shrcn•port 4 Elford A. Cederlwrg ( H ), Ba) City 10 tto E. Passman ( D ), ~lonroc 5 Victor \. Kno., ( R ), Sault Ste . .\larie 11 ois•' ~'IInes II. \Jorrison ( D), Hammond 6 john 13. Bennett (H), Ontona~on 12 I ('.Ashton Thompson ( D ), Ville Platte 7 Charles C. Diggs, Jr. ( D ), Detroit 13 'eorgc• S. Long ( D), Pine\ill(' 8 Louis C. Habaut ( D ), Gross(• Pointe Park 1-! ~~INE John D. Dingell (D), Detroit 15 l1N John Lesinski ( D), Dt'arborn 16 II To Rs (;\ I rs.) Jartha \V. Griffiths (D), Detroit 17 ~';.e'.lericJ.. c;. Payr!l' _( H ), \Val'.lohoro George A. Dondero ( R), Hoyal Oak 18 <lr~arl'l Chaw Smrth (H), Skcmhegan MINNESOTA -Ip RESENTATIVES Hor DISTRICT SENATORS 1 llubert II. TT umphr(') (D), .\Iinneapolis f'I >c•rt Hall' ( H), Portland ~ - 1•lrlc·s P. \ebon ( H), \ ugust.1 2 Edward J. Thye (R), '\orthfield "'11 I' \I\\'>, .\fay, 19.){j Page 13 'OHt \J REPRESENTATIVES August H. Andresen ( R), Red Wing Joseph P. O'Hara ( R), Glencoe Roy W. \Vier ( D ), .\linneapolis Eugene J. .\lcCarthy ( D ), St. Paul Walter H. Judd (R), \linneapolis Fred \larshall ( D), Grove City H. Carl Andersen ( H. ), Tyler John A. Blatnik (])), Chisholm Coya Knutson ( D ), Oklee MISSISSIPPI SENATORS James 0. Eastland (D), Doddsville John Stennis ( D ), De Kalb REPRESENTATIVES Thomas G. \benwthy ( D ), Okolona Jamie L. Whitten ( D ), Charleston Frank E. Smith ( D ), Greenwood John Bell Williams (D), H.arn1oncl Arthur Winstead ( D ), Philadelphia William.\!. Colmer ( D ), PascagOLila MISSOURI SENATORS Thomas C. Hennings, Jr. ( D), St. Louis Stuart Symington ( D), Cre,·e Coeur DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 REPRESENTATIVES DISTRICT Frank \I. Karsten ( D ), St. Louis 1 Thomas B. Curtis ( H.), \\'ebst<•r Gron•s 2 (.\!rs.) Leonor Kretzer Sullinm (D), St. Louis .3 George JI. Christopher ( D ), Butler 4 Richard Bolling (D), Kansas City 5 W.R. Hull, Jr. (D), Weston 6 Dewey Short ( H), Galena 7 A. S. J. Carnahan (D), Ellsinore 8 Clarence Cannon (D), Elsberry 9 Paul C. Jones ( D ), Kt•nnctt 10 \!organ .\1. .\loulcler ( D ), Camdenton 11 MONTANA SENATORS .\like \lansfielcl ( D ), \lissoula James E . .\lurray (D), Butte REPRESENTATIVES Lee .\letealf ( D ), Helena Orvin B. Fjare ( H.). Big Timber NEBRASKA SENATORS Carl T. Curtis (R), \linden Homan L. Hruska ( H. , Omaha REPRESENTATIVES Phil \\'<•a\w ( R l, Falls City Jackson B. Chase ( H), Omaha Hobert D. Harrison ( H ), '\orfolk .\. L . .\liller (H), Kimball NEVADA SE N ATORS .\Ian Bible ( D ), Hcno George\\. \!alone (H), Heno Page 14 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 2 3 4 REPRESENTATIVE Clifton Young (H), Reno NEW HAMPSHIRE SENATORS Styles Bridges ( H), Concord 'orris Cotton ( H. ), Lebanon REPRESENTATIVES Chester E. J\lcrrow ( H. ). Center Ossipee Perkins Bass ( H.), Peterborough NEW JERSEY SENATORS Clifford P. Case ( H. ), H.ahway H. Alexander Smith (H), Princeton DISTRI At Lar- DISTRI(' 1 2 REPRESENTATIVES DISf~I Charles A. Woh-erton ( H), \1erchantville 1 T . .\lillet Hanel ( H ), Cape J\lay City 2 James C. Auchincloss ( H ), Humson 3 Frank Thompson, Jr. (D), Trenton 4 Peter Frelinghuysen, Jr. (H.), J\lorristown 5 Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (D), Westfield 6 William B. Widnall ( H.), Saclclle Hiver 7 Gordon Canfield (H.), Paterson S Frank C. Osmers, Jr. ( R), Tenafly 9 Peter\\'. H.odino, Jr. ( D ), Newark 10 Hugh J. Addonizio (D), 'ewark 11 Hobert\\'. Kean (R), Livingston l~ Alfred D. Sieminski ( D ), Jersey City 13 T. James Tumulty (D), Jersey City 14 NEW MEXICO SENATORS Clinton P. Anderson ( D ), Albuquerque Dennis Chavez ( D ), '\ llrnquerque REPRESENTATIVES Antonio J\I. Fernandez ( D ), Santa Fe John J. Dempsey (D), Santa Fe NEW YORK SENATORS Irving \I. hes (H), Norwich Herbert IT. Lehman ( D ), New York City REPRESENTATIVES Stuyvesant Wainwright ( H), Wainscott Sten•n B. Derounian ( H ), Hoslyn Frank J. Becker (H), Lynbrook Dis''' AtU1 AtL•• Art; lrw He1 Sidi lsid Cha Pau Ral1 Hal1 (~Ii J. E Leo Dpa Berr Clar \Vil[ R. \1 John \V. ~ Kem Hart \Villi Edm John Dani SENATO Sam w. K -lPRES I Herh L.B. Crah: Haro] Thurr Carl· P. Erl Char], Hugh Chari, Wood Georg ~O~TH I S(NAT01 Willia \ Iii ton •rP-rsu llsher Otto 1\ Jimry J. Latham (H), Queens Village Albert II. Bosch (H). Hichmond Hill Lester Holtzman ( D ), H(•go Park James J. Delaney ( D ), Long Island City \'ietor L. Anfuso ( D ), Brooklyn Eugene J. Keogh (D), Brooklyn 01110 (\lrs.) Edna F. Kelly (D), Brooklyn Emanuel Celler (D), Brooklyn Francis E. Dorn ( H), Brooklyn Abraham J. i\lulter ( D), Brooklyn John J. Homwy (D), Brooklyn John fl. Hay (H), Staten Island Adam C. Powell, Jr. (D), ('\\York City Frederic H. Comlcrt, Jr. (Il), rw York Cit> James G. Donovan (D-H), ('\\York City FAC'Ts FonL 'I 'i:ws, ,\ { ll!I• J f.'~ S1NAT0R George lohn \1 •tp -ESEN Corclor \\rillian Paul F \Villia~ C:Jiff CJ fonl('S ( 1-s Fon ty DIST~I 1 2 \rthur G. Klc>in ( D ), '\c>w York City lrwin D. Davidson (D-L), New York City Herlwrt Zc>lcnko (D), New York City Sidne} A. Fine ( D ), '\c>w York City Isidore Dollinger ( D ), Bronx Charlt•s A. Buckley ( D ), ~cw York City PaulA.Fino(R ), ewYorkCity Ralph A. Gamblc> (R), Larchmont Halph W. Gwinn ( R ), Bromvill(• ( :\lrs.) Katharine St. George ( H) Tu\edo ). Ernest Wharton ( H ), Hichmondvillc Leo W. O'Brien (D), Albany D<•an P. Taylor ( R ), Troy Bernard W. (Pat) KearnC>y ( H ), Gloversville Clarence E. Kilburn ( H ), :\I alone William H. Williams ( H), Cassville 19 20 21 22 23 24 2.5 26 27 28 29 .30 31 32 3.3 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 DIST~I 1 3 4 5 6 1 s 9 10 11 l~ 13 14 01s1'~ I ~ I 1 J 6 s R. Walter Hichlman ( H ), Tully John Taber (H), Auburn W. Sterling Cole (H), Bath Kenneth B. Keating ( H ), Hochcstcr Harold C. Ostertag ( R ), Attica William E. ~filler ( H ), Lockport Edmund P. Had wan ( H ), Buffalo John R. Pillion (R), Lackawanna Daniel A. Heed (H.), Dunkirk f-loRTH CAROLINA SENATORS Sam J. Ervin, Jr. (D), :\Iorganton W. Kerr cott ( D ), Haw River RfPR£S£NTATIVES Herbert C. Bonner (D ), Washington L. IT. Fountain ( D ), Tarboro Craham A. Barden (D), New Bern Harold D. Cooley (D), Nashville Thurmond Chatham ( D ), \ Vinston-Salem Carl T. Durham (D), Chapel Hill P. Ertel Carlyle (D), Lumberton Charles B. Deane ( D ), Hockingham Hugh Q. Alt•xander ( D ), Kannapolis Charles Haper Jonas (H ), Lincolnton \Voodrow W. Jones ( D ), Hutlwrfonlton C('Orge A. Shuford (D), Asheville ~O~tH DAKOTA SfNATORS \ViJliam Langer (H), Wheatland \ [ilton R. Young (R), La :\loure RfpRESENTATIVES Usher L. Burdick ( H), Williston Otto Krueger ( R ), Fessenden tl1fr0 9 l£NAToRS JO 1Ccorge JI. B<·nder (R ), Chagrin Falls JI 0hn W. Bricker (R), Columbus J~ R£p jJ RfSfNTATIVES ]1 ~~rdon JI. Scherer ( R ), Cincinnati JS l' 1ll1am E. Hess (H), Cincinnati J(i \VaiulJ (· F . Schenck ( H.) ' D,·1 yton ]': CJ· 1am :\!. \fcCulloch (H), Pic1ua JS 1lf Clevenger ( H), Bryan ~ lan1(•s G. Polk ( D ), Ilighland, H.F.D. 1 ~(·1s , · Font·\r :\1ws, .Hay, 1956 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DISTRICT At Large At Large DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clarenc<• J. Brown ( R ), Blanchester Jackson E. Betts ( H ), Findlay Thomas L. Ashley (D), Waterville Thomas A. Jenkins (H.), Ironton Oliver P. Bolton (R), :\Ientor John ~J. Vorys (H), Columbus A. D. Baumhart, Jr. (R), Vermilion William IL Ayres (R), Akron John E. Henderson ( H. ), Cambridge Frank T. Bow ( R ), Canton J. Harry :\lcGregor (H), West Lafayette Wayne L. Hays ( D ), Flushing Michael J. Kirwan (D ), Youngstown Michael A. Feighan ( D ), Cleveland Charles A. Yanik ( D ), Cleveland ( !rs. ) Frances P. Bolton ( R ), Lyndhurst William E. ~linshall ( R ), Rocky River OKLAHOMA SENATORS Robert S. Kerr (D), Oklahoma City A. S. ~like lonroney ( D ), Oklahoma City REPRESENTATIVES Page Belcher (H.), Enid Ed Edmondson (D ), :\luskogee Carl Albert (D), '.lcAlester Tom Steed (D), Shawnee John Jarman ( D ), Oklahoma City Victor Wickersham (D ), :\langum OREGON SENATORS Wayne ~lorse (D), Eugene Hichard L. 1e11berger (D), Portland REPRESENTATIVES Walter Norblad (R ), Stayton Sam Coon (H), Baker ( i\lrs. ) Edith Green ( D ), Portland IJ arris Ellsworth ( R ), Roseburg PENNSYLVANIA SENATORS James IT. Duff (H), Carnegie Edward ~lartin ( H ), Washington REPRESENTATIVES William A. Barrett ( D ), Philadelphia William T. Granahan ( D ), Philadelphia James A. Byrne (D ), Philadelphia Earl Chu doff ( D ), Philadelphia William J. Grt'en, Jr. ( D ), Philadelphia Hugh Scott (H), Philadelphia Benjamin F. James ( R ), Rosemont Karl C. King ( H ), :\ lorris"ille Paul B. Dague (R), Downingtown Joseph L. Carrigg ( H), Susquehanna Daniel). Flood (D), Wilkes-Barre lvor D. Fenton (H), :\ lahanoy City Samuel K. ~ fcConnell, Jr. ( H. ), \Vynnewood George ~I. Hhodes (D), Heading Francis E. Walter ( D ), Easton \ Va lter :\ 1. i\ lumma (H), Harrisburg Alvin H. Bush (H.), \luncy, R.F.D. 2 Il.ichard :\1. Simpson ( R ), Huntingdon 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Page 15 James \I. Quigley ( D ), Highland Park James E. \'an Zandt (R), Altoona Augustine B. Kelley ( D ), Greensburg John P. Saylor (R), Johnstown Leon H. Gavin (R), Oil City Carroll D. Kearns ( R ), Conneaut Lake Frank \I. Clark ( D ), Bessemer Thomas E. i\lorgan ( D), Fredericktown James G. Fulton ( R ), Pittsburgh Herman P. Eberharter ( D), Pittsburgh Robert J. Corbett (R), Pittsburgh RHODE ISLAND SENATORS Theodore Francis Green ( D), Providence John 0. Pastore ( D), Providence REPRES ENTATIVES Aime J. Forand ( D ), Valley Falls John E. Fogarty (D), Harmon~ SOUTH CAROLINA SENATORS Olin D. Johnston (D), Spartanburg Strom Thurmond (D), Aiken REPRESENTATIVES L. \!endel Hivers (D). Charleston John J. Riley (D), umter \\-_ J. Bryan Dorn (D), Greenwood Robert T. Ashmore ( D), Gree1wille James P. Richards (D), Lancaster John L. \[c\lillan. (D), Florence SOUTH DAKOTA SENATORS Francis Case (R), Custer Karl E. \Jundt (R), \ !adison REPRESENTATIVES Harold 0. Lovre ( R), Watertown E. Y. Berry (R), \lcLaughlin TENNESSEE SENATORS .-\lbert Gore ( D), Carthage £.,tes Kefauver ( D), Chattanooga REPRESENTATIVES B. Carroll Reece (R}, Johnson City How.ml IT. Baker (H}, H11ntsvillc James B. Frazier, Jr. (D), Chattanooga Joe L. E\ins (D), Smithville J Percy Priest ( D), :\ asln ille Hoss Bass ( D ), Pulaski Tom \lurray ( D), Jackson Jere Cooper ( D), Dyersburg Clifford Davis ( D ), \lemphis TEXAS SENATORS Price Daniel (D), Liberty L~ nclon B. Johnson ( D), Johnson City REPRESENTATIVES \[,irtin Dies ( D ), Lufkin \\right Patman ( D ), Te\arkana 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 DISTRICT 1 2 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 DISTRICT 1 2 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DISTRICT At Large 1 Jack B. Brooks ( D ), Beaumont Brady Gentry ( D), Tyler Sam Rayburn (D), Bonham Bruce Alger (R), Dallas Oiin E. Teague ( D), College Station John Dowdy (D), Athens Albert Thomas ( D), IT ouston Clark W. Thompson ( D ), Galveston Homer Thornberry ( D ), Austin W.R. Poage (D), Waco James C. Wright, Jr. (D), Weatherford Frank Ikard ( D), Wichita Falls John J. Bell ( D ), C11ero Joe \I. Kilgore ( D ), \1cAlk•n J. T. Rutherford ( D ), Odessa Omar Burleson ( D), Anson Walter Rogers (D), Pampa George H. \lahon (D), Lubbock Paul J. Kilday ( D ), San Antonio 0. C. Fisher (D), San Angelo UTAH SENATORS Wallace F. lknnett (R), Salt Lake City Arthur\'. Watkins (H), Orem REPRESENTATIVES Henry Aldo11s Di,on ( H), Ogden William A. Dawson (R), Salt Lake City VERMONT SENATORS George D. Aiken (R), Putney Halph E. Flanders (H), Springfield REPRESENTATIVE Winston L. Prouty (H), Kewport VIRGINIA SENATORS Harry Flood Byrd ( D ), Berryville A. Willis Robertson ( D), Le,ington REPRESENTATIVES Edward J. Robeson, Jr. ( D), Warwick Porter Hardy, Jr. ( D), Churchland J. Vaughan Gary (D), Hichmond Watkins \I. Abbill ( D ), Appomattox William ~I. Tuck ( D), South Boston Richard JI. Poff ( H), Had ford Burr P. Harrison (D), Winchester Howard W. Smith (])), Broad Hun W. Pat Jennings (D), ~tarion Joel T. Broyhill ( H ), Arlington WASHINGTON SENATORS Henry \I. Jackson (])),Everett Warren G. \lagnuson (D), Seattle REPRESENTATIVES Don \Iagnuson ( D), Seattle Thomas \I. Pelly (H), Seallle Jack \Vest land ( H ), E\wett Bussell V. \lad. (ll), lloq11iam Hal Holmes ( H), Ellensburg 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 3 4 5 6 s 9 10 \Va Th< WEST SEN AT Wil ~!al RE PRE , Rob Har Clci ~J.( (~fr Rob W1sco SE NAT; Jose Alex REP RES Law Glen Gare Cl en II cm 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 DIST~I~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 s 9 10 \\,1lt Horan (R), Wenatchee Thor C. Tollefson (R), Tacoma WEST VIRGINIA SENA TOR S William R Laird, IIJ (D) Matthew ,\1. Neely ( D ), Fairmont REPRE S ENTATIVES Robert II. ~fol Johan ( D ), Fairmont Harley 0. Staggers (D), Keyser Cleveland \I. Bailey ( D ), Clarksburg M. G. Burnside ( D), Huntington (\Irs.) Elizabeth Kee (D), Bluefit•ld Robert C. Byrd (D), Sophia W1sc0Ns1N SENATORS Joseph H. \IcCarthy ( R), Appleton AlexandC'r Wiley (R), ChippC'wa Falls REPRESENTATIVES Lawrence II. Smith (R), Racine Glenn R Davis (R), Waukesha Gardner R. Withrow (R), La Crosse Clement J. Zablocki (D), \Jilwaukee Henry S. Reuss (D), ~Jilwaukcc 5 6 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 William K. Van Pelt ( R ), Fond du Lac \IC'hin R. Laird (R), \Iarshficld John\\'. Byrnes (R), Green Bay Lester H. Johnson ( D ), Black Hivcr Falls Alvin E. O'Konski ( H ), \Jercer WYOMING SENATORS Frank t\. Barrett ( H ), Lusk Joseph C. O'\lahoncy ( D ), Cheyenne REPRESENTATI VE E. Keith Thomson (H), Cheyenne ALASKA DELEGATE E. L. (Bob) Bartlett ( D), Juneau HAWAII DELEGATE ~lrs. Joseph H. Farrington (H) , Honolulu COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO RESIDENT COMMISSIONER Antonio F •rn6s-Isern ( Pop.-D), Santurce 6 7 8 9 10 DISTRICT At Large Committee Appointments Standing Committees of the Senate .\clllcuLTUilE AND FORESTRY, Allen J. Ellender, chainnan 'hP11or1UATIONS, Carl Hayden, chairman ~ll:J> EHVJCES, Richard B. Russell, chairman D<\)>;kn\c AND Cull!lE:\CY, J. \V. Fulbright, chairman F IS'riucr OF COLU'fBLA, ,\Jatthew \I. Neely, chairman !I l\;,.;1;ct., Harry F. Byrd, chairman ~l\t.icN RELATIONS, \Valter F. George, chairman I ~"llIBNT 0PEHATJO:\'S, John L. ~IcClellan, chairman \ll:tuon AND hst.LAH AFFAIHS, James E. ~J urray, chair-ll'lan l\"rt::no . ··..,TATE Al\D Fo11E1CN COW\rEHCE, \Varren G. ~Iagnu- ) son, chairman L'l>tt I LARY, James 0. Eastland, chairman ;"'lion Al\D PUBLIC WELFARE, Lister Hill, chairman Ost OnKF. AND Cn•1L SEIWICE, Olin D. Johnston, chair­lllan l\n ~ lie \VonKs, Dennis Chavez, chairman ~l.tsh A!\D AD'11'1STHATIO:\', Theodore Francis Green, c airman Sele D~\tct and Special Committees of the Senate c.h ~TIC Poucv CoM~UTIEE, Lyndon B. Johnson, 1 airman '''t\ s~0 11lTy POLICY Co\l,ILTTLE, Styles Bridges, chairman ~1 ~ Co,nnrrrn ON s~lALL BUSl!\ESS, John J. parkman, lu1rman ~ .... c ts Fonnr Ni::w , ;).Jay, 1956 SPECIAL CO,l\!lTfEE ON TIIE SEXATE RECEPTION HOO:\!, L) ndon B. Johnson, chairman Standing Committees of the House Acme LTllHE, Harold D. Cooley, chairman APPHOPRJAT!ONS, Clarence Cannon, chairman AnMED SrnvrcES, Carl Vinson, chairman BANKING A:\D CuHHEN v, Brent Spence, chairman D1sn11cr OF C0Lu:-m1A, John L. }.fc}.Jillan, chairman EDUCATION Al\D LABOR, Graham A. Barden, chairman FOllEICN AFFAms, James P. Richards, chairman GovEn'l~!El\T 0PEllATIONS, \Villiam L. Dawson, chairman IIousE An~I1!\JSTIL>\T10:-1, Omar Burleson, chairman lNTEmon Al\D 11\SULAH AFFAIBS, Clair Engle, chairman INTERSTATE A!\D Fo11F.LGN co,nmRCE, J. Percy Priest, chair-man JuDrCJARY, Emanuel Cellcr, chairman 1E11c1IANT lAHI'E A!\D F1suEH1ES, Herbert C. Bonner, chairman PosT OFFICE AND C1v1L SEH\'JCE, Tom ~lurray, chairman PUBLIC Wonxs, Charles A. Buckley, chairman RuLES, Howard 'V. Smith, chairman VN-AMEH!CAN Ac-rt\T11ES, Francis E. \Valter, chairman VETEH.o\NS' AFFArns, Olin E. Teague, chairman vVAYS AND !EA:-:S, Jere Cooper, chairman Select and Special Committees of the House SELECT CoM~IITTEE TO Co:-.Dvcr A STUDY AXD lNVESTIGA-Page 17 I . I fs ing e TIO'> OF THE PHOBLE:\!S OF S:>-!ALL Bcsr'>ESS, \\'right Pat­man, chairman SELECT Co:-.nnTTEE TO Co-.-oi:cT l'i\'EST!GATIO'> A'>D Sn•oy OF BE:\EFITS 1•011 SUH\'l\'OIIS OF DECEASED :\[E:\!BEHS A'>D Fo11:-.1rn :\IE:>-!BEllS OF THE AR:>-!ED FORCES, Porter Hanly, Jr., chairman SELECT Co;-.nnTTEE TO Coxoucr AN Ixn:STIGAT!ON AND Sn;oy OF THE Fit'\A:\ClAL POSITION OF THE \VmTE Cou:->TY BRIDGE Co;-.nnssrox, \Vinfield K. Denton, chair­man Congressional Joint Committees, Commissions, and Boards Xote: \Vhcrc no chairman, or a chairman other than a congress· man, is listed, two congressional committeemen arc namc<l. Co:-.nnssmx FOR ExTE:-.s1ox OF THE UxrrED STATES CAPI­TOL, no chairman listed, Sam Rayburn, \Villiam F. Know land SENATE OFFICE BuILDL'iG Co:--1:-.ussm-.-, \Villiam A. Purtell, chairman Hol.'SE OFFICE BmLDr:-;c Co\n11ss10-.-, Sam Rayburn, chair­man }OL'>T Co:-.c:>-nTTEE o-. PRINTING, Carl Hayden, chairman Jo1:-.T Co:-.nrITTEE ON ATo:-.uc ExEHGY, Clinton P. Ander­son, chairman JorxT Co:-.n!ITTEE o-; CoxsTRt'CTIOX OF A Bl.'LLDI'>G FOH :\kSEU:\l OF IIISTOHY AXD TECHNOLOGY FOR TllE S\lITII­SO'i" IAX hsTITl'T!Ox, no chairman listed, Clinton P. Anderson, Clarence Cannon JoixT Co:-.nIITTEE o:-. DEFENSE Pnooucrm->, Paul Brown, chairman ]OL'iT Co:-.n11TTEE o-; Dt POSIT!OX OF ExECL'Tl\'E PAPEnS, no chairman listed, Olin D. Johnston, George S. Long jOL'>T Co:>-L\l!TTEE o-. THE Ec:o"o'uc Ri::ronT, Paul II. Dougla , chairman J01xT Co:-.n11TTEE o-.- hc,uGRATJON A:-.o .\'ATIO'iALlTY PoucY, no chairman at present, James 0. Eastland, Emanuel Cellcr Jo1:\"T Co\r:>.IITTEE ox INTERNAL REVE'il.'E TAXATIO'>, Ilarrv F. Byrd, chairman . JoL'>T Co:>-1:\HTTEE os TUE LIBRARY, Theodore Francis Green, chairman JOL'>T CO:\l:\llTTEE ON NAVAJO-HOPI hDIA:\ AD\!l\:lSTRA­TIOX, no chairman listed, Clinton P. Anderson, Clair Engle JorxT Co:-.c,rnTEE ON REDt'CT1ox OF Nox£SSE->TIAL FED­ERAL ExPE:\DlTUHES, Harry F. Byrd, chairman BOAf\D OF VISITOHS TO THE :'llrLITARY ACAOE\lY, no chair­man listed, Lister Hill, Olin E. Teague Bo.IBO OF \'1s1TORS TO TIIE NAVAL AcADE\lY, no chairman listed, Dennis Chavez, \\!illiam H. Natcher BoARo OF \'1sITons TO THE COAST GUARD AcADl\lY, no chairman listed, John 0. Pastore, Edward A. Garmatz BOARD Ok- \'rsJTORS TO TUE :\(ERCI!ANT ~(ARI'iE _\CADL\!Y, no chairman listed, Sam J. Ervin, Jr., Frank \V. Boykin ALEXA'i"DER IIA:>-llLT0'1 BICEXTE'i"NIAL CO\l\CISSIO\:, Karl E. :\lundt, chairman BosTO'i" NATIOXAL IltsT0111c SnEs Co:-.nuss10->, ~lark Bortman of Massachusetts, chairman, Leverett Salton­stall, Thomas P. O'P.'eill, Jr. CoRREGIDOH-BATAAN :\IE\IOR!AL Co:-.nnssro:-;, no chairman listed, Alexander Wiley, James E. Van Zandt Page 18 D1STIU(T OF COLU'\!lllA At'DlTOllll\I CO:\l\IISSIO'>, :\Ii'!'· Eugene :\!eyer of \Vashington, D. C., chairman, :\Jat· thew \!. Neely, James JI. \lorrison F11A:\"KLIN DELANO RoosEYELT :'llE:...1omAL Co,nussiox, nr chairman listed, Irving :\I. Jves, john \V. i\lcCormack J A:\IESTOWN-\V1LLIA:\ISBunc-Yom.:Tow" CELEBRA noN Co,r· 1nssroN, Robert V. Hatcher of H.ichmond, Va., chair· man, Harry F. Byrd, Edward J. H.obeson, Jr. i\IARI'i"E CORPS ME:-!OHIAL COM\l!SSION, Joseph Dn.lc Probst of 3502 . Wilton Ave., Chicago 13, Ill., chair· man, no congressmen :\lrcRATORY Brno Co1'SEH\'AT!O\: Co\t\uss10._., Douglas ~ (C" Kay, Secretary of the Interior, chairman, A. Willis Rob­ertson, August I-I. Andresen NATIONAL IONU:\IE:-IT CO\l,IISS!O'>, Spencer T. Olin or Jllinois, chairman, W. Kerr Scott, Howard \V. Smith NATIO\:AL FOREST RESEIWATIO'> Co\l:\lISSIO:-., \Vilber \! Brucker, Secretar> of the Army, president, Style Bridges, William 1. Colmer PER\IANENT CoMMITTEl' FOii THE OuvER \VENDfi II001ES DEVISE Ful'.o, L. Quincy :\lumford, Librariai of Congress, chairman, no eongn•ssmcn listed at prcse11 THE hTERPARLIA'.\IENTARY Ux10,, Daniel A. Recd, pre>' dent THEODORE RoosEvELT CE'i"TE'>'>IAL Co'r'ussroN, no chair man listed, Karl E. fondt, Leo \V. O'Brien l:xITED STATES TE1IB!TOHIAL ExPA\:SIO\: ~IE:>-!OnIAL Co'1 '\lISSrox, Alben \V. Barkle;, chairman \Vooonow \VILSO:-.i CEYlF\:'\IAL CEumnATJ0'1 Co'I'fi' sm:-., i\laj. Gen. E. Walton Opie of P. 0. Box 59, Stnt111 ton, Va., chairman, A. \Villiam Hohertson, Burr P. Jl•11 rison Co,nussro" o-; GovEn\:\lL:\"r SEcL HITY, no chair111: listed, John Stennis, Francis E. \\'alter Note: Additional information is giH'n below to facilit,1tc >°' ldtcr-writing to Washington. Letters to nwmbers of the Cabind ~C. Supreme Court may be addressed to them, \Vashington 25, D· THE CABINET SPcretary of State ................... john Foster D11llt Secretary of the Treasury ......... George i\I. Ilumphrt B R cc U1 C1 pr p Secretary of Defense ................ Charles E. \Vil>'' ' Attorney General .................. Herbert Brownell. J; ~ Postmaster General .............. Arthur E. Sumrnerft~ J 0 Pacts F Secretary of the Interior ................ Douglas Mel'· .. p .. ·l II I d 1" Secretary of Agriculture' ............... Ezra Taft Bell·,. fr. Brada'~ Secretary of Commerce .................. Sinclair \ \' c·C ' '" ''rcu·w· f acts Secretary of Labor .................... James P. :'llitcli• '*v~ng. ~o . . if f )Olllt SC'cretary of Health, Education, °' f, [its J or and Welfare ....................... i\larion B. fols ~1ed to h~ SUPREME COURT Chief J usticc ............................. Earl \V:irl" Associates Justices: Hugo L. Black Stanley F. Heed Felix Frankfurter William 0. Douglas Harold II. Burton Tom C. Clark Sherman Minton John ~!. Harlan FACTS FonL :-.c 'Ews, ,\fay, ici 1/llJinunist %)l k'I a J," .. 1/ada w stope, Mt "alf for t ~~ ~apidly ~ 1n a mi1 'l' the usu: i.5pt'riod. l f.11Ji • hecaw \lo he gI · full ch >10:-., ~I r" man, ~ l at· l!SSIO'-', 111 lcConnacl no'I cm1· Va., chair· , eph Dale ---------~---~---------- 111., chair· lllglas ~[c Villis Rob r. Olin \V.,;r;DE ~ Librari•10 at prcseP eccl, pres• \ , no chair· UAL Co'' Both affirmative and negative viewpoints on this question were presented in a series of articles on Radio Free Europe appearing in the January, February, and March issues of Facts Forum News. Co~I \ fl' 59 St•u111 IT 'p. J}<ll With "Truth Dollars" being collected at post office windows throughout the United States toward financing these broadcasts, it behooves every thinking American to determine whether this question can be answered by a resounding Y E S ! : ilitate >011 Cabinet"(; 1 25, D· Upon publication of Jiri (George) Brada's critical view of Radio Free Europe, and "Melting the Iron Curtain" (Radio Free Europe's own story), letters of both approval and protest ensued which are here presented for our readers' evaluation. ter Dolle :Jurnphr< E. WilsO Presic/ent of Free Europe Committee Protests RFE Criticism owne!l.l1 mme1 ·fie•l I fo F•a cts Forum Neics: as r-.fc/;· . I' I I · · l'r iap · I can best comment on tft Bc01'i r Brada's article by first mentioning air \ \'Cl' "lir~~ facts about the author who, ac­> i\fitch• ~. 1ng to your introducto1y notes, · 1 1t[·.cr joined the Tazi party nor any 1 ~ s 1ts) organizations," and who "re- B. fo 1 r 0 eQ to lwcome an informer for the Io lllll'lunist government [of Czecho­Vakia] ." 1rton 1ton Jan ~11llrada was hired hy Radio Free s~0Pc, Munich, in ~lay, 1951, when ~ alf for the new opera tion was he­, g ~apidly assembled. He was given a ~ 1n a minor capacity in the library, iv the. usual three-month prohation­i) Period. Ile was discharged in July, irril, because his superiors considered .\to be grossly inefficient. . full check of Brada's record re­~ !l ay, lg; ~'-r s F•0 1n·,1 '\ Fws, 'l'<fay, 1956 veall'd that he had hcen a leader of a '\lazi youth organization in Czl'choslo­vakia, and had attended a university which our information indicated was rcstrictc•d to azi collaborators. For eight months following the Communist seizure of Czcchosl<l\·akia in February, 1948, Brnda had re­mainPd in that country. By his own admission, he t\vice signed a contract to be an agent for the Communist S<'cret police. After leaving Czechoslo­vakia for Austria, in October, l 918, he joined "The Central Union of Czecho­slovak Students in Exile." Brada was expelled from this organization of patriotic, anti-Communist students after a trial, at which he admitted his Nazi and Communist affi liations cited aboYe. Brada later became a paid worker for the "Prchala Youth \lo\·c­mcnt," which ad\Ocatcs the dissolu­tion of the national Czechoslovak state. I have gone briefly into Brada's background because the credibility of a writer usually has a definite heai·in!.( on the crcdihilitv of his \\'Ork. In this connection, look again at the statc­nwnt, in your published notes about Bracht, that he dcli,·cred '\"·om testi­mony" for the Kersten Committee on June 28, 1954. In this te timonv, mu state, Brada charged that Radio Free Europe is pa1t of "the center of the Communist world conspiracy." The fact is that there• is no record of anv "sworn testimony" having been d<•li\·ered by Brada in June, 1951, or at any other time before the Select Com­mittee on Communi'>t Aggr<'ssion, headed by former Congressman Charles J. Kersten of \Viseonsin. The official reports of the Kersten Commit­tee list the forh·-fln' "itnesses \\ho testified puhlid~; at the \ funich hear­ings of the Committee in Jmw, 19.5-1. Page 19 fs ing e READERS' VIEWS As a former Czech journalist I wish to add a few words to the just concluded series about Radio Free Europe written for Facts Forum News by G<•orge Brada from Germany. In the last of the three articles '.\Ir. Bracla mentions my name as one of those who represent the young Czech anti-Communist generation in exile. I want to go on record right lwre and now to say that R.1clio Frc·c Europe's Czechoslo,·ak desk (I am not familiar with the other sections) is a compl<"tc disgrace', for the people who are in it ... repre­sent nothing else but a Socialist front. They were the men who toge·tlwr with the Communists e·nslavcd once-free Czechoslornkia. They are the ones who hope to replace one• clay the Communist terror with one of tlwir own make, that of peoples' democratic Socialist terror. It is a disgrace that this kind of propa­gancl. 1 is presented to the unfortunate vic­tims of the Socialist-Communist ronspir­acy in the name of the free United States of America .... RFE is an e\cdlent idea hy itsc•Jf. But right now, the only ones profiting from its programs arc the Communists them­'<: kcs ... Jmr ITAVFl.K' Bc•m·yn, Jllinois .... '.\fay I say that we• in Germ;1ny do1im to have some <'xpcriC'nC'C' in this matter, ha,·ing followed the ckH·lopment of Radio Frc•c Europe sincc• its inec·ption in HJ.50. I do not agrc•e with all \Ir. Bracla h.1s said concerning this radio station, especially that R,1dio Free Europe and some of the affiliated sc·n·ices arc part of the Communist world conspiraey. The tn1th is pc·rhafs a little hit more simple or complicakc, how('\'('T you may take it. I would like• to presC'nt ... a few brief statements which Radio Free Europe can­not dl•nv: ( l) RFE helie,·es in fighting Commu­ni't th<'oriC's with \'<'TY similar So­cblist doc:trinC'S. ( 2) RFE helic·ws in tackling Soviet Russian imperialism hy supporting: Titoist National-Bolshevists in the satellite countries. ( :3) RFE believes that in this way the satellite countries will one clay form a new Titoist bloc and from there the cle,·elopment of a new peoples' front, and ultimately free elections will result. This is the poliey of RFE, and I would nc•\·(·r «I}' that the [Free Europe• Commit­tee] therefore knocdngly and tdllingly ~ives support to world communism. But the trnth is that such a policy is absol­utdv in line with cO<'xistc-ncC' as \Iosco\\' am!' Belgrade ha,·c planned it to lull the western powers into a fals~ feeling of sc·cnrity. Leftist intellectuals everywhere• helieYC earnestly in this coe,istencc and in a nC'w sodali7e•cl world of p<•acc and mutual understanding. . . This earnest belief exists in RFE, too .... I would venture to sar that the millions of dollars being pourec into Radio Frc•e Europe arc wasted as long as that organi­zation continues on this leftist c'Onrse. Co­C'xistencc will never achie\'C the goal the \\'est desires. Today the only alkrnath·e c.in he to prepare the tntly anti-leftist Page 20 DOES RADIO FREE EUROPE PRO Brada's name docs not appear on the list. Furthermore, conb·ary to Brada's statement that the Kersten Committee "put this sham psychological warfare of RFE in the proper light" (note your page 16), the Kersten Committee reached the Following conclusions in its official findings (House Report 2684) dated December 31, 1954: "That the t.:nited States Informa­tion Agency (\'oice of America) and the Committee for Free Eu­rope (Radio Free Europe) are effective in the fight against com­munism. They reach the peoples behind the Iron Curtain with the truth concerning the policies and actions of the free world, and also reveal the lies. distortions, and treachery put forth by the Commu­nists. "That in the struggle of freedom versus slavery our broadcasting media and information programs, including the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe and such oth­ers as may originate in the United States, arc descrYing of much wid­er support from the public, the foundations. and from Congress." Ilccausc Radio Free Europe recog-nizes the clements of East European countries on the same basis as docs the U. S. government, and refuses to become involved in the ideological and territorial disputes of certain refu­gee groups, it has been subject to con­stant vitriolic attacks bv dissident political factions. principally the Su­deten Deutsch and Slovak Separatist~. (\Ir. Brach has been affiliated with elements of both these groups.) oth­ing would scrYe the Communists bet­ter than to have Radio Free Europe become involved in the disputes of minority ethnic groups and thus dissi­pate energies ncC'dC'd in working toward the goal of frC'edom for the captive peoples. It is not my intC'ntion to reply to Brada's charges point by point. I will, instead, state some of the basic facts and policies of Radio Free Europe as they relate to the article. Thev will, I trust, together with what I have al­ready written, place \Ir. Ilrada's alle­gations in perspective. The policy of Radio Free Europe is, and has always bC'cn, to support thC' captive peoples behind the Iron Cur­tain in their efforts to regain thC'ir frC'edom. In pursuing this policy - which is a positive expression of the official policy of the United States gov­ernment - Radio Free Europe advo­cates that thC' capti,·c peoples have the right to choose their own form of government under free and demo­cratic elections. In addressing the captive people· RFE must speak in terms they wiil understand. The countries of EastrrI1 Europe have never known capitalisn as it exists in the U. S. What they c;1ll "capitalism" is not what we know a' capitalism. 1illions of former Sochll Democrats still live in these countric'· especially in Czechoslovakia. In i~ endeavor to weaken and clisrnpt Co!J1· munist control in these countriC' Radio Free Europe talks to all th people. Indeed, Haclio Free Eurojl' addresses many of its programs to th• Communists - programs designed I<' weaken the Communist regimes, no! help them. Excerpts of RFE scripts arc .of course misleading when they arc J111' quoted and taken out of context, '~ Mr. Brada has done in Facts Forll' News. An example of misrepresent• tion by the usC' of this dcvicC' is Brad••. excerpt from Ferdinand Peroutka May 3, 195.1, script. The actual wor0 ing of this same script is attach• hereto. A full reading of Pcrm1tk" words makes clear, I believe, what I was trying to get across to his )ist~·I" crs: the contrast between the gcni11n sense of social responsibility of .11, UnitC'd States, and the Communist I disrC'gard of human welfare. A few sentences on FerdinnO PC'routka, head of Radio Free Euro!J< Czechoslovak desk, who is singled 01 by Mr. Ilrada for special attack, " pc•rhaps suffice: . ·c Pc•routka, a Catholic and poli11 i• j independent, was never a Commun 1 or a pro-Communist. He was an °11 standing political writer and jottrI~~ ist who lived through six years of 1 1 ,, prisonmC'nt hy the azis in Bu~ 1{1 wald. He flpd from CzC'choslovak1n 1 his life immC'diately after thC' Corl1111 nist coup in February, 1948. C No exile from bd1ind the Iron :~ tain is attacked more intC'nscly b)lt · Communists than Peroutka; hare ~r day passes without the Comm11;;, radio and press pouring out invcc .~ against him. Recently thC' CzC'ch?' vak newspaper, Mlada Frorita, .~)~, typical attack on him, stated:. f• cannot return to CzcchoslovakH1j f< you will hC' tried and execute£ high treason I" .. 0 i The primary source of oppos1t10 Ii Radio Free Europe is in the Krcf~i Las~ October, at the Foreign.~ f• tcrs confC'rC'ncc in Geneva, Sovicf 0 cign MinistC'r Molotov single£ , Radio Free Europe for his most i<: lent invccti\'C'. ''The scum of socii" cast out by thC' People's' Dcmocn1c FACTS Font''r '1ws, Hay. lq -- that scribe t Work fr On B Soviet Persona hower f hroadca hind th< irnrnecli: nist pre~ In the Cernbcr lllade or lllunist " There this viol clcnunci: Free Eu Fo/101 eluded 1 fer: ROPE PROMOTE THE CAUSE OF FREEDOM? nd demo- I c people'· they will of Easten1 capitalisn .t they c;1l e know O' ner SociJ1 countrie;. ja, In il' rupt C~fll· countrJC'· to all tl11 'e Europi ams to tl11 signed '' gimcs, not ts arc of iy arc mi;· ~o ntext, " els Forl1~ ·eprcsent" •is Bn1d". >eroutk0 • tual wor' ; attacht Pcroutk·1 e what! l1is )istr~ 1c genui0 ity of th )mmunisl' ! ':Ferdinon ·e EuroJi<· I ;ing!ed 0' .ttack, '' d politi :om01t1111· ·as an °111 ad joufl~~ I >ars of 1 ~ Buch"" lovakio 1' e Co11'1°11 L c11 Iron 'r , 1 hV 1 ·~ fiar~tl) ~ornro111~ t in,•ccti, Czech?' 111 ontn, ")° 1ted:. f1 wak1•1· f< _cutrd PositioOI. J( J11 I e rcp1' ign J\ fl )ovict nglcd most ~. 0CI' of s i•' rnocr•1c ,\/111/· 1~ - that was .\Iolotov's phrase to de­scribe the anti-Communist exiles who IVork for Radio Free Europe. On December 31, 195.5, another top Soviet leader, Khrushchev, made a hersonal attack on President Eisen­hower for his Christmas Day message ~oadcast by Radio Free Europ he­? ind the Iron Curtain. The attack was 1~mediately echoed by the Commu­nist press and radio around the world. In the nineteen months ending De­cember 31, 1955, the Soviet Union rnade or inspired a total of l,826 Com­rnunist attacks on Radio Free Europe. There can be onlv one reason for this Yiolent Commui1ist campaign of denunciation: to try to dcstrov Hadio Free Europe. · \VlflT"\EY IT. S1rnPARDSON Presicll'nt Free Europe Co111111iltee, Inc. Following is the enclosure in­cluded with Mr. Shepardson's let­ter: \'Excerpt appearing in Facts Fornm · r1vs, Januar\', 1956: p \Jay 3, 19S:3, 12: 15 p.m.: Ferdinand d~routka, chid of HFE's Czed1oslovak . <sk tn New York, a well-known Sodalist ~nd one-time prominent llll'mber of the .. S0~Comnmnist \ rational Front, in his k)!~~l:•Y Commc~ts of Ferdinand Perout­h · Eisenhower s program, on the other hand, c·\·C'n though America's faetori<.'s ,~vc not hem nationalizC'd, stands for the I .~""Pt of world socialism. There is no ~ tcr way to dt·scribc it. This is socialism. ih',: The. aim of the program ~utlined by • . Pres1cl<'nt of the United St.1tt's is to 'J' ~·1alize life." tlha Czech language, like English, in­rra11 es many words that have two or ,0°.re meanings. The Czech word lishiafism (same spPlling as the Eng­iusr Word) can refer to: ( l) social 10 • 1cc (based on the Czech adjective tfi?lalni), which Peroutka advocates in '()~~ ~nd other scripts; ( 2) Manist !iv ahsm (based on the Czech adjec­~ I·e ~Ocia/isticky ), which Peroutka ex­l(:~ citly attacks in this and other 1-itSts· If Brada had not eliminated Ifie Jassagcs, Peroutka's meaning of hav zech word socialism would ilia e ~ade clear what he was talking <if ~t m his broadcast to the pPople II 7.ecJ.1oslovakia. J:'tp ere 1s the full passage from Radio l!J.5,) Europe script #9969, :\lay 3, , 12:15 p.m.: Of the. <'.ommunists n('\'('I' ceaSP spmking 11r ~1 ~~li~m. of sodalism in on(_• eountry, ittniJ<>c1ahsm in SC'\:eraJ countries, and g 't .st all thl'Sl' spl'edws the pl'oples' liws OfJ ~\.er more mist•rahle. Eisenhower pro­,.,. k · lns!(·ad of .tlw .'li'.idt•d ~vorld whil'h f r lO\V and wh1d1 IS Jivmg tn a state of ' t-l us t:r<·at(• a unified \\'Orld it can !-'~, ' 'ts Font" '\1ws. '1ay, 19.56 hP clone and that world could then live securely. The better endowed nations should dc­n> tc the better part of their sa' 111gs to the assistance of those worst' off; let us "'panel the production possibilities of nations that cannot keep abreast of ns; let ns dcdare war, not upon one anolllt'r, hut ratlwr on pov<'rly, ignorance, and backwardness, k•t us de,·elop a system of muh11.tl assistanc.·e. All right, then, since "socialism" is tilt' topie, lt•t us speak of "socialism." Althongh the factories in Hussia haw ht•en nation­alizl'cl, the Russian policy sl;tnds for t·on­summatc egotism of one country and of ont• caste. Eisenhower's program, on thC" other hand, although tlw factories in America have not hcen nationaliz<"cl, stands for tlw concept of "world socialism." It cannot be fonnulatcd otlwrwisc or better. This is .. socialism," insofar as "soda/­ism" means something more than a fi~ht , insofar as it memlS the awareness of a 11111t11al fate, the awareness of thr fact that all nations are i11terdcpc,ulcnf, that mic is rrsponsible for the other, that it is irule­ccnt not to help, that it is insidious to opprrss - in the interest of thr fight for power- and to deny people tlie gifts of lift'. The Russians socialize their factories; the Pn•sident of the United States preS<•nt­<' d a program, the aim of which is to "soC'ialin•" life. It is possible to follow eitlwr one or the other program. Don't lwlp forge the manacles which will clasp shut around your own wrists. Nights, write on the wall: Co home, Russians. Do for yourseJvps what the President of the Unitpd States did for you. Mr . Shepardson had these further remarks to make: .... We have now read i\Ir. Brada's second and third installments. There is nothin~ in these new articles which changes the unfavorable opinion we previously expressed concerning his motives, his credibility, and his misuse of material. At this moment, in February, 1956, when the work of this organization is being violently attacked daily by the Communist press and over the Com­munist radio in i\Ioscow, \Varsaw, Prague, Budapest, Bucharest, Sofia, and Tirana, it is ironical to read again the wild assertion attributed to Brada on the first page of the first (January) article: "The center of the Communist world conspiracy seems thus to be sit­uated now in the \Vest in ... Hadio Free Europe ... the Crusade for Free­dom, and Free Europe, Inc." The center of the Communist world conspiracy is in Moscow. The Com­munist governments of the satellite states arc in this conspiracy. It is against them that the whole work of Hadio Free Europe, the Crusade for Freedom, and Free Europe, Inc., is directed. It is effective, and we shall continue it. \VlllT'\"EY H. SHEPARDSO (Cn11ti1111cd 011 next 1"'f!.l') READERS' VIEWS forces for the time when the coexistence policy fails and the \\'est has to make the decisions so long l'Vaded. Let us hopl' that this time it will not be too late. Dn. HuooLF J Jiu-, Gen. Secy. Czed1-Sudet<'n German F,.dcral Commitl('<.' ~lunkh, Germany As a refugee from Czed1oslo\i1kia, who came to the United Stall's nearly "'' m ) ears ago under the Displaced Persons Act, I ha,·e been , ·cry mueh thrilled h) the Hadio Free Europe [artidt's] by Jiri Brada ... I wish to ('Ongratulate you on the fact that you art' the first American periodical with enough courag(' to pub­lish this kind of story. Scores of indi\icl­uals and refugee organizations of Czechs and Slovaks for years lul\c tried in Yain to warn and inform the AmC'rican public about the true face of HFE .... I am not saying th.it ~Ir. Slwpardson and some of his colleagues in the RFE are knowingly committing a crime against Americanism, but I am saying that hy being misinformed and misled, they arc NOT fighting communism at ,di, but arc stooges of the Socialists, indirect collab­orators of communism, t•ncmi<•s of the millions behind the lron Curtain, ;ind thus enemies of freedom .... SO:'o;JA RYSA \'A Berwyn, lllinois . . .. I sat with the people emplo)wl now hy HFE in the parliament in Prague, and am fully informed of their allegiance to the Communist cause . ... Though I agree in gcn~ral with the criticism by ~Ir. Bracla, I stilt think him to be too lenient in this respect. The so­often- pro,·ed links between HFE on one sidC' and the Communist C'Spiomlg:e on 1he other arc somehow missing out of \Ir Brada's article. Dn. ~hc11AE1. Zm1m1 Former \lt•mber of CzechoslO\ ak Parliament Chicago, lllinois ~Iv pNsonal eongr;1tulations anti my thanks for your meritorious and ob­jective action: for the revelation of the true face of H.idio Free Europe and the so-called Crusade for Freedom. You ha,·e done a great senice not only to the en­slaved peoples behind the Iron Curtain, hut abo,·e all also to vour heroic Ameri­can people, who earr) in the free \\'e,t tlw main burden of the anti-Cornmunist fight. [I write] not only in my own name, as \ 'ice President of The '\'ational Com­mittee for Liberation of lon1kia, ... but also in the name of many democratic:, anti-Communist Slovak rt•fugces. Your artides by Jiri Brada fully hit the true, unfalsified substanct• of HFE. \\'e, who arc following the broadcasts of Haclio Free Europe for our enslaved lornk na­tion every day, WC'rc until now able only to watch helplessly how, under the Amer­ican Crusade for Freedom, our people have been taught systtomatil'ally pro-Com­munist tcnden ics. \\'e h~n·c bf'(.'n watch­ing how, sponsored hy a small circle ?f American citizens, the former Commumst collaborators, ag<.•nts, and pro-Commu- Page 21 READERS' VIEWS nists arc cbily poisoning spiritually our cnsl4l\·t·<l nation. . . . . Brada has pomtt-d out the Red shadows in RFE openly and he has in­formed the American public on the basis of de,ir proofs about the fact that under the formally anti-Communist theater of Radio Free Europe arc being nurtured Reel outfits. \\'e arc ready to supply you with tens and tens of evidence-documents. DR. Sru•As C. LUK.ATS, Vice Pres. .\"ation.1! Committee for Liberation of Slovakia, Washington, D. C. In the biographical skdch of \Ir. Jiri Brada in the J,rnuary, l!).56, issue of Facts z:orum Seu.:s on page 10 there appears the following information: "Unlike many other Czechoslovaks of his age, he never joined the .\";1zi party •.. " This is rather a serious indictment of the Czcd1oslovak youth, isn't it? \\'hen the l\azis invaded Czcchoslo­\' akia, \Ir. Brada was some sh.teen years old, and at their ddcat a little over twenty-two. Just what reliable proof do we ha'c to justify the insinuation that young Czechoslovaks apparently indulged in joining the '\azi party? Don't we owe the Czechoslo' ,1k p<·ople an apology for such a statement? C1uc E W. Fox ( \lus. Jom< P.) \laplcwoocl, .\"cw Jer
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