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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 069. 1955-04. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 20, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1258.

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Facts Forum. (1955-04). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1258

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 069, 1955-04, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 20, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1258.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Contributor
  • Evans, Medford
Publisher Facts Forum
Date April 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript llake tl.t· Public Int r l of i1ltl'r" t to th«> Public ''ThPrP i.1 a kind of dictatonhip 11 hich can com!' about through a cr1•1•pi11g paralysis of thought, rradinPss to ac­cPpl pfllernalistic 111Pa Uri's of gorl'rrz­menl. a11d along ll'ith tho.11• /Xlfernali.1tic mea urrs come., a .\urrnzder of our rP­spo11.1ibilitirs and. tlwrP/o rP. a wrrl'ndPr of our 01111 tlwught orer our 011•11 lii·es and our ou·n right to 1'.tl'rc-i11• our roll' indicating thP policil'.\ of our 011·11 country." D\\ 1G l!T D. E1SE\ ll OWER • "Socialism and communi.-..m zron~l 1mrk b!'cauw. oc-ialists and Communists 11·011"1 11·ork till' inc1'11li1P is lac-king.'" CLE\[[)_ ] 0 11 \STO\ Prr-idrnt of thr L,.S, Chamber of C.ommrrce " I am not a w·ntll'111an. I am th!' r1pr<'Sl'lllflli 1<' of th!' So1ie1 l 11ion." SE\I\ (}\ " · TS\H \ l'l, I \ Ru,,ian drlr~atr to thr l 'I, "hrn a'krd hi thf' ~f'rurity Council ( :hairman ··For '\hat purpo'-e doe ... thf' ~rntlt>man ,d..,h to :-.pf'a!... ·r· ··t f both. or all, political par/ii'.\ Ir) to b,, all thing.1 to all 111e11. t/11• l'lrctora/P has no choice <'11'11 at 1•l1•c-tion ti111<'." FnED 1 l .TLE\ el' \ rtid.- on Paf!<' :~2) "Rrpublics, ont' aftt'r tlw othrr, hm t' peri,hrd through <t 1uwl of i11lPlligl'nc1• and 1irt1u• in tlw ma.1.11>.1 of 1/11• pt•opfr. r hry ha11' f>l'l'll dl'iill'rl'd Olt'r /O Oil· archy and 1/11•11c1• lo d1•spotism ... I/ ll't' do nol prrparr childrr11 lo b1•comr good c;ti:l'Tt.\ ... if 111' do not l'llrich their 111i11d.1 11ith kno11/1•dgP, i111bur tlwir /,parts 11ith lo1r o/ trnth and duty and rt• 1 rrrncr /or all things vicrt•d and lwl.i. thl'n our rPpublic 111u.1l go dou 11 to d1'­.1lructio11, a.1 otlwn harp done be/or!' it.'' ll tlltl(E \ I\\\ Per .. on.., ""ubmitting quo h1tion ' ""hidt ure u ... ed in thi"' <·olumn "'ill rec·eh c one- )t"ar ... ub .. r riptiono.i to Facts Fortun Neit•s. If <.dread) a "'Ub'l<0riber, the l'Ontrihutor ma) cle ... ig nate another p er ... on to ~li o m th e ~1w u rd "'ub..,C"ription wi ll be "'Cut , o r he m ay wi ... h to ext end hi.., prr ..,ent -;uh­... t:ripti on. Be "ure to Ji..,l the uuthor.;; and ~ouree ... o f all quotati on "!. Books Battle Communism At Ithaca, N. Y. A readinμ- room containinμ- a com­prehensi1t' collPction of material on eommuni,m has h<'rn op<'n<'d for public use in ltha<·a's hislorie Tompkins House. Estahlis lwd through tlw 1ohm­lerr efforts of eil) and county n•,idt'nl'. th<' n•adinμ- room 11 ill offrr an " ' ten­,;, e inde,ed fil<' of lh<' Co11gr!'ssional RPcord. officia l n·porb of th<' ll otM' and Senal<' imeslil(alinl( 1·ommillees. anti-Communist pt'riodieals I indudinf! Facts Fornm \ 1•11.1), and other per­tinPnl information. Classroom TV a Trojan Horse? ·'The foreefu l appeal of "·hoolroom tel<•, j,ion could I)(' of infinite service." point... out California\ Eagle Rock . rntinrl. ' ·Our ohl iμ-ation 11 ill he lo 'ee lo it that tlw prof!ram ;, not di,torted hr tho,<• 11ho plan our ruin.'' .\ uthor of th<' articlt'. \l rs. Doris A. Parb. 11ho has oril(inatt•d and <'on­ducled Pro Am<' rica\ " 'orbhop in Los Anμ-e lC's. asks. '"By our indifft'n'rH'!' as lo 11 hat t<•I('\ ision malPr ial is hrought into the clas-room an· 111• lo ri sk admit­linf! a Trojan hors<' 11 hi<'h, orH'I' inside, <'an 11arp th <' minds of our ehildren? Or shall we a<·l d<•<·isi1r l) to pn•1cnt Lhr misuse of this 'Lrppll'nwnlaf) aid lo Pducalion? ··The 11a) lo ddl'al Communi't in­flut'nC<' in c·la--room T\ - ;, 'to lw ther<' fir,t' before it h<'μ-ins lo 'e<'p in. Good old ·1 ank<'<'' dl'lnmination <'an f!,<'l us th<'r<' first if "" ha11· an "'Jlli<·it pro­gram prepart'd hy thosr 11ho 11anl lo see our c·hildr<'n d<'11•lop into upsland­in~ citin•ns.'' Shadow of the Cross On the Iron Curtain Alonl( tlw Iron Curtain. from Il am­hurg lo thl' Austrian border, ne\\ churcht's ar(' lwinl( 1·onstrucl<'d hi lh<' Am<'ric-an \\ oodt'n Churc·h Crusad<>. Ea,l G<•rman r..ful(t't'' at Traunn·ut. Ba\aria. 11ho had l>t•<·n '""·,hippinf! in an old harral'b. 11011 hm t• a n1·11 Catho­lir church. On tlw frinl(<' of tlw SO\ i!'l Zone in \\ ('sl Bt'rlin. a Prol<',lant con­f! regation . 11 ithout a plact' lo 11o"hip since thr 11ar. no\\ has a church of ib O\\ n. Thr crusad<' plans lo build forty­nint' mod1•st slru<'lun·~. Schoolbooks Screened .\n imt·sli!!alinl>( t'Ommillt•t• of tht• Jam1•s Campbt'll Chaplt'r, Daughters of Of, by, and for facts forum News reade rs th<' Am<'rican R!'\ olutio n. Dall a>. T!'\a'. c·hpckpcf 1h irly- fi11• rw11 l!'\lhooks tn a•· n•rtain " lwtlwr th!') !'Onlain!'d an) thi n ~ of a suln<•rsi\!' nalur<'. Tlw th irly-fj , 1• book \\('f<' for Da llas classrooms ·fron• tlw f•l<·nwnlar) f!rad('s throuf!h hil!h school. Amonμ- olht•r thin«s. t'ach hook '"'" j ud!!Pd on tlw basis rof \\hat it had ltl sa) ahout <·apita li,m and fr<'!' <'llll'f· prisi·; "ht•llwr ii pn•,f•nlt•d \\Oriel l(O'· nnment as sup!'rH•clino- th!' l nil<'fl Stal<'S μ-01Prnmt'11tal :"l<·n1. anti " h!'lh<'r Am!'ri<'an hislori "and lwri t a~<' ""'" pa"<'cl O\ !'r li f!hll) nr d<•ridt'd. The commill <'<' appro\Pd tlw hooks. Century-Old Prophecy About a hundred years ago. Coni· modon· \l allht'11 P<•rry. l "S'\'. r!'turned afl!'r OJ>!'ninμ- isolat!'d Japan lo Anwri· !'an shippinf!. ll is n•marks on that occa· s!on. , as r!'lo ld in tlw /,0.1 I n{!.I'"'' f_,xam11u>r . ..,hO\\ slri kinp: insip:ht. " It r!'quir!'s no saw· to pr<'di<'I that \\Cstward "i ll tlw !'OUN' of history takr its 11ay. but tlw last a!'I of th !' drama is )<'t lo Ii!• unfo lcl!'d. I think that casl· ward and sou tlrnard ,,i ll Bu" ia. Amt·r· ica's ~rea l ri \til, slr!'l d1 fo rth lwr po\\<'r lo the coasts of Chi na and Sianr. "And thus the Stl\011 and tlr t' Cos· sack \\i ll 111<'<•1 onc't' mon-. in st r ift' or in frien dsh ip. \\ ill it l1t• in fri<·ndship'! I frar not! Tlw anlaf!on i,tic 1·,po1wnl• of fn•<·dom and ahsoluti'm nH"l thu· nw<'I at }a,1, '"Tllt'n 11 ill he fou;d11 that mif!hl' hat tie on 11 lr ic·h thr "orld 11 ill looJ.. "ith bn•at hl <>ss inlt'r<'sl, for on its issu<' 11 ill deJH'rlfl the fn·cdom or tlrt' sla\ t'r) of tlw "orld dt•spolism or rationa l lihl'rl\ must IH' th<· fate of 1·i, ili t!'d man. " I think I s<'I' in the dis tanc!' th<' giants that an· f!""' inl( up for 1hal fi!'rce and fina l t•nc·oun l<'r. In tlw pro· μ-r<"-' of <'H'nls that hall le must soont•r or lat<•r in<·1 itahli h<' fouμ- ht." More Time for Treason? Euμ-c1w Dennis. Gerwral S<'f'r<'tan of the Communist parl). and John (;,;It"· Owl} II orkN <·dito r, 11<·n· n·leas<•d fron• \ tlanla Ft'd(•ra l Prison, hut J..l'pl in fr1f· Pra l 1·1i-lody lo fa1·<· olllt'r C'liar~t'" Pri..,on ~f·11t('IH'I' \\th for c·onspirat'\ lfl lead1 and a!ho<·alt• 1iolt'11I O\l'rt hro" of tlw p:o\ <'r11nw11t. ( 0 \ TllE \ LEHT- K Pt'p 1l1i' t·ul1111•" i11fornu·d of u11 1i. ( :01111111111i ... 1 ut·thiti<'"' ill ) Our ureu hy \\ritill J,:" u H t•u dc r .!'i H t•1>or1." Fiw t-; Forum, Dall a.., I, Tt·~u.,,) --Vol. -4 c Oruc1\ \ \ T11~ L\TC I\ fk n \ L 1Kt's \11 u 1o11\ L. L ·r"HFr b txc.r.r n.: ffo11 \rov i>or.1. R1:st lloor.;: RL1 llo11 Ar:u 'f11 E Cn-l i'i: 1ct J\ ( llt;1Lll1\c I l'11\s1u '' To Aro FA1 11011 F1n:1: ~lit I PA I' l\1J10 \\ll l.tTTt115 TC CovrtsT H Ho, Corl'. l'o Lt Qt r~ l'o '·t Qvr.s rs Te~a'. " to a•· iythinf? riy-fir<' ~ f ro111 hi1d1 >"- wa~ had to enter· cl l(O\· n itcd and <'rita~e ·d . Thr Com· turned '\ meri· t occa· 'nw·t1·1 ·t tlwl ) takr Jma i~ t ea•I· Arner· po111·r , Co,· ·if<' or ,,hip'! oncnl:­t thu· ni:rht~ \I ith (' 11ill ·ri of iherl) '(' tht' 1hal \ pro· ooncr If) of r;aw-. f roil' il r..11· ur,!!1' .. · ('\ lfl o11 ,,r ~ 1 u11111 i ('"' jf) porl:· FACTS FORUM NEWS Vol. 4 APRIL, 1955 No. 4 19CCicial publirntion of Facts Forum, Inc., 1802 Mnin SL. Dallas I, TcxaA. Publisht·d monthly in th1• ntcr<'.11tl of Fact8 Forum participants nncl oth1•rs coOC('rncd with diSJH.'lling public apathy, Any nrlid<' O~l~!!'.\T~.;~/·1;~~\~[~{~;:1 tf.S~A. may bC' freely n·produe<.•d. Second clns!I mnilini.:- privih_·gcs nuthoriud nt g9ARO OF OJRf;CTOHS: Robert H. Dcdrnnn, Pruid<·nt: John L. DalC'. Vice PrC'~idt·nt: Wnrrrn ·\, r~~~.~t'. Jr., S1rn·tRry: Joe Nash, Tn•nsun·r: Mr11. E. P. Lnmbcl'th, 1rs. Sue McCrnry, Hob<'rl n. ~:0 ~l~~~}('~, '~?n~~v0 E.M1t~~ic~· ~i·11f!~~dN.' ~~a8~r,'::i~" ~r~.r. :.rtuH:~t.8Mi;"~· k.10~d. ~{u~:C\1."~r;., 0M~~~ CW allnt·<' Snrn1n" W. G. Vollmer. Dnak Wnlkn. E. K M<'Quilfrn. Govt:rnnr Allnn Shivt·r11. Gt·n<"rnl Albnt · Wt'<lt·mt·~·«•r. G1·n<"rnl Rob<'rt E. Wood. Hun ford ~frNidt r. John W11yn('. COMMENTATOR: Dnn Smoot. EDITOR: ~hdford Evan11. llUSJNF:SS MANAGER, 0. M. Sponrc. U )'Ou wi"h to mnke n contribution to FnC'lK Fol'llm, nd<lr1 Joi' Nnsh, 'l'rtni<ur<'r, FnctM Forum, •llaa I. 'l't·xnA. Su<"h contributions cnrry n tnx·11l•ductiblo status. irnr!:~~~~ c~?..~nt ~~v~~n ~M ~~~0~f ~~~n~~nb~ i~ n~~~~f d1~!::11~! r~h~~l~l ~fo~1 'fi!c~~~d s~~lPj :~~u~1ir"~1SSi~li~,J i~~·.n·fft in ~ncu Forum iA nonprofit and nonpnrlisnn, MuJ)porting no political cnndidnte or purty. FnctK F'orum'M ~ht1vi_ti1:.., nt·<· d1-shtnt'<I to J>r«'Bl·nt not jui,t onl:' vkw of n controversinl isi<uc, but nil dt•ws, bt·lit'vin~ e:,,~\, 1~ i;h<~rr<' 0~~h~0~~~1~~~~ 3~bligntion o( tht• Amni<'nn J)1'<>Jll1• th<•msdvt•s to ll'nrn nil th<' (nctM nnd to SUBSCHIUE, "4.'(' Png(' 45. ~~ANGJ<-; OF ADDHRSS: St•nd old 11dd1·e11~ lt•xuclly u11 imprint('cl on mailing labl'I or your copy or l)le;Jsal~!!!{~~l\: N,~~~k~l (~~c~hnu<'~~~~~;.~~8 to FACTS FOHUM NEWS, Department CA. Dnllns I, Tl'xni;. ~-~~-'-N~_T_H~• -s~•_s_s~u_E~~~-' 01oc1\ '\D l'LHPO E OF T ll E L \ JTCD IT IO\S by Dan Smoot 'f11c C\TOLD 0PPE'\ ll El\ Irn STOR\ hy /'au/ Crouch I\ Bc1tALF or OrPCXTTEl\tEn 11;.c' \11 L1T \ R\ ER l'JC:E PL 1\! by fJan Smoot 1o11\ L. Lrn1s \r1T1 1 \11 c 11T A'\O i\11\E b) J. /,, F,1cin[( ff! 'f 1n1rr by lJan Smoot L\r.1.r 111: hTu111E11 111T11 P nt:S IUE\r C1111\C K11 -s11E1;: ,H, o11 \\'oL 1.D ) oL 01:11\c " LIBt:1t ":' "''> ··co,s1.111 \ T11 E"? 0 1.1. lh:sLJ.T ( \hncu) lloo1;. Hi;11i:11·s 11011 ArcLn1TE l s A\JEHJr , 's '\1E 11 s? Tii1: Cn-l ·s.f\1.1. l\ooRcss I\ ·ICr; I"\ OL n Tl\IE by Frl'da l'tlt') ll~IJ.Dl"\c A on1usT Soc1f:n /,y \ilw/ai l/alw111in P,,,SIU\"\ D11C'\OSES CO\l\ll"\IS\I To A10 FACTS Fonu1r 11 % F1u:i: I OL'R FREE P1u:ss '! !u,s I PAcc 45 ·-··--··-···-···-·--···-···········-···················-····-·-············-······ 111 h10 \"\!) T\ ('llEDLl.ES I lt . 'fl:H TO EDITOR CQ\~ . •CST HLLES llo1 c OJI' \\[) Tll E ATO\I SJ' i l.S. I' llff 11 l>oL l QLE TIO"\ ( \ PRIL) l>o, .J. Qt ESTIO"\ \VJ'\"\ERS Cm 1 u 1'1111To Ciu 1>1T: II irlr II arid ~'I\ CTs FORt.:"1 'EWS, Awil, J.?5.) 2 0 () 9 10 15 17 22 21 25 27 28 30 ;{2 :~:~ 36 :~9 12 115 26. :ls. JO. 18. SH 16 46 ·19 65 65 What they're say ing • • • ~ ~= · = ~ t j j~'-y abo u t FACTS FOR UM Thank-.; a million for thr additional <'Opir .. of Fm·t.t; Forwn Vl'u:s .. . . \Vt• \\ill plan· tlwm • • • Y. lwre tht"y "i1I do tlw mn ... 1 ;_!nod .. \her two years of rradinj.( Farh Forum Vt·u.·s. \\ r know hdon· t•arL j ..... llt' cornt-s out that it \\ill prmidr tlw hc• .. t "Otm·r of lia('k· ~round and information on \\halt'' <.'r suh­jrc ·ts ii iurludl'" .... Our thanks for a joh "Uprrhh donf'. II. }. Pinson. Director Puhlie Information St1 nicr" The TnclianapoJi ... ChamlH'r of Comnwn·1• Indianapolis 11. lnd. \Ve morf' than appn•1·ia ll' hadnp: your maμ:azinf' anfl frcJ ii j,,. 3 darHly puhlic•ation. μ:i' in~ the Inrt" \\ hi!'h wf' \\.:tnt lo 111• in­formed on-and ha'r a ,oi1·t1 in. too· to kt•rp our con..,titulional r ip:hts in force. \ } .. o, \q' t•njoy rec<>i' in{!: tlu· Fal'b Forum Poll <'ad1 month. l am 1•11closinμ; n lonj!; Ji ... 1 of fri<.·nd..; who I'm .. un• would lik1• lo n•ct•iH· )Ollr Fart.. Forum Poll. F:. G. Bech 101 Carl Dr., N.E., Ada, ~lich. Your pro~rarn J.~T \ TE OF T l! E J\' \ . TIO"\ I in my opinion i" 1hr lu•..,t of it-;. kind on tht• air. Tt j,,. Pntntaininμ, inl<'rl'i.., ti n~ an1I ini..,tructht>. It j.., a rnu~t in our hou<.;r for rndio J i ~u·ninp: . ... llnrrv M. To<ld Cro ... i.; River, . Y. ... Juq n•<·ehPd ... FacH Forum N1'W.''i. It'.,. jarn.nwd to tlw <'OH'r \dlh fine m1iclrs nncl . fa1·t .... T llf'Yt'r ran put it down until ] n•ad ii. \m μ:lad it\ f(oin{!; lo he 011 the n1•\\ .... tand .... Mn. Roy Cha If cc Lin .. in;!. \ linn. "'e arc arranginf! a !-.howin{!; of the I Fart" Fon11n tele' i ... ion film I intt'n i4'W \\ilh Po ... t· ma ... tt•r Genna.I Sumrnnfif'ld for our Po ... t-rna ... t1'r and po~taJ s11prrvi'."ori.;. Tlw} in turn plan to u .. r thr film in p:roup mcNings to di ..... t•minate thr information. R. II. May/i1.fd f'oor<linator, l ni:..trurlional l\,jcJ,,. San \ ng1·lo Public School.., San An~do, Tc'\a.., I thorou~ly <.·njoy your pro~rarn r \ \ - ".EH FOJ{ ,\\I ERIC \ .._<; I "' iour "'b­jt• th arc always i..,uc·h intt•n• ... tin~ and \ital onr"': Then .• too. T alwn~s <'njoy the <'ll· thu ... ia~m d1 ... play1.•d bl <.•nd1 of }'Ollr pan<'l­i ... ts a.; thr) cntrr the "frnv:' Viola Grilfin 606 Tenth l., Lake Chorl1••, La. I \\ i-.h to C\prc:--.-. my gra1itucJ1..'-nn<l that of my famit) to your orgnnizntion. and •-1wrinUi lo \Ir. Dan Smoot. for 1hc l1ip:hli 111...;p1rat1oaal radio and tt·l1.•,·i-;ion proμ-rams you pre .. ent for our rnjoYmcnt e,·cry Sundn) t"H'ning . . .. You bav:e !-.l;f)<'rbly mt•t n chnl· lt>nμ:ing: need of our tinw"-thr ('ncourn~e· mrnt of ,:!:Ood ritizen.,h.ip and fni1hful ndhn- 1·nrt' to Chri.,liaa ideal ........ llarf{aret l~. Fi.'>hrr '.?900 Conncrticul h r., N.W. Wd'ohinl(ton. D. C. Page l Origin and _Purposf the TllF.: )l'ar 1955 is llH' ll'nlh a11ni\t·r,,1ri of the Lnitl'd \at ion~. The Charlrr of tht• l nilt•d \atiom. pro\ idl', that in this tenth ) 1·ar. lht' Ct•nt·ral A"l'mhlr of the ·;-, 11111,l <·011~ider a prnpo~al for a g<'n<'ral confcrrncc to rt'\ il''\ lhl' l nitl'd \ations Charll'r. 1 Thi, I""' isio11 11 as i 11lt·ndt•d lo focus the allention oI lhl' 11orld on lht' l \ in its lt•nih )l'ar. This is tht' )l'ar 11IH'll a<Tording lo the l nitcd Nations Charln itself lhl' pl'opll' of the 11orld shou ld rt'\ i1·11 thr re<'or<l of LIH' l \ lo find oul ho1' thr organ· izalion is doing al 1 lw t'nd of ils fi n-l ll'n ) t•ar' - LO dctrrminl' 1dwlll<'r any hasi<' diangt•s shonld }I(' made in its charter.' Const•quentl), 111· ll<'rt' in ilH' l niled Sialt''· through· out 1955. 11ill !war. n·ad, and parli<·ipalt· in innun11·r· ahlc discu,,ions on lhr l nilt·d \alions. l t is. of 1·ourst'. propn that '"' should do "" The L nited \alions as hoth lkan \ dH·son anti John Fosl!'r Dulll's hmt• said is the kt·1SlOttl' of Ameri!'an forl'ign poliq. · lt is impo"ihll' lo undl'rsland or 1·n·11 i11ll'llige11tl) lo dis<·u-..~-AmPrican fort'i~n poli"} "iLhoul <'On~iclcr· ing lhl' Lnill'd \ations. Therl' is no dis<'u"io11 stil>jt'!'l, thl'rdorl'. of more profound imporlttrH't' lo the peoplt• of ,\ meri!'a than tlw suhjl'!'t of tlw l nill'd \ations. \or is therl' any suhjt·<'l mon· 1"011lro1t·r,ial. Sin!'!' it is thl' fu1wlio11 of Fads Fon11n lo pn•sen1 pros and t·ons on imporlanl 1·011lro1l'r,,ial subjects, 1 'Dan Srnoo ain. al th di.,.<·u ... ~ion i'a!'ls I' i", of c·ou h,-o f'\a"I 0111• sit lhat Liu• l ""'l (and '' 11 <·arth JIOl1•11tialh lllt·111of1·1 \ nntl><•t inat,. rit'\\ \\'a~ f'Ofl<'I' hi) illl Ill "or)d as 1'1'1" ) ii '"'' <lt•siro\ ltr•·parr \ grf•ut ~o' i In th tht~ l 11i 1 di ... n 1 ..... t·~ IHti nt , 0 . \ ow, 111 th i ... ... "lio "'<'r• lhr rt•a l \ a1io111o;'! Fir ... 1 t "··· l '\ . posf the UNITED NATIONS Lnited Lhal i11 \ 111 u,I reYil'" Len Lio11 L nitcd , hould orf!a11· ·..,- to ." nuuk rou}!h· 1urner· Ul ~utd Jill' of i~e ntl) u:-;idd· . more J than ir<'-.enl eel>, I tDan Smoot J~ll. at lhi:-. t11nt'. i11iliati11f! a ~crit':-; of d1>n1,,ion' al10t1L thl' l niL!'d \ ation,. . ran:-. Forum\ 11olion of pro and ('()II 1s. of ('our .. t'. lo pn•:--t•nl a '.'- Ul 1jl'('l from Llio ('\ac1ly op1111-ill' noinis of Yie". 011 (' ~iru·(·n· and l<'gitimalc Yicw i:-. that tlu· l nit .. cl \atio11' j, the "oriel"' l,<.,L (and pPrlwps la,L) hop1• for pc·a<·<· ''" i·arth thal ilw l .niil'd \ at ion' j, Poti·u1ially ilu• fin1·'1 polilical ad1 ie\!'· 1n1·11t of 1h .. '" 1·nlil'lh <·1·nl11rl'.1 \uothn 1·q11ally ,; in <Tr!' ·and lq(i 1i". 1natc 1 it•\\ j, ilrnl ill!' l nill'd Nalion' ''a' 1·011r·pi1l'cl in lrcadwn. fohhcd off '"1 n11 1111"'t1"'P""'i11rr a11c.I \\H r · wrar\ ''or]d ;i .... '.'-OllH'thin" rcrood. \\ lu•n af'tt;. 11 11) it \\a .... a , a:-.1 r.~111~11111 i:-.L t'on~pi raf'\ In di·""tro\ \mPrin111 i11 ... 1it11lio11:-. an~I l1ri·parp \nwrica for inh•μ-ralion into a J?rc·at '-'o' id. ~of'iaJi .... t 0 11<' ''orld.=- 111 111(' Fat·t .. Ftu-um arl ie lt•, on tlte l nitNI 'ation-., tl u~ l '" "i ll ht• di"<'U""t•d rrom th(•,(• l\\O oppu ... itt• (loi111 ... or ,j (' \\ , ' \ o,, , lf'1· ... 1·011-.idt·r th(' r i r~ • lo p it· 111 llii ...... t·rit•-.: \\ 'li at \\a-. tlu· oi·i~.d n : "Ito "t~ r{' 111{' oriμ'iuator ... ~ "ltat \\l'rf' t\Ji,,. rt·ul puq10........ or 1lu· Un ited :11 1011 ... '! Fir .. 1 Iii(• ,it'"" or 1110 .. c ,, ho lilu• 11,,. l \ . * Tltf: l nitt-d \ atio1h ""' k"ically an \1n1 ·rir·a11 id1·a. l'n•s ident Hoo-.·1 di f'1rl th1· nwn around him .. lookin l! "ilh 1"irror upon the 1liaos of \\'orld \\'ar II. l"alizc·d that 1his holocaust mi"ht ha11· ~ r t·ff .. 11 _Prt''.<'11lt·d i.f llH'r(' had ')(:('II an ., r lJ\(' 111tt·r11at1011al orp;an 11.at1 011 to 11 1.ara ru11t1·c· fH"~l ( '(' '" "0 111 (' kind or OPrY~' lll i - It •on 1d1id1 \\Ot1ld hind Lh<• nations of 't 1' '.world into a pacl for C'Olll'('li1c '<'· t'•rttv and "ii<' tlH•m a forum for <'O il · 1111,, . l"" 1,11 >us <·ontacl, l''"" ""i!'' of idl'as. and f• 11111· d<'i1at1·: a pltlf"I' \\ hl'n' th ('y could '"lit f·' f Out tJ11•ir diffl"rt'IH'l'S arO UIJd till' ,,'; 11 1 1·n·111·1· lahll' in-tt-ad of 011 thl' field '•lit! .. IJl'ro1n tl11· lwuin11i11!! of ihe \\artiml' "11 ~a 111 ·1· lwt\\1 '<·11rtlll' s;i1 i<'I l nion. Great ir it · . ~ . '"It atn. a111I till' l 111l<'d . tat<». Hoo,;c•· "t. fn·rpu ·nt h ,anific<'d polilirnl inler­tir .J't honw and abroad and "orkrd "ith QI]:./''' dl'tc·rmination to forge this alli­for for \\tlr inlo a p<'rmanrnl alliance Pru<'P a 1 liu. t 1.1.1 11·1 I "talc•s took II J r• Ie a<I an< I '''"t; 111r·d .dmo-t ilw full hurd<•n of Lhe I 11it''ar 1d1al1ilitatio11 acli1 iti1·, of the «d \a1 ion' for JH''lf'I'. f'.\r .. r, · FO!!l"~l :'.\E\\"S, l /"i/, /!1.;.; l \!{HA ( L niled \ atio1h l{1·lil'f and Hehahilitation Admini strati on ) "hi eh literall) >a1ed millions of honwlt·" Eu­rop1 ·a1h from >-Lani ng and M'l tht'm 011 the road to :sah'aging their "ar-nl\agecl honwland, \las din'l"l<'d hv Anwricam• and finan ced almost ,.,<:l11,i1t•I) h) Ameri<'a.'; \ 011!' of the humanitarian a«li1 itit's of the l 11i1ed \aiions su<'h a> the l nited \alion> lnil'rnalional Childrl'11°s Enwr­g1 ·n«y F1111d ( l \ ICEF). 1d1id1 has smed hundn·ds of thousand, of honwl <'ss d1il­drrn from ,1anation Lhrou i:houl the llOrld "ould ha1 r hrcn poss ihle "ith­ou l l 11 itl'd Stairs i<'adrrship and finan ­<' ial supporl. \ onr of the Unilt•d \at ions prOl.!fHlll"i (or bringing Jrarni11g and ('('0· nomi<· d<'1elopmr11L to haekllard and \\ar-d1·1astalt'd an•as rnu ld hall' IH•t•n po"'ihlc "ilhonl !\mrr ican leader>hip ,1 11d fi11a11<'ial H•pporl. 7 The l 11i1ed '\ations Dcdaration of lluman Hi l!hi ,. ihc G1•nocide l'a el. and ih <' 1 ar iow .. oih<'r social and political «0111 ('Ill io11s nrait'd hy thr lnt t' rnation al Lahor Orga nization, i11l' lf11111a11 Hi i:hi.. C:om mis> ion. and the Ernnomic and So­cial Co111H'il of the l ' niL<'d 'ations. hear thl' mark of Ameriean lt'adi·r,hip. Tlw hc,;L "ay lo di sprOI e the 1 i<'iou' all l'f!a lion that the LTniLed Nation' j, a Comm uni ,1 plol is lo trace tl1l' sl!•ps taken hy the na ti on,; of the fr<'<' \\Oriel in <'slahti<hing- the F'\. The first sl<'Jl wa• ilw Lo11do11 lkdar­alion . sii:ncd on J l1tW 12. 1911. h1 Lhe rt•pr<'"' ntati11•s of Hrilain. Canada.· 1\11,. India. New 7.<'aland. and South Africa. and of till' c' ilrd μ-01 r rnnwnt> of Bd­l! i11111. C:zt'choslornkia. Gn·1•1·<·. Lu"'m· houri!, ilw 7\'<'ihrrlands. Nornay. l'o ­la nd. Yu g-os l111 ia. and 111· GPneral lkGau lll' of Frnncr.' SOCIAL SECURITY FOR ALL This don1111Pnl 'La ll'S thal the 0111' true has is of cnduring pcacC' is the 11 ill­ing rooprration or. free proples in a world in 11 hid1. relll•1ed of Lhr m<•1wc<' of aμ-gn•..sion. all may enjoy economi<' and social serurily.• 'o". notr th at thr llnited Statr:; did not sicrn this London dC"rlaration. Tlw inl r nl ,..a nd purposes of this drdaralion werr rea ffirm r d. ho\\r1rr. in thr Atlan ­tic Chartrr. signrd 011 Aug-usl H , 19 Jl, hy Prr .. idrnt Ho<N'1rli and Prime \Jin· i,;L!'r Churchill.' The ALlanlic , hartc•r e\pre,s<'d tl11• lir>pl' thal after the final dr,;Lruction of \ a,i tyranny, a peace could be estab­lishrd "hich would afford lo all nations thl' mra11' of <h1c•lling in ;,a fety \\iLhin !heir O\\n lroundarie<. and "hich "ould afford as•urance thal all the men in all the lands might Iii c oul their liws in frrcdom from fear and freedom from want.9 l{oosc1clt and Chur«hi ll l'\Prt'>Sed Lhe dc· .. i re to bring ahoul Lhe full est rollaho­ralion helwcen a ll nations in the eco­nomie field . "ith the ohje«tiYe of secur­ing · for all impro1 ed labor ;,landardi,. economic adrnncemenl. and social se· curi ly. UN TO PREVENT WAR Le,, than fi1<· month, later January 1, 19 12 ihe L"ni ll'd '\'ation- Declaration was 'iμ-1H'd hy n•pn"r11Lati1 <'' of 26 na­tions in \Vm•hinμ-ton . This declaration re,la tcd Lhe principlt•s e'flr<'..s<'<l in the Atlanlic Charter and "idt'1H'd 1hc area of cooperation among the nati ons allied against Japan, Italy. and Gt'rmany. In addition lo the 26 nations "hich origi­nally signed thi first formal UN dec­laration . oth!'I" nalion< \\hich were ren· drrin~ malC'rial a-. .. i~ l tllH'C' and contri­buting to the >trug-glr for 'irtory OYer lfitler ism \\l'rt' im ited lo join. Twenly· onr nations did later ;,ign thr pact. 10 Thi, \\as the actual heg-inninl! of ilw L"niled \ ation - Or.!!a nizalion. l11•n', in the mid,t of thl' mo'>l t1•rrible 11 ar the world has r1 er kno\\ n-al a lime "hen an allied Yirlory was not e1 rn certain Lhc leading ;,iatr>mrn of Lhe world sought to find some mrans lo JlrC\Cnl furthrr wars and to rn,;nre political. 1•conomic. and mililary •('(·urily for all the peoplPs of llw 11orlcl. On '.\01<'rnhcr l. 19 l:J, a stat<•m1•nt signed in i\Io,('011 l1y '11olot01· of Russia. Eden of Britain. 111111 of Lhe llnitrcl Stalrs. and the C.hi1u·sc l\mhassador lo Lhe S01·irt l'nion. drrlarrd: " TllC'y (t he F'orC"ig-n J\1 i11i,..tr rs of th<• four g-rcal p011crs) rerog-ni1r thr nerrs­;, ily of rstahlishing al the rar lirsl prac- 1 icable datr a general international or­l! aniza Lion. ha•cd on thr prinriple of thr s01rrrig-n eq uality of all prace-loving sta irs. and open to mcmlwrship hy all such states. larg-r and small. for the maintrnance of inlrrnal ional prarr and ::.;<·1·uritv."10 T" o monlh• later. Hoosr1 rli. Stalin, and C.hur<·hill. merting- at Trhrran. dc­ «larrd: •- \~ '<· an 'urt• that our <'onro rd 11 ill Pa)!"C 3 \\in an f'nduri11g 1u·a('C'. \\ <' rt·('oμ-11i1t· fully thr >upr!'mr rr-pon>ihilil) n·stin~ npon U' and all thr t•nit!'cl ·ations to make a peace 11 hid1 will command tlw ;!OOd will of tl1!' on•rn helming mass of the peopl!'s of the world and banish tlw ,<·ourgc and t!'rror of war for mam ;zrnf"ration~.··in FIRST BLUEPRINT PREPARED Thr fir-t actual hlu<'print of this in­IPrnational oqranization 11 hid1 C'ame to lw call!'d thr l 'n itrd \ations 11as pre· parf'd at a ronf!'n•nc·e hrt\\rf'n thr rep· rrsrntatiw,- of China. Grral Britain. lhf' I 'nion of O\ iet Sociali,.;t R!'puhlics, and the l 'n itcd talcs. held at a man>ion known as Dumbarton Oaks in Washing-· Ion, D.C. The confrr1•nee concluded on O!'tohN 7. 1911. when the proposals for ihf' structure of the world org-anization w!'re puhlished. Ext!'nsi,·c public discus· sion follo"ed in Allied countrics.10 According- lo the Dumharlon Oaks proposals, the key body in the nilccl \'ations for prrsrninp: world pracc was to ll!' the ecurity Council on which the "Bip: Fin'" - China. Franc<'. the l '. ... R .. the i ·ni tC'd Kinμ-dom. and the l ' nitC'd tale>-W<'r<' to h<' p<'rmanC'ntlr n•pr<'"<'nlccl. Thr proposal... ho\\ C\ <'r. did not •p<'<·if,- ih<' \Olinμ- procC'durc in the Council. This was diseu•srd al Yalta al a conft•rt•rH'!' hrtwP<'n Roose\·C'lt. Churf'hill. and • lalin. On F1·bruary 11, 19l5. lhc Diμ- Thrf'e announred from Yalta that thi> point had hc1•n st•ttlcd. They dcclan·d tlwir rf'soh1• to 1•:-tablish, at d1r f'arJip,t po"ihlC' mom!'nl. a p:cn· t•ral i11tPr11ational oq:~u11izalio11 to mnin­lcrin pPacc and •ceurity.111 Tlw Yalta declaration crrrnounr!'d a Bi~ Thrt'P U1!Tt'Pmt·11t that a <"onf('n'n<'<" of tlw l nilf'd '\at ion' "01dd IH' Pal It'd to nw!'l at. an franC'i-ro on th!' l\\!'ntr· fifth of April. 1915. to pn·pan· lhf' <har­lt'r for 1hr l \. :don~ tlw line,.; propo-ed in th!' informal <·on11·r-crliorr- of Dum· harlon Oak-.' lkl1·μ-at !'-< of 50 nation- nwt al . an Frarwi-eo lw1111·1·n \pril 2?i ;11ul June• -Wide World Photo President Roosevelt and British Prime Min· ister Churchill met aboard o Brit ish battle sh ip at sea August 10, 1941. -Wide World Photo5 Ind ian ca rr iers transport milk supplied by UNICEF to rural school children in Guatemol•· At right, a seven-year-old Guatemalan enjoys his milk. 26, 1915. Working on the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, on the Yalta aμ-reemcnts. and on amC'ndments proposed hr Yarious gowrnments, th!' confc•n·ncc· hamrncrC'd out the ChartC'r of the l nit('(I '\'ation> and the tatute of th<' n!'w lntC'rnational Court of Justice. The harter was ap­pro\ ed unanimously and signed hy all the rcprc'-<t•ntatin•s.11 It came into force• on O!'toh1·r 21. 1915. 1>llC'n China. Fran!'!'. the l' .. S.IL the Cnited 1-:in!!dom. ancl the rnitC'd talcs. ancl a majority of the other signer,;. had filed thC'ir instrunwnts of ratificalion .11 Todar. the l ' nitcd '\ations and its affiliated agen!'ies ar!' undL•r hitter at­tack in the l 'n itrcl tales. Who arP thc-c people' seC'king lo dri,·c the Cnit!'d \'ation-< from our sllOr('s. and \\ho tn to pin the lahd of '·Communist" o;. '·fellow lr<l\..IC'r .. on c1ery >rtpporll'r of thC' [ \'? '" For tire• mo-I part. the pc•ople who al­la!' k the l nill'd '\ation,; arc• neo-Fasei•ts. ommuni-L "ilc h-hunl!'rs. r-rnr·J..pot>. ancl s11pc·rpal1 iol-. There is, of course, another kind of opposition Lo the United l\"ations- ih<' criti!'al opposition of distinguished or· ganizations such as the Am1·rican Bar \ "ol'iation. "hid1 has raised seriou• questions c·on1·1·rning possible ronflirl l){'tw1·1·11 po11c•rs 1•mhodied in the l'nitrd \'at ions and the pro1 i,.;ions of the l'nitc<I tales Constitution.' In lhC' final analysis, ho"c,·er, criti· ci-m of tllC' l nitl'cl \ations is niti!'i-111 of the 11ork and moti1C's of thosC' "Ire• liaYc labored for the success of thl' UnitPcl Nations. Who arc LIH·sc supporters of the l''\ ? A list of them \\Otrlcl include the finc•1 minds and grc•alesl slatcHncn of th>' t11entil'Lh century. One of the ouhlanclinp: American "'I" porter,.; of the l nitecl '\at ions is '\J r­Elc ·anor Hoosc·H·lt. '\!rs. Hoose1dt ha· tirc•l1•ssl) g-in·n llC'r time ancl cfforl i» the rau-1' of the l'nilecl '\ations. She Jr:r· <lerntPd lwr <•nrrgies primarily in 1hr fi1·lds of >o<'ial and e<'onornic acl\7ancc" mcnt for all people. Ifrr "ork on thj Commis-ion of Il 11man lliμ-hts rc•sullr• -Wide World pt1olO FDR, Churchill, ond Stalin around the confe rence table at Yalta in 1945. ist President er Church! l~ a dorun un1an Hi lllrnted. Wt of der<'n<-y l'l'oplc of t In >hort. ~•nization J ~~n and 11 lhtth it•!'lf- 1 r liuinan 'nn" of all l Thu1 " lie oth e1 L<' t'-i 11, !jurp0 ,t'-. le- Point ,,,,, UJ..·p I Prin,e ~in ~A.Cl's l"OJ Id Photos 1temaJa. :ind of i-thc 1ecl or· lll Bnr scriou' ·onflicl rnited Lnitcol , criti· ili('i~IJI ~C' "ho of th•' cl \ ? • fin<'"1 of th•' 111 q1p· s ' Ir·· ·It ha­fort I•' ;Jw '"'­in thr fvancr· on thl' "~ultr1I -Wide World Photo · President Truman (center) talks to Premier Stalin Cleft) , as they pose with Prime Min­ister Churchill (right) , during first meeting of the Big Three in the Berlin Conference in 1945. J'1 a document thP l \ D<'daralion of TllOSL Anwri('an., 11 ho lit'li<'H' that 1111• fuinan Hi1d1b 1d1ich. if fully impl<·· l nited \ations is our la,t, he'l hopt' lll"ntrd. would mran a hi1dH'r >-landanl for p<'ac(' on !'arth and lllO>-l of tlwm. of drr<'n('y and li1 ing than most of th<' of cours<•. an• >-inc<'re people 11 ho think l•rople or'tlw world ha1e e1er kno11n. 11 lh<'y an· promotinμ- th<' inl<'r<'sts of our In >hort. the l nil('(I :\ations is an or- c·ountry in promoting the l nit<'cl 1\a- ~Unization born of the de>-ir<'S of sinC'<'rt' tions natural l) m-sumc that tlH' l nit<'d tn:n and 11omrn for a world al prac<' \ations 11as 11rll-inlenliont'd. Th<'y find ~1 th itself -a world 11 hi ch 11 il l n•sp<'<'l many high-sou nding phras<'s in the 1I " human rights and fundam<•ntal free- l nit<'d '\at ions Charter. Tlwy point to o111, of all mc·n. tlH' high-minded and influ<•nlial Anwri- * cans 1>]10 support llH' l ' nil<·d \atio11'; l'JT li ut "a"' o ne ... ide o f tlt c <p1 e ... 1io 11 . and th<•1. COtH'lud<' that thr l \ is hound 1e oth <'r -. ide "i ll eomc next. lo he μ-ood. 1 l.<'t '~ 110" <'xam ine tl1 c o ri ;:iu a nd It is quite true that :--on1C' of lhf' hf'..;,l l~Urpo-.e ... of the l nitt'd "\ a tio n ... from \ m(•riC'an-- of our timt' IHl\(' ~upporlt·d 1 1 ''"<'' IJi>/oai•n tt hoe f l '' i<· "" of -.ome " 110 '10 111<· l nit,·cl \atio11s. llut it i:-- al~o true thal some' of the' mo~l :--ini:--lcr lrailors Pr ih'le Minister Churchill, President Roosevelt, and Premier Stalin at ~A.er. 1-'0RL"~I :-\8\\"S, AJ>l'i/. lf/,j,j in our Jii ... ton h<H(' ll('t'll i1noh('d in it. Tlw μ11od Jll'OJll" 11 ho lll'lp<'d to ·l'l up tho· l nit1·d \atinn• and 11ho f'nntin111• to •11p111nt it !!l'l'atl: nuln11111lwr thl' had. llut th<•"' ii fnrn·• hm" ac·tualh l"·1•n i11 f'Ontrol and ha\t' rn.:1n.:1p:t'd to lb(' litt•r­alh tho11•ands of fin<' \nH'ri"'"" as 11 in­do~' dn• ... ,ing- to hid1· a I n·a ... 011ahlf' ('Oil· •piraq. Th" on<' .\nH'rirnn 11 ho c·ontril111tl'd mon• thoup:ht. mnrC' tinw. mon· <'11Prμ:y. and more· cr1·ati11• C'fforl lo11~rd •<'llinμ­np tho• l nitl'd \ation• than all otlwr \ mt'ri,·:111 ... p11t loμPlht>r \\.:I .... \l .!!<' r 11 i•>.' \lμl'r Iii., la di·c·ipli111·d lll<'111lwr of till' Soi id <'•pionaμ-<' apparatus insid1· tlH· l nitl'd Stall's μ011·rnnwnt. 11orkinμ 11ndl'r ord<•rs from 'lo.•co11 and in do.,. c·oop1•ration 11 ith 'lolotm and otlll'r SOI id offi!'iaf,) lahorl'd lonl( and dfec­t iH•ly lo hriug the l nitl'd \ations i11tn P\istPn<'<' a~ an ap:<'tH')' for liam:...trinp:­ing AmC'ric:an policy. cli:o-!"lipatin~ l\meri­can n •so t11TC's and ~tren~lh. <Tt'ati11μ: ro11 tin uous nPr\ e-~hat lerin~ di~<·ord amonf? nation-.. and tlius promoli11p: tlw <·a11•1' of llH• 11 orlcl-11 id" r.om1111111i•I pro­gram. n From 1912 throu1d1 1915. Alμ-<'r Iii>' 11as the μ-uiclinp; pcr>onality i11 all of th1· intl'rnalional confen•n<·es 1dwre the· 1·hara!'lt'r and ehart!'r of the l nitecl \a­t ions 11 <'r<' forml'd. '" i\lg<•r Hi" 11as in do><' conla!'l 11 ith !Iarry De,ler \\ 'hite ( 1\-,istanl S!'crc·­tary of thr Tr<'a>•ury and anolh<'r Amrr­iran Communi~t <'~pio11a~e agt•nl) "ho conc<'il'rd. orp;ani7<'d. and ran thr l"nitl'd \'ations 1\lonrlarr and Financial Con­f1• renec held in j uly. l 911. al Br<'llon \Voods, \'cw llamp>-hire. This confer· <'nt'<' r!'sullcd in thr crC'ation of thr In­ternational \Ionrlan· Fund: and llarn J),•, ter \rhite 11as thr man 11 hom Tn;. man namC'd ag din•<·tor of the Fund. \ irginiu, Franklin Co<' ( 11 ho has tak<'n the Fifth Amrnclnwnl and rdu,<'cl to •ay 11hrther or not he i> a • 01 iN spy) -Wide World Photo Mrs. Roosevelt (second from ri9ht} points out some thin9 of inte rest to Ind ia 's Prime Ministe r Ne hru ( right }, during his visit to Hyde Park. Looking on are Mrs. Indira Gandhi Cleft) , Nehr u's daughter, and Mad­ame Pand it (second from le ft) , Nehru's sist er. Page 5 -Wide World Photo Maxim Litvinoff makes his first statement to the press after United States recognition of Russia in 1933. \las the .\merif'an "ho stH'('l'!'clt•d llarry De,rr \\'hil t• a' head of thP Interna­tional \lorwtan Fund and rl'mained it-. dirrrtor until fkf'l'mlH'r. 195:~. 17 Alger Hj,, \las tlw (''\('('Ufi\(· >1'<T< .. tan· of the Dumlwrton Oab ConfrrPnce in l9I1. at \\hi"h tlw prdiminar) draft of the l"nited \atior1' Charll'r \la' ap­pro1 ·ed. .\lgrr Hi,-. '"" thl' lnhit•'t and mo,t influenliill !'OUn,rlor "ho 11<·rrl lo thl' Yalta Conf1•n·rwr 11 ith Roost·1dl in 1915. Algrr Iii" was thr only official coun,elor "ith Ho<N'l!'ll durin:.t pri1al<' meetings 1dwn Hoos1·11·lt and Stalin made ha,ic agrrPmC'nls about thr f'harll'r of tlw l"nit<•d \ation,." " l SHOULDN'T HAVE DONE IT" On onr fri:rhtful O<Ta,ion at 1 alta. during tlw hitter fight 01<·r Hu"ia', d('­mand for •i'\h'<'n 1 olt'' in the l nitl'd \at ion>. Roo,<•1 Pit. Iii"- Stalin. and an interprNer 11<·n• ldt alonp in a rnnfl'r­!' IH'!' room. Tlw n•,t of the high hra" at 1 aha cooled tlwir hl't'I' out-.ide. \\'hrn Hoo,e1elt. thrn a dying man. "amt' out of the room "ith Alw·r Iii"- lw an· nouru·<•d lo his ach ist•r, that an .. agre<'­ment'. had 111·1·11 n·adwd 1d1id1 1101rld gi\f' Hu ... :--ia thn•f• \Ott's af!ain~l Amt'r­i< ·a» on<' in tlw C1•11rral A"<·rnhl) of thl' l \. To the prolt·•b of thP \ mrri,.arr d<•legation. Hoo'l'll'll \\Paril) arr­nourH ·rd: .. , l.no11 I ,houldn·t ha1e done it. But r \\U> w tirl'd \\hen thry got hold of ml':·•·• I \\'ho \\t'rl' ''they"? Tlwre \\!'rt' on!) four peopl<• in the room: Hooselt'lt. talin. Al:rl'r II iss. and the inlPrprNl'r. The inlt'rprt'ler 11as Charles BohlPn. our pre,-rnt Amhas-.ador to Hu"ia. rpon his rrturn from 1 aha in Fl'hru­arr. 1915, Alg<·r Ifi,s began imnwdiat1· preparation for tht' San Franci,(·o Con­feren< ·(• to h<• held in April.'" In '-<'<Td llH't'lirrgs "ith fello11 ('On-.pi­rator ..... Commu11i .... 1~. and mi ... ('C'llarH'Oll"' frllow tra11·l<•r- in and around thP I n•li· tulP of Pacific Helations. \l gl'r Iii" pn·· pared tlw a:r1·11da for tlw l nit1•d \ation• Confl'rt'IH'l' at Sarr Frarwi-.rn \\!'<'b IH'­fore it wa> held. .\lgrr Iii" organi1<•d thr American -Wide World Photo Signing the Moscow Tripa rtite Conference Agreement in 1 943 are: (left to right) Secre­tary of State Cordell Hull ; Soviet Foreign Commissar Molotov, and British Forei9n Secretary Anthony Eden. Page 6 dt·lq(atio11 to tilt' an Fra11f'i:-.<·o Co11f1·r <'n!'('. i\Jg,.,. lli -.s an \nwri<'Ull (.omnH•· nisl :-.p~ \\as the gl'neral s(•c·n•tan. tht d1id !''\C'ct1ti1P officer. al th<• lntcnra· tiorial f·o11frn·11c<· in San Fra11C'i:-o.<·o '' hl'fl the l \ Charlt•r was adopted. \lgPr lfi,­org: a11izl'd and ran tlw San Vi.;.a rH,· i~c·n CorrfercrH'l'. It 11as his sho11." \\ IH•n tlH· l nit1·d l\ations Charlt·r ""' finally appro11·d al San Fran('isf'O. it 11as Algn Iii" 11ho look ('harw· of th<' do<·um<·nt il'l·lf and had tlw soh•rnn r1· spn1hihilit1 of fh in~ ii ha"k In \\ a-Ir· ing'lon . It is al .... o intt'l"f"··ti11" to 11olt' that th1 clay 11 hil'h tht' l'n»id7•nl of the l nit<'.I Stairs prodaims "' l nitl'd \atiorr> 1),1~ r1rry )"l'ar is 0C'toh<•r 21. \nwriC'a rull· fird llH• l \ Chart<•r in Juh. 01'tnh<'r21 was the da) 11 hl'n llw S!n-i;·t l ninn rati· fi<'d tlw l \ Charl<'I'." -Wide World Pll01 Secretary of State Ste ttinius shown pre.sid~ ing at the final session of the United Nat 104~ Conference at San Francisco in June, 19 ' Left to right, President Truman, StettiniL15 • and Alger Hiss. Aftt•r lhl' San 1.-rarH'is!'O Cortfl'r<'111 ' in Jun<'. 1915. \l :r1·r Iii,, lwlpl'd to ,,r· gani11· and ,1aff tlw \nwril'an rni,-i•111 lo lhP l nit1·d \at ions. Alw·r II i,s "' !'r('tlr n·1·01111111·r"ll'd appro'\imatl'I) fiif hundrl'd IH'l''-<>rrs for l'mplo) nwnl orr th• l nill'd \ations S1·1.,-..iariat 'tafL 111•1111 of "'""" 111·n· a"tualh 1•111plo1 !'d: nli 1111 of 1d10111 an• still tlwr;'j man): of 11h<111'· ''hen q 1w:-.I io1wd II\ <·onμ-n·~sional c·<l1 ' 1j mitt1·1·,_ tal-1· tl1<· l·'ifth .\nwndnrcnl '"'' d!',.lirw lo "" 11 bethl'I' tlwr an· Coni11 '''' nists or spit·~.:!o ~ Br thP rniddlr of 1911. 11 hl'n it 11 ~:; ,.Jear that tht• \azis \\('I'(' ~oi11p: IO .. Jl ddt•at<·d. tl11· Cnmmuni>l ""'"pirator' ' 1 01<·r the 11orld l11•:ran 11orking to nl'1;!' th!' rnilitan 1 ir-tory of 1111• Crarrd \ 1 arH·t•. in ll~c· inlt·n· .... t:- of ~o\ it'l po''r and ll!Hld n·1ol11tion. ~ · Co1111111111i'l'- f<·llo11 lra11·l1·rs. and · ~. 'it•l a1r1·11Ls \\ho '' l'IT in kt•\ po:--ition~ . 1 1110 ... 1 ~f tlu· important ''ariim1· a~t'11 r1 \ of th(' l 11it1·d Stal('s ~01<·rn11wnt. h<'~'j, filtl'l'in~ into posts 11l1<·n• tlrP)' co•' P'\l'f'I clt•f'j...,j, t• i11flt1t'llf'l' 011 ll1t• po~l\'' polif'it·• of tl11· l nit1·d Slalt»."" 1. ~ \l ~1·r Jjj ...... \Hh in C'itaq!f' of 1hc P1)j11 11ar l'oli") l'l annin~ l>i1 i'iou of.: S1at1· I h-parlnwnl. \\ lwrr thl' fir't .l 11 1 1 ~ \'ation..., n·li('f af'li\il\ ''as oq!a1.111c< J{t a ma"i11· "al1· (till' l nit1·d \atH>ll' FACTS FOHUl\I lid anc rnuni:-.t~ ••rs fill1 ling' po~ It 11a dc·1rr u '\ m<•ri<'i for rl'ii1 lions of n1uni~ts nationi;:. Tlw ( gi1r th< 01rr An not , 11 ,.1 of their lions die can fon· -'In !H 11ithin ti lions Ch lhp l nit <'ign poli ated 11 i Poli,.1 . ' thro 1;~h l1ith ~)('I \at ions ~orc•ign 1 1 ' a<'tual f'rnrnf'nls AT It " I l>oint to -'o('iali,t lain. fin-. lfarn Tr lhr fi rinμ J>.rp~~u n· \atior" 1 of \Ja,·i\ "" implai F\<•n ti ~f'llt \\tlll Kor.•a tho If or"" l o tot pur-u J<'ro ... .., th( 11111 11 lwn 11 ith ti,,. I do11 n. An ( .. ,,r .. ,. Lomn111· an. 1!11· l ntcrni.1· ('O "hen gpr If i,­i; an ~ i-('O rlt• r "a' ·i:-;co. ii " of 1h•' t'lllJl rt'· , \\ a-h· that 1hr l 11i11·.I lib !)JI irn rali· lolwr 21 ion rali nrt'rt'fll' d IO 11r mi-~jo11 II i'' ·<' .ch fi1• I ;,11 1h• r. ""'"' I; n1._111' r ""'''''· wl <·01!1" J('ll l :1111l ConH1111· .,.;!, 19 lid and H..!iahililalion \ μT11<')). Corn­muni, 1,_ Sm i<'l spil''. and frllo" lrmd­Prs fillt·d prat'lirnlh all of lhf' r·nnlrn l­lin~ posil ions in thUt oq.raniza ti o11."~ 11 ""' larf(<'ly 1l1rouf!h lhP C'O nl rol a11d drq•r ti>(' of billions of dollar' \\ orlh or •\m<·riC'an f!Oods 1-(i l !'n lhrouf(h l '\HHA ror rt'iit'r lo pcopiP in \\tH-ra1af!NI 11a­lio11s of Ct'nlrnl Europ<' that ih l' Corn­rnuni sls man d lo lakp 01 Pr lh o><· nalion s.°' ·Tlw Comm nisl C'Onspiral ors lrit'd lo gi1 p llw l "nited ' atio11s Iota I C'Onl rol 01pr AmC'ri1·a11 fort'il-(n poliC'y. Th!')' did not stl!T!'C'd 1·omplPld y; hut as a n•,uh of lh!'ir manipulations, lhc l'11ilPd '\a­lions did lwf'Omf' the kel'slone of Am!'ri-can fort'il-(n poli<'y. . 111 our faluous effo rts lo op!'rall' 11ithin llw fram ework or lhe l'nil!'d 1\a­lions Charin. \\(' hm e l'Olunlarily f(i 11·11 lhp l uil<•d \alions a 1elo 01!'r our for­Pi~ n polif')'. For l!'n years "e hal!' op<' r­Ulrd "ilhoul an indrpencknt forl'i f(n Poliq . WP C'bir all major dPC'i s ions lhrouf!h lhP {Tnited Nalions or al it'tisl "i1h 'Pf'<·if if' allies or ours in 1hr l'nilt>d \'a1ions in su!'h a way lhal /\mC'ri<'all ~or<'i l-(n polif'y. in man)• 1ilal inslaiH'<'s. rs UC'luall)· c·o nl ro ll Pcl hy for!'il-(11 f!01- 1·rnmrnt~.~0 ATTLEE FIRED MacARTHUR? It is nol. for !'\ampl!'. slr!'ld1in 1? a Poinl lo ''"' 1lrn1 Cl!'m!'nl Alli!'<'. lht• -'01·iali,1 Prim" l l inislt'r or Crt'al Bri ­lain. fin·d C1·111·ral Douf!las l!at'A rlhur. llarr) Truman. of C'o ursl'. aC' lually did 1hr firin l! hut primarily in r!'spon ~<' lo P_r<'ssun• from E11f(land and oilH'r l -nil l'd 'ia1ions mt•mh!'rs "ho 11a11l<'d lo f!!'I rid or lia(' Arthur h<·<':11is<' llacAr1hur w:is an impla<'ahlP fo!' of 1·ommuni>111. F11•11 lht' D!'an Ad1e,on Slal!' D1·pa rl ­~~< ·nt '' ant(•d to μi ' t' our command<'r' in " On•a llw au lh ori ly lo ord!'I' ihl'ir tt ir [Ort·(> IO folJO\\ c;lmmulli,._t p/an!'S in lot pur-..uit ,, Jwn lh(' Comm1mi~1s ca m!' ti'·ro,, llw ~ alu Hi1 Pr In alltH'k .our lllt'll. Ill 11 IH'n \1'!1!''0 11 d1•an•d I hrs mall<'r 'tlh llH' l "ni11·d \alions. he " '" lurnt'd '°"n. And\\(' ldl our so ldi C' rs in Kort·a - Wide World Photo John Marshall Harlan "A.c-rs FORUM NF: \\' S, A/)ril, J.95.S - Wide World Photos Italian children (at top l are served lunch by U NRRA at o school near Pietra la. Another phase of UNRRA work has the 9irls (lower photo) sortin9 discard ed U.S. Army boots for repair and distribution to the Italian people. lo ht• slra ft'd and murd!'l't>d h) lht• l'll­t'lll\ . and \\Otddn"t IPl llwm slrikt• b:wk.' 'h11· Communist l'On,p iral ot» ha11· m<.LrJU:rt'd to ro nlrol Amt'ri<'an fort'iμ.11 poli< ·) hr the ~ impl <' d<·1 in• of h) pno1i1· inf,( lh \\ ilh lh!' ~!'nst' ll',_S id!'ll or ('Ollt'f" li11· ·<·c·urily lhrouf!h lh t' l nilt·d \ al ion•. Tlw phrase. "!'o llel'li1<· '!'c· urity: · in· c·i dcnla lly. is a !'oin af(<' of ll1al fO\) old llnl,hc1 ik. \ [a,im Lill in o1. "ho oh­laint> d l'l'<'Ol-(llilion for lht' Soi it'I l nion from Prl's idt'11 I Hoos!'1 t'lt ha l'k in l 9:n. 011 rnanr I ra ~ if' o<·<·a~ io11!" ~ udt :!"" 1ho-.1' in "on•a. """" "'' lwld our armi<'· hal'k lo kl'<'p 1l11·m from dP,..lro) in f( 1lw Co111n1t111i,1s: 11he11 "" ><'111 drar1cd \ 111prirnn ho1, lo di l' in Kon•a. in-. l<'lHI of "i' i111r tr.a inin ;:r and <'qt1ipm<'11I In ad1·c~ual1',. numbers of S0111h Kon•a11- a 11d Chint''l' \ali onali >-1· "ho \\Hiiied In fi{!ht lht• Co111mnni>-I': "'"'n 11c \\tdkt·d inlo lrtll't' lalk lral" lhal lilt' .omm11· 11 i:--1-; ""t'l for ll"' ~ and "lwn "<' at'('t'pl('<I. finalh, lhc Comn1t111i .. 1 l1 •r111s for a s lal1 · 1~ a l 1• armislin· and lhth sa 11•d ih t' Cornrnuni ... 1.. . rrom Ullt'r ruin \\(' \\('rt' 1olu11larih s11rrl'rHlt•ri11 f( lo lht• l 11il<·d \ a tio11 ~ ,;11r <'~~e ntial ~O\('r<'i1! 11ly : that i .... our ind cpc11dt•nc<' to lake ~ Ir on~. 1mi­latt'ra l action in ou r 0\\11 11atio11al inl<'r­(' sl.:!. TlH' Commu nist ('()ll..; piratcu·..; "ho "nrkcd fc11•ri shl) hchi11cl llw ""'11 <'' lo ,,,, up lhe l 11iled \ alions planrH·d lo rn11lrol \ nwril'an donw-.li<' poli"r indi­rcdly 1hrou7h lht' l nil<'d \a1io11-. and i1, 'Jl<'l'iali1ed a1?!'11ci1-,. 111 C'Omm illi nl-( \m<'ric·a. through lrt•a lit•.,. and l'\<'<'t1li\t' aμ-n•cmt•nt .... lo soc·iali ... 1ic l<·:d~lation. for<'iμ-11 μ-iH'a"a~ pro;.rram .... and inlt'r­nalional trade corH'<'"' ... ion~. ~0 INROADS UPON U.S. LAW AND LIFE I/ ere af(ain. lh1·1 hall' 1101 1d10lh ;.uc- ­C'!' t'dt'd ; hut llwy ·1i,11 t' mad!' dani<·rou, inroad ... upon \ mpri<'an 1·011 ... tituti onal la" and upon our O\\ 11 c·on l rol O\ C'r our 0\\ II Ii\('..;, l \ >-dH'11wr .. pn•part'd a <'harlt'r for a l \ llf(<'IH'1 lo IH' <'all1·d 1h1• l11tcrna­lio11al Trade Orl-(a11i1alion. This lhin:r 1101dd h:111• 1?i11·11 l 11il1·d \ alions hu­rt• a11cra1' aulocTalif' cn111rol mer \ml'l'­ir ·a11 fnr!'il-(11 romm<'r<'<'. Thi· \dw,.011 S1a11• lkparlnwnl apprr11l'd 1his ITO 1hi111-(. hul ii di1•d "lw11 CongT<'" r - fu,t'd lo -.up11ort ii. ' TIH' l .\ sdl!'mt·r- an» 11011pthelt·"· parlially al'hic1 inf( lhl' ITO ohj!'cliq• lhrouf(h C \TT lht' Ct'nl'ral Al-(rf'e­llH'nl> on Tra<lr and Tariffs 1d1id1 l'an ht' handlt'd Jiy t'\!'l'uli11• ac·lion "ilh- 0111 c·onμ-rt' ...... ionai appr<l\ al. \11 wri<'a11 la\\s cl1•ali11" "i1h slricth lof'al. clornt'slic ,\ mnil'a11~affai1-, ha1(· ((ontinunl "" Pat:t• .SR) Page 7 [!i"""i:~~;i:~ii!.:~i.:\~i:::~~;f:i.'.ig· "11/ Connuuni .. t \\llO left t he- part) durin~ \\ orld \\ur II . lie ha .. ap1>earcd hefore juri(• .. , ~raru.1 juric .. , and inH_• ... ti,:n11in,: t·om­mittee-. ... i:\.ty-thre{' time .... Drew l' ear .. on , the· \hop hrother-., and fl arH') ~1 atu .. ow haH'' .. aid that ( :rom·h j ... unre­liuble. :\10-.1 of "hat c:ro udi '-aid about 01>pe11heinwr in 1950 and 1951 lw.. been «orrohora ted h) later 1e .. 1imony, irH'ludinμ- t hat of Dr. 0 1>penheimer. C:t·r tain item., are ... till in doubt. C:roud1 hu"i ne,er been indit·ted for perjury or cited for t•ontempl. lie ha"' not daimed the Fifth Amend­ment or rcH•r .. ed hi .. te .. timon). The \l .. op-. "rote in ,\ pril. 1951: ~~ ... if it doe .. turn out that Dr. Oppe nheim<'r n °<1.'i a "'Cere t Communi ... t thro11,:d1oul lhc time he lHI., runninf! the Lo ... \ lamO"i ~1tomie project , informC'r Crouch \.\ill be thoroughl} 'i11di­cated - thou~h the rrntion may well dc ... pair.,, Since then the Gray Board and the \tomie Energ"} C.ommi ...... ion h ~ne determined tlrnt Oppenhei­mer j.., a ... e•·11rit) ri ... k. Crourh ha ... filed .. 11it af!ain..,l the ;\eu• Yori\ llrrald 'I'ribu11P ::: for . ~00.000 for puhli ... hint! and ::: m di ... trihutin,:: a ttm·k ... on him h} m Ill ;;;~~f.~tJ.~~~;~~~ ill ::: part} le:ulf"r, wa"i the ..,peuker. ::: t~'.'.~]1,~~~J~:~:~~~;:~~~:.~i;•;.iJ Page THE UNTOLD OPPENHEIMER STORY "l(E ha> th!' mind of a grniu,~" I thoup:ht. as !'H'ryon!'\ all!'ntion fo­n1 .. t·d 011 a thin. lt•n:-.t'. \\ iry man ~eatt:d clir!'l'lly in front of tlw fir!'plae!'. Iii , qubtions- dini('Ult for ml' to a11s11n­H'\ C'al!'d tru!' u11cl1·rstanding of Com­mu11i-, l philosoph} and tlwory. lie \\as hurling qu<"slio11' al me in quick '-ll('!'!'"io11: " !lo" 1·a11 \\!' he >U IT that Cr!'al Britain 11 ill nol clouhl<"·!'l'O,..,.. th!' So' iel l nio11 ! J agT1·e thal \\C mt1>I p:i\c all·oul aid to th!' 'o' i!'l l nion. But ,houlcl \\l' al,o aid the imperialist p'.0\­!' rnnwnt of Gr!'al Britain'( Do \\!' not no'' ha\C' l\\O ''ar.... om· a ronlinuation of th!' imp!'rialist 11ar h<·l\\l'!' ll G!'rmany and Creal Britain. the othn a pt•opk·'s \\ar IH't111·e11 Germany and the So\ict l -11ion '(' Th!»!' wc·n• not 1•a'l que,tio11s for any Communist party leader to a1Hi\\ l'r at that tim!'. l had to go ha!'k to th!' most fundam!'ntal po ints of :.\lanian theory to D.rb\\t'r them in a ron' in('inμ: way. \ pparently !'\<'ryonc pn•,1•111, i11rlucling th!' int!'nl strangt•r. finally "a' "atisfird "ith th!' 11('\\ !in!' and the ' r!'a>o11s for it. .\ ft!'r the me!'ling \las acljounwcl th!' brilliant qut»lio1H'r c·am<' O\t'r to \\ h<·n· I •tood and talkl'd '' ith m!' for perhaps ten minut1•s. di><·u,...,inp: lh!' nc•\1 del(·lop­nw11h in th!' int!'rnational -,ituation and th!' Communist party's a11a l}'i' of the turn of c• , r11h. As he walked awa y Ke nneth May, who had been stand ing near us, remarke d, " He is a very famous sc ientist." Pe ople we re not int roduced to each other at party meetings of that natu re. I d id not know then in 1941 t hat the name of the " famous scientist" wa s Dr. J. Robert Oppe nheimer. • • • To undc·r•tand tlw amazing and hi· zarr!' facts about Dr. J. Hohnt Op· prnhrim!'r. his "if!' and hrollwr. anti also to make an ol>jt·c·ti' 1• apprai,al of the suel'!''-' of So, id !'spio11age, it is nrcr--sary in hoth cast's to go hack l\\l'nly·st'n~ n years. An idea in the mind of a Russian-born scientist , Marce l Scherer, in the summer of 1928 has a lready done much to c han9e the e ntire cou rse of history; a nd it is st ill too early to tell t he ult imate o utcome . It could yet lead t o the doom of o ur nat ion and of civilization. by Paul Crouch r lllt"l ta!..(' t hl' n·aclt·r haC'k to 1928. otlll'rn is1· th<' n·st of mi 'IOI') "ould make· litt ll' H'l1'!'. Thi· importanr•· of (' \ ('II ...,t'cmi ngly irn·ll'Hllll points'' ill hi'· rnnw oln ious as th!' slOr) unfol1k 111 192H I \\U~ a l('ading Communi::-l olli!'ia l. lll'ad of th !' national departmr ul of thl' parly for i11filtratio11 o[ ti1e arme<I forn•,, Thi,.. departnw11t '!Ill sdectl'd !{,.cl, into tlH' Arm). \m)'. '\ational Cuarcl. llOTC. and all ot lll'r hranrh<'' of th!' military "'n in·'· Th!' ohjl'<'li\l" 111•n• to form '-''<Tt'I cells for ultimal<' espiona~(·. ~abotaμ(•. and othe r ~ l «' J>!'i in tim!' of 11ar thal 11c11ild i11-.un· the clcfeal of thr l 11ited Stat1·s. and also to obwin military training for Communi::-ts at thl' <''P<'IN' of the "C'nem) ., American go' · ernmenl. 111 late April I r!'lurn c·d from :.\ lo><·o11o afl!'r rnonths of dirt•t· ti\l'S and i11s1n1<" lion from th !' Gt•11t•ral taff of the Red army. afl<'r partif'ipalion in <·omm i ~:.;io ll~ an cl c·on ft·n·11c·t•s 11 h!'rl' cl!'lailed plaw 11en• 11orhd out for aC'ti,it i!'s duriu~ th!' ''in<·,itahle'' 11ar of the future be· twren th<' SO\ iC'l l nion and th!' l uitcd talc» and olh<'r capita list c·o1111tri<'' · Lnd!'r sup<•n ision of tlH' highc-,t offi cial' of the• Sm id f!O\l'l'llmt·nt. plans "rr<' formulat!'d for t»piona ge. ~abo ta p:t'- aud ot lwr sl<'f" intl'ndt•d to i11sur!' th!' d1:: feat and dc»trurlion of th!' "ca pit ali st p:on·rnmc·11ts of tlH' l 11itC'd • tail's aud oLlwr c·ountrit•s. \l y a,.,..i,..tant ( 11 ho latC'r suC'C'rrcll'd Jllf as !wad of tllC' dqiarlnwnt) 11 as \V11ltrr \I. Trnmhull. * c·duC'atc·cl at \!a-.sa!'hll' '''lb l11 slilu lC' of Tc·d1nolo«y, Tr11111hull. a brilliant man \1 ilh c·o11siJ;•rahle ,ricll' tific J..nc>\\ lc·dgc'. had H'ncd 11 ith m<' in thC' l .S. i\rnn and in 1925 1>hilc 111 uniform. '"' l;ad to«c•lh!'r fo~mded th•' Ir U\\ a1.m. 11 c~ o rnmun1':~' l League. 'fl 1 ~·t i C'\l'nl and rt•,ult in« puhlieity had -~ 1 · ror~<'tt·d Trumbull rand 1111· to import:11:: pos1t1ons of lt·adN,..hip in thr " oil Comm1111i'."l ITIO\<•nu•11t. 01w of our closC'sl fri!'11ds in l\ t'" ([rmtinuf•d on Pap.I' .sr;J \\ Hltn \1 . Trumhull dit·d in 1911. l)uri1;f. tht· "a• ~t' ltr.., lw "ork1·d \\ith I{( \ , ronlf\11 111111μ: 1mpo1 tant inH•ntions to tlw fit•ld I 1·l1·1·tro1111· ... ..,om1· 1T .. 11ltinμ: in !'-a\ inp; 1lio11!"llrt< ~ or man-hour ... FACTS FOH M NEWS, Ap,.il, J.q5S 0'' 0 Duriri May 6, confiden the next scient ists famo us s Geor9e t II it111 f 11t1•rr f)a11•: f.l. lli 'our,,.Jf Vour pr< \ , I a "-•·c·11 a I ,, .... ,. l <) lit" ti me '' hc•n I , ing- a p \r·ic•ntifit I am lite· \ mt·1 Q. l () \a1io11al \ . r a <.>. \ I'( \ . ) , .. Q. lh \. ) ,., f). \\ h Irv·~ \ . 1 n f.l. \11c I \ . I ,., ldt Gc·1 \11i '"'" '''>lild Ill) tf·ginw. ( r a1111· lo I Q. Sine a c·nn11c·r· Jirograrn '? \ . ) ,.,, 11 lta11t tc ltomii· 1 1"''1tt 1110• "h \lam '~·~ularh ''"''(• 191• I 11 holt• so 1 '' hi·lp lht f.l . ll o\\ t11l1·. ~i... I h 1928. \\OUl1I HT of 1ill l11" rnuni::-;l rtmcnl armed eledl'd ~tional anch•" eC'li,f· ti mall' "I'' in defeat obtain at 1h•' n p:O'' O~CO''' 1 ~1 rue· 1c Hcd i~:-.ion:- plaw durin~ re he· l ni1ed ntrie~· fficial· \\(_'ft' '" and he de· 1alist" •s and led n1r \V;dtr! ,arhu· 111 111111· ~('il'll" 111r i11 1ik in cd 1h•' Thnt cl -~'. ~orw11I "·orl1I I l\t'\\ fl[!<',1.I! IN BEHALF OF OPPENHEIMER Du ring the he arings be fore the AEC Person nel Security Board (Gray Board) April 12- May 6, 1954, a succession of disti nguished character witnesses testified re9ardin9 their confide nce in Dr. J . Robe rt Oppe nheimer. As the Paul Crouch narrative is unfolded during the next few months. FACTS FORUM NEWS will publish contrasting statements by leading scientists and gove rnme nt officials who worked with Oppenheimer. The first of these is the famo us scient ist Dr. Hans Be t he. Future issues will include stateme nts by David E. Lilienthal, George F. Kennon, John J . McCloy, and James B. Conant. II it1w11: IJ1 . """' llt-11"' f11/1•rro1'11/11r: I ll'rlH'rl S. \lark, 01111•: \pril 19. 1951 (). l>r. ll1·l l11•. "ill \OU pit''"'' identify \our ... plf and μ:iu• a littlt· aC'<'Olllll of '"our proft• ...... ional had\g-round? \. 1 am a l""f"''"r of pl" 'i'·'· l ha\!' "-1·1·n a prof1·--or al Conll'll l ni\t·r,il ,. ''"''' l <n5. I ha"' """" al ConH'll all thf' tinw l'\f't'11t du1i11~ the \\Ur ~t·ar~ 11h1·n I 11a- al"1·111 011 "'"' 11ork. inl'lud · i!1g a prolonμ-t·d ... ta\ at Los .\lamo ... 'i,.i1•ntiri,. Lahoralor). I am al,o 1hi- "'ar 1h" pn·,idt·111 or 1h1· \ nwri..an l'l",i"'tl Sol'it•I,. Q. 1 011 an· a 1111·mlu•r a·l,o of the \ational \ ('ad1•m\ of s .. ;,.n, .... , \. I am. () \n· nn1 an \11wriC'a11 ,.ili/1·11'? \: 1 ,.,, Q. lh- 11at1nali1atio11 '! \. 1 "'· () \\ h1•1t did \OU ('Onll' lo lhi, ('()lilt· Ir~-~/ \ . 111 19:\5. <,l. \ 11d 11 h1·n· did you 1·01111· from'? I \ . I 1·anw oril!i11alf) rrom C"rma11y. \ '"~t Cnmam in l 9Tl '"''"' "''' of tlH' "'' p1·N·1·111 io11' 11 h1•11 1 k111'11 1hal I "%Id not hold offi"'' 11nd1·r 1h1· \a1i r"ginw. I fir-I 11t·11t lo E1wla11d a11d lh('1t ,.i.tfllp lo this c·ounln. r Q. : i 1u-1· I ht• "ar \l'a ,., hm t' you ha cl d f·onnPction "ith ·lh<' alomi<' t•rwrμ) firogram '? 11 \. 1 ,.,. 1 ha"" I haH' """" a 1·011· hant lo "'"'ral lahoraloril's of 1111· \t<)fllif· Fnrq.!) Commi~ ... ion. [ ha\<' J"''1ll mo,1 of Ill) co11suilations for lh1• .n, \lanHh Lahoralory, I han· almosl ~~·g-ularly spt'nl .-.111111111" 1::-; at Los l\lamos 111 "'' 1919. l IH·lit•\t'. I '""" lak('lt orr ; 1 11 ho1 .. 't'nll',lt•r i11 llw 'l"'i1trr or 1952 "h1·lp lht· L1h \lamo' \\Ork. ,... I f,), 11011 llOU!d \OU dt •,ni lw )'Olll' r,, "· .i-. that ,,r a crn.i-.1dtan1 '? r'A.<"r8 FO IW ~1 N 1-:\\'8, , 1,,,.i/, !.?.;.; \ . I am a 1·011'uila11I 011 nwltt•r, of lhl'oretical phyoi<·,, r hdi<'\(' 1 am Oil[' of thl' l'hid con<ultanls in th<"orc til'al phy,i1·, lo Los Alamos. (.). \\ 'hal \\US \Olli' rir-1 '"'!Jt1ai 11talH'l' 11 ith Dr. Oppt'n lwinwr? \ . 1 fir>t nwt Dr. Opp1·11ht'inwr H'I') hrit•fh durinp: a nwelinf! or llH' Ct•rnutn l'hisi<·a l SoC'iely al a l't'l!iona l >t'<'lion of ii in 1929. Q. \\'lH'11 "'" your n('\I c·onnt•c·t ion "ith him? \ . Tht' nt'\ t lhat I l't'lllt'mber '"'' in 1910 011 lhl' Ol'ca•ion of a lllt't'I inf! of 1111· Aml'rica11 l'h 1·s il'al Ol'il'I) al S1·at1il'. \\'a,h. • Q. \\'hal hml' llt•t•n your a"ociation-. or <·onlal'h "ilh him ~i11<·1· thal limt''? \ . I kn!' ><'t'n him quilt' fn•q111·n tlr. "'fH'l'ially "<' had a "'ry dt't'Jl a"ol'i:1- 1 io11 durin l! tlw Lo, Alamos timl'. dur· in:,? tht• "ur. \\ h('11 he w-.1~ llw dirt'<'IOr of tlw lahoratory. a nd I 11 a-. tlw ll'adl'I' of tlH' tht'orNiC'a l di, ision or Lo-. \ la · mos. Q. ll o11 oflt'n ha"' you '''''" him ...in<"t' lh<' \\ar? i\. I \\Otild ~U) an U \ t•ra~t· or pt'rltap-. thr('t' linws a \t•ar. somt• yt'ar"'i mon'. :--omt' yea rs l<'!-'s~ Q. i la\l' lht'se contal'h since lilt' \\ar had anylhinp: lo do 11 il h )Our offil'ial <'<>11rn·c·tio11"' \\ ilh the atomi(' <'IH'q!) pro· irram') r I\. ·, !''· llHlll\ of lht' ('Olllach had. Some \\l'rt' purc:ly on malll'l'S or ph) .. it·, out•ide thl' atomiC' <'llt'l'f!)' prowam. hut main or our conlaC'b lul\ (' ht't'll ('011· 11t·1·1t:d "ilh the atomi<· cnc·rf!y prop:ram I in my capacity as <'oni-.ul1a111 to I .o:­Alamos, and he in his capal'il) as l'hair· man of llu• Ct'nera l l\ch i•or1 Comm ii· lt't' not 1ha1 lh<'s<· c·onlacls · \\l'J'l' al,o rornwl in a nwl'linf! of the A1h i,or1 Commillt't', hut "'' oftt'n ta lkl'd ahou't tht• ... 1• mallt·rs. - Wide World Photo Dr. J . Robert Oppenheimer Q. llo\\ far ha1k dot•, \Our O\\n fa. miliarit\· '' ilh Dr. Oppt•t ilu.·inwr', politi· cal a:--.... oc·iatio11:-- und adi\ ilit•:-- fro'! \ . I hl'ard ahoul hi, political indina­lion in 19:m from •Omt• l!Ood friend, of our,. Dr. \\'<'i,,kopf and Dr. Placzc·k. "ho is nw111ion1'd in Dr. Oppl'n ht'inwr\ a11S11t'r 11•t1Pr, and I undt'ro lood from lhl'm that h<' "'" indint'd rather far lo the ldl. Q. Cominf! lo tlw \\Ork on llH' alomic homh. \\ ould \'OU tell '" hridh· ahoul llw part that ~:ou and lw playl'd in the 11ork on 1h1, -.uhjt'l'I hdorc· Lo, •\ lamo­\\ as formed and llH'n •uhsNJm•111ly dur-inl! the Lo, Alamo- cla,_-? · A. Our a-'o"ialion l;l'l!an in 1912. on this matter. Dr. Oppt•n lwinwr "ailed to· f!e thl'r a p:roup of llworl'li<'al physici,t~. to di ... ru.::.~ the \\a\ ho\\ an alomi<' homh l'ould lw as-.l'mhlt·d. Thi, "as a ~mall l!l'Ollll of ahout '''"'n p1·opl1· or so. \Ve 111('[ in lkrhlc\• for tlw •11111nwr or 1912. \\'(' fir,1 thoul!ht ii '"Hild ill' a \l'n ,imp le lhinl! lo fif!tll't' 0111 thi, prohll'n~. and Wf' :--oon 'IU\\ ho" \\ ronμ- "" '' t'rt'. Q. \\'hat ahout L11' \ la mo,? \\ lw11 did you join llw Lo-. \ lamo, f!rou p? A. Brt11<'t'n that linw a11d Los .\ la · 1110•. tlw fi"t 11as th(' timl' 11h<•n Lo, \ lamo' wa, llt•inl! <Tt•atl'd . It '""a n•ry ha_rd t.a•k to crl'al!' lhi, laboratory. '\lo;I •1·1entis1, """' aln•ady imohl'd in \\ar 11ork \!'ry de<'ply ancf ii rl'quired •Om('· hody of n·ry l!"''a t <'nlhu,ia>m to per­- uadc them to it'aH' lh!'ir joh, and to join lhc nr11 cnt1·rpri't' of Lo, Alamos. I think nohody <''''' could ha"' don<' this than Or. Opprnlwinwr. !Ir 11as SU('· ('t':--..;hiJ in f!t' llin ~ to:rl'llwr a g-roup or l'l'all) 011t,landi111! pl'opil'. At Lo, _'\lamo,... ,i- I nH'ntio1H'd 1w-f(," ri111i,,m·d "" l'm:I" 1.1) Dan Smoot Poses the Question: DO YOU APPROVE OF IKE'S MILITARY SERVICE PLAN? -Wide World Photo ,\merirn"s pn·-l'nl ele..ii1 <' Sen ice I.aw !'\pin·, in Jun<•. 1955. In hi, ::>tal<" of the l nion n11 ·-.agl' on fonuarv 6. 1955. l'rl'•id<"nl l:i-enhowcr a-1-l'<l that the drart law he !'\lt•ndl·d for another t110 year". lit• al>o sugirt'sled a n'•<'l"\l' -en i<'e plan lo huild and main· lain powcrrul <'ii ilian re-f'r1 <'' of man· 110\\(.'f. Fa('l- Forum·, 'flll'•tion: Du yuu ap· 1•ru1 !'of Ike·, 11e1' military -t·n in· plan~ Let's look at the question rrom t ... o 01>po•ite points of vie,. , taking first the arguments of some who say "Yes." 0\1. of thl' lw-t aq!111m·nb fur H..c·, lllililary sen if'C plan is lo he found in his own 11ur<l, in tl11· hricf 'l'<·tion or hi- State or thr l nion n1t·-sap:<' \\ lwrl' hi" plan is formally a1111ounc·1•1l.' I h<· l'rt•si dl'ut '-aid that hi- plan ""' d<·-i;.:11<·d to '°'"'urc our p!'oplc not on ly or acl1·quat1· protection but abo of a de· r1·n-1· that c·an he carried forn ard from 11·ar lo 1<·ar until thr thrrat of aggre,. -ion ha- · di-appeared.' "in1·1· th<" 1910 draft act 11 ao pa-sed. 111· ha11· uwt the erm·r!?t'n!'il', of national d..f1·n-1· 11 ith compul~orr indudiou for 1lw rt·~ular arml'rl forC'l:, of th!' l ni11·cl "tat<'-. Draft rqrulation!' ancl r!''fUirt'· nu·11l-.. ha' e 'ari<'d. of <·our-.t>, accord in(! lo tlw !-'Priou ... nr'" of th<· ('flH'ffH'llC'\. in ~ 1ohed.2 \\ lt1·n tlu hon·an 11 a r J.roJ..<· out in June. 1950. 111· had no n·al r!'-l'l'll'. and onr acli\e arnwd rorr'!' 1\ll• n·lati1ch slllall. Tlw re-uh 11 a- Iha I nwnY \!'IC~· '"" or the Army. \a1 l'· and '\ir Force 1111•11 11 ho lut1l dorH' llwir -harr of the ri!!hlill!! in World \\'ar II ll('T(' !'U ll('d l1;.ul I~ 'f'f\<' two Yrar~ morr or lo ~f'f\(' 11nlil 1111·)· died.0 • " FREE RIDE" FOR SOME \fl' n·adl'd to tht• l'JJl!'l"''l'IH'\ I"· i11· ,.rt'a"'in,z 1;;r1eC'li\r ... 1·n irr i11<l1wt(on~: and before long 11r 11crl' •rncli111? half-trained n ·f ruit, to Korea to fi1?ht 11 ilh thr 'l'l· <'l"1JJ•. Hut then' 11en· still ahout t110 milU011 'oun~ 111t'll \\ hn l1ad hrt·onw •1ualificJ fu~ militan s1•11 in· , int" ','l;'n rltl \Ctr fl hut 11hn 11r1rr •PnPrl in l'ag-e J 0 uuiform. Thcoe men got 1d1al Prcside11t Ei>euhowcr has ealled a "f rec ride."3 Thi .iLuation C'ould ha1c hrcn pre· Yentcd if the nation had listened in 1911 Lo Amrricau military leaders who were laying plans for a universal military training program. l 11-l!'ad. 11 e d1·111ohilized at the con· du-ion of ho-I ilit i!'s in 1915; and no 1·u1wt'rt1·d clri1 (' to dt·H·lop a uni\!·r•al militan traininμ- prn:.rram ltef!an until month; artl'r thr outbreak of the Ko­r<' an ''ar. nut. lra:.ricall~ e11ou~h. 1Jij ... dri\ t' "a..; -topp!'ll cold in \lar!'h. 1952. by a "ll(l· d!'n. hy-teri1 ·al outhur-t from a 'lranl!e a ..... ortnl('lll or pn• ..... un· ~roup.;. a11 0\ ('f rite nation.• Tn 1951. m<'n of 1 i>ion in our Co11· ;.:n·-s pa.-l'd a la" appro1 inir of l ":\ IT i11 pri11tiplc: hut in 1952. 11hen they \H'IT Ir~ i11:,.r to t•11act Je::d~1ation to μ:rt llH' l""''l!ram •larl!'cl. llH·y lo-t <'Ouraw· in '"" ra!'l' or puhli!' pn·--trr(' and killl'rl tJw mra ... urC'. 1 Ei-.(•11hower\• JH.''' plan for mililar~ s('J"\ i('(' II ill r('nJO\e mudt of th!' unccr· lain!\" II hi..Jt for riflet•n \l'::trs ha' pl::t1?t1r<I America's younir me(i. Draft 1·alls an• no11 lll'inir rut in hair. Thi- nwa11s 1hat rlrart requirt•mrnl' ean 1,.. fillf'd from irroups of ::ll!C 22 or 2~. ill'clucNl demand for rnulh- of 21 ancl 1 ounirl'r 11 ill nwa11 lhai almost all \Otllt!! nwn !'an mak!' tlH'ir rnll"I!" plan~ 11 ilh a ..... uranc·r. Tlw an•raμ:c· youth can k110\\ that hr 11ill 1101 he n ·a d1Prl Ill the rlrar1 cJuri11~ a rour·yc·ar <·oJIC'~(' C'Ollf"'t'. 11 hetlwr or not hP remain• in lhc 11p1wr In Pb •f'hola,t icalh·.• The drart it-elf 11 ill ~o on. hut in­crra ... rs in pay for men \\ho "i ... h to rP· enli•t 11 ill he an induef•nwnt for a n·!!u· lar arm\' rarrer. Thi- 11 ill !'lit do11 n lhf' draft rc.quirenwnts.• ·\nv \"Otlll!? man ''ho '' j ... }lt'.., to :noid th!' d~a(1 ma·,. 'olu11tf·n for rq!ular 111 n· n·ar a'·tin• ... <'n ic·t• in tlH· hranf'h of hi-. ;.llOif'f•: or lw nlil\" \O)unlt•f•r ror the Ill'\\ form of n• ... ('r\'f: trainin~. tmd<'rμ:oinμ: ac·ti\f' trainin~ for '-i' month' and lh{'n ... <'n inf! nine and a haH yPnr~ in a<'ti\(· n• ... c•nr unit ... :; Thi" nr-ti1·e rr·-ene pla11 11 ill pr"' icll' a n • ... f'n r fnrt ·f· n •a d\' In n11n,. 0111 011 c;.Jtort 11oti,·r for limit,·d r11H'fgf'1H'\" 11 ... ,._ fh 19'.;9. thi• f'TOl!l'nll1 i' P\Jlf'«fPrJ Ill product• an adiH• l'(''l'l'\l' ror!'C of about three million men. plus an ina<'liH• rt'· !'Cl'IC rorC(' of :utollH'r !110 millioJJ JJl!'IL While th<· plan 11011ld acid to the ro,t of tlw rt'Sf'l'I (• pro/!ram possihl) :>50 million dollan; 01n the 700 milliou dol· lars no11 alloll!'d tlw l'\pPnditun· is juslifi1•d hrrnuse it slrl'ngth!'ns the n:t· 1io11al rlef""'"· And 11hl'n national sur· 1 i1 al i,- al stak!'. it i' riclin1lo11s to hoh· hi<' our dforl• hi' pPnnr-pind1i11g. 50 YEARS OF TENSION ? Prc-idt•nt J-:i,< ·11ho11 <'r ha' 11arnecl thr <'Ot111fry that '' t' an· up a~ain:-;l a 1 011~ period of ll'11sio11 11 ilh the Co111m1u1i,I 11 orld. H .. ''\\s it ma~ he as mu('h a' rifty )"""· Tiu· lwst 11·1· ran hope ror i• lo J..1•t'p a C'old war rrom turning iuto a hot ont' during that Ion ~ prriod. The only way wt' !'an do that is to keep con· slant!, stron~, for any sign of militar)' 11cak11rss h<•rc miirl1t entice the Soviet' lo lry nn alomi<· \\ttr.6 I·\ ('I I l'rfll'll'ill for "'" J..iud or fair. 1111i1C'r•al lrai11iu1? plau ha- met with th<' C'I") that 1111i1<·r-al ''""'' riplio11 hrl'l'd· mililari.,.rn . ni μ-Jil 11()\\ . IJO\\f'H'f. \\l' -Wide World phot~ President Eisenhower smiled and wave s during the ovation for him in the House de he came to address Congress with his Std' of the Union message. Behind him are Vi,e; President Nixon and House Speaker Ravb~r ID-Tex. ) . FACTS FOHL'M XE\\"S, . t1m/, /.~"' INITI All p, INITI All p Recruits 0llt that it transform t i about 'e n·· Jlll'IL c ('0,1 ' ;{50 II doJ­. lfC b 1e na­J sur­' hoh- ~ cl 1hr 1 lonf! nu11i:-I !'h a• for i' into a . Thl' 1 con· ilitar)' ovicts r fair. lh thl' ll't'l'cl- \\-e INITIAL RECe1viNG POINT 9 "!!:' INF= DIVISION All Personnel Reporti n~ lion. \\ ilh a rn1111mu111 or n·d tapt• ancl refrt':--IH'r lrai11i11g a11d '' ilhout :--eriuu:-­di, ruption or 1111· doml'·lil' ('('OnOJll\.' of tho,,• \\ho an· ali l'a1h undl'r lire 1-.n·mlin·, irl'd or 'ulnl'rahil' lo Hu"ian allal'k.' To Fo1n Dix ,.. REPOl?T HERE 1 PREJUDICE BROKEN DOWN _7 •1 i;- .\Vlrill' •\111erira110 hall' Lradi1io1wlly h!'en oppos!'cl lo unil!'rsal <·on«Tiption. lhc C\pcricnccs of World War 11 and or ihe Korean 11 ar ha1 c hroke11 do" n mo:-l (2 l It would )!i"· '" nia,imum sr- 1·uril1 al minimum rost. The most p,. pc11sf1 C type of national rlrfrn,P is iJrt' kind we ha1c no11 1!11• kind ihal i:-; measured Irv ihl' 1u1111hrr of m!'n 11" ha\t' under ~trm~ al ~lll) ~i\t'll 111onw111. It i' 1111' mo't C\pCn'i'c in term, of clol­lar,.; and in its drain or produl'ti1 (' man­pnwrr." -Wide World Photos Recruits a rriving at Fort Dix, N. J ., find :ut that it doesn 't take the Army long to ' 0 nsform them from civilians into soldiers. h.111• 11"11 on·r 1hn·<· 111illio11 1111·11 u11d .. 1 •rn1s t•rtough for auy aspiring di!'lalo1 I( he J..111·11 ho1' lo 11ia111pulalc ih1'111 f1h d r~ohody •l't'rth to tlri11k thl'y pul 0111 crt1cs i11 jropar<ly." d A1-tually, Eise11ho11cr's proposal 1101ild dccrca'c the slandi11" armed forces r!'­U" ing the da11ger of 111ilitari,m. J> :\ot ~i111·c lhl' British came up lilt' 11°t?rna .. artd ln1rned lhl' Capitol. 1111' f. hne l!ou»t'. and tire Trc·a,ury ha1t· '"' •tcd the po"iliilil) of an allal'" 11po11 I'• ur OWrt l JOnll' I" '"I. \\"( ' I1 :1\{' I) ('('II lo1- 1111a1(' i11 fj1rJitjJltT Ollf \\ilr~ UWU) rrorll 'Jllr I r r IJ. IOI!](' •oil. \\"1· t'Ull 110 lo11g1-r l'\flt'<'I 1 '•t a1ha11la!!I'. Tlwr!' ca11 lie 110 !Jll<'•­\ 0n lhat th!' Soi il'h ha1 c loolh tl11• lh·hornb a11d the 11-homb. and ihey hall' Ire long-ra11!!<' faciliti1•, to dcli1cr lh!'m. d l>ar hould comP, "c "ould lra1 c to cfcnd ourseh·es against air allaC'b.' a 1' 1 ~1·nhowcr's rc••1·ne plan is al'l11ally t 955 \'rrsion of th!' '.\1inulc Man 11 ho 1 °0d, mu,ket in hand, rrady to sprin~ If 1h1· defense 11hr11 his nation 11~i­lilr_ c~lrned and return to his ri1 ilian al'­lh~ h1•s 11 hen the tlrrl'al 11 a' p11l clo1111. ill 1 ' 1·onn•pt of tht' l'il i11·n-,oldi..r has ~\'~•·h lo rt'('t1rnrn1•ncl it. '\o nalion, not ia·' 11 tlw 'mid didalor,hip. rnn 111ai11- li 111 "ontin11ot1>lr 1h1· i!'11·l of 111ohiliza­ ·~'1 t<'1J11in·cl 111. all-011l lrostililil''. The th ' 1 11 011ld not only h<• prolrihiti1 t' hul ·r"d'lditra<·tion or ahll' manpow1•r from ;/' ll1·ti11· work 11oulcl cripple 0111 Qnorny s I . . 111 11 r1·<'ry a)!c ancl !'\'Cry nation a lrnl- '' ' 0 rnu,1 Ill' slrtll'k hrlwrrn rrady and 'rJ •·r,,. <·l1·1rn·nts of ihl' armrcl forl'cs. fiq 11 ' i<I1·al -itnation i' an acleq11alC' man­,11,~ ·rr Pool in n·•rn<' that can he swifll\' 0tporatrcl into a regular organiza· ~l\cr~ FOP.UM NF,WS, April. l.?55 of tire prl'judire. \Ve an• 11011 a\\aJ..e11rd lo the 1wcd for a fair. dcnHHTali<'. and .. ffc!'li'c method of huilcling up tlrr na ­tion'• drf1·11•1''· "itlr rq11al rc·•pon,ihilil~ for all. - 1'.arl T. Com pion. "ho hl'adl'd l'n·,i­d1• ni Trum.1n\ commi.-ion 011 l '\IT. ha, onllint'd ilw 111•r'!'•si1v fnr somt• kind of national security trnfning: 9 (I ) J 1 "oulcl ad as a clt'l!'rr!'rtl to Sorit'l a~gre!:"'~ion and as a ~lrong sup· port lo ilw frl'edom-Jo, ing peoples of ihe t'arlh in lhrir dforls to establish iJrr ru)p of inlcrnalionaJ Jaw and ju,li!'C throu)!lr the l 'nitcd Nations. By prOI id­i11μ an e11cl11ri11tr ha~c for our mililar) ... trt·nμ-th. \\(' C'Ull llC'f!Ule th(• . O\it•I ·d1t•n11· lo t'n,Ja11· lilt' "orld and. 111 1h1· '<lltH' lokt>n. stn·nμlht'n the ''ill to ;.t"··i~t (:J) lr \Hll' >hould ('Onlt'. it II 01ild l'l'­dur'(' ihr lime re'{uirt'd for lolal 111ohili- 1alion. F.1rn nndn our prr,r11t ro,lly >y>tcm 11r do not lir)!in lo lia11• lhc men in thr arml'd forces that would hr nrr1lrd to fight a large-scale war. ~·" 11 ould hm e to call up thrPe mrn from <·i1·ilia11 life for ewry one now in uniform. lfow quirkly those mrn !'Oulcl he train!'cl and organized into romhat units might rep­resent the margin hctw!'!'n "'n i1 al and C\linrtion for our country.• ( 1) ft reprc,01•nl> lhc hc,l hope for a mranin~ful ci' ii df'ff'llio;(' oq.ranizalion . <·ompt•trnt to dt•td 11 ilh a 'IHld1•11 and 'irious allaC'k upon our ritic,-. In !'\ rry communilL thrn• \\Oulcl hr mrn 11ho·1· -Wide World Photos (Top le ft J U.S. Navy blimp hovers over the U.S.S. Forre stal, 9 iant 60-thousand-ton car­rier j (top right J Army's two-stage " bumpe r" rocket at the long·range proving ground at Cocoa, Fla.; flow er left} Europe-bound infantrymen parade up Broadway ; Uower right) Air Force pilots dash to Jet fighter-interceptors during practice mane uvers in defend ing coastal a rea from possible attack. J'ai:c J l mililary train in~ \\ ould hr a :.rn·at }wlp .' t 5 l l'ro111 till' ,1a11dpoint of th<' 1111·11 a" \\!'II a ... llw 11alio11. it would pro1 icle ror th!' f11ifili11H'lll of mililaf\ ciut\' al the time that e11tailed lf'm;t di,ruptio.n of 1·i 1ilia11 lift•. \ fll'f 011l't' H'n ing hi' ac· Li \ c time. no youn~ man would liC' calll'd """Y from home ''"'"Pl i11 a11 l'mergeney; and that po...,ihility 11 ould t•\i'l \\ ith or "ilhoul thl' rt'>!'f\ 1· trai11- ing pro::rram .n (6) It would !'limi11ale i11j11,li<·1· lo 1 C'leran' l1y prcn idi11g for a clemonal ic -.haring of till' liahility for 11alio11al dt·· fcnse. \ lany aq.!tlllH'lll ... ha\t' h(•t·11 rai ... t·d again!-'t tlw n• .... f'nt• trai11i11~ pro~ram. mo-.t of "hid1. "l1t·11 1•\a111i11f'd <'<llT· fully. lia1e lillll' or 110 nwril." Orw nr;r11nw11I j .... that llH· n·:--t·n t' pro­gram i,- 1ahlt'it--- IH·<·a11-1· of 1l1t· d1·11·I· opme11l of pu,-h-hullon warfarl' lllN·d 011 the 11 ... <• of :--upt'r\\t'apon ... i11 plat·1· of rna~--c~ of militarr manpo\\t'r. \011t· of our rnilitan or ,,.if'11lifi<· lf'ad1·r-. ho\\­<' IC'L agrc·<·~ that \\(' h:n1· rt•:wlll'd lhl' dar \\hf'n "'' C"a11 fidtl a \\:.tr "it l1011t 111t:11. 011 till' <·011lrar.1·. f'af'h Ill'" d<·1f'l- 11p111c11I i11 "arfarp i.rH'n'a:-'l'~ th<~ num­ber of men and the d<'gr<'C of lrainin!! required." Th" , ... ,1 ar"1111lt'11t. 1h .. 11. ''"' that ...,j, month.., j..; loo .... l10rl for \\Orth\\ hilt· lrai11i112. TIH' an .. \\t'r to thi-. ~tr2u11u·11t j .. thal ar;, trai11i11~ proμr~tm m~1 .. 1 rq11T­- l'nl a hala111·1· l1t'l111·1·11 ll1t· n·q11ir1·11w11l­of lhl' milil<lt) dq1t1rl111t·1J1, a11d tlw <·ompt'lin!! 1·01bidt·ratio11" of tl11· f' i ' ilia11 economy a11d of famih lifl'. Tlu·n· an· man~ \\t'apon~ and military op1·ration..., that tak<' ~i\. ei!!hL or ('\Pll kn n·ar, to ma>tf'r. But r~11ki11g offi<·cr, · of the -\rn11-. \a11·. a11d \ ir Font• an· u11a11i· mou~ i11 th<:ir com if'lion that 'i' mo11lh> of intrn .... iH• ha~if' trainin:r. plus n·H·n<' duty. "ill r<'jHl'"'nl a l!!'llUirH' ro11lrih11· lion toward pr<'pan•d111"'·" EVER-PRESENT ARGUMENT Then· i:-. al ... o llu· t'\ <'r-prt',C'lll argu­rnt• nt that th!' proi!ram "ill lf'ad lo mil­itari> rn and the building up of a mili· Ian ""'tl' "'l"m i11 thi, 1·01111ln. Till' 1'0;,ihility tiiat 'i' month, of l;ai11ing \\ill turn our youth into militari,-t, '''"Ill' unworthy o( a .... <'rious <"On"idcratio11 '' hrn Oil<' <"onsidl'r"' lht• albt'?H'P of an\' militari-tif' >11iril amonl! the million' or \ mPriC":1n \t'IPran .... who ~P<'lll p·ar..., on f'omhal d1111 i11 l\\o 11orld \\ar- a11d then look their pln<'l's amo11g our mo>t .-.·,-po11-ih l1· a11d 1''''1t·dul f'ilizf'11' '" "'011 '" thf')' rf'l11rn1·d lo thl'ir l111nH''. The r<':-of'rrr pro~ram t'OIHTJ>l i~ treart'd to reduc·e. ralhn 1ha11 !'11ha1H·1'. tlw dangl'r of rnilitari,m in tl11• l 'nilf'd Stal<». It <•liminalc.; lhl' 111•1·d for maintaining a lar~f' .... 1andin~ fore<• OH'r a μ-real num­ber of )ears: it pro1irfl', for the rno'l equitafifl' cJi,lrifiulio11 or the 'ecurily liurdt'n. th11' r!'i11forl'i111? th1• rll'mO<'ralic ideal: a11cl it artuall) pt'nnil- mor1· <·i1 i­lian control thau a -landing arm) pro· ~ram dor~. 0 ThP t'\iμt•1wit·..; of tlu· i11lt·r11atio11al -it11alio11 thal fa1·1·' '" 'iml'I)' clo not 11crmil «011 lin11t•d d..!ay i11 tl1t• malll'r of 11nil"f'r,-al mi lilan lrai11i11g. Tf we hope -Wide World Photo A draft bill that included for the first time a start toward universal military training was siqned into law June 19, 1951 , by President Truman. Defense Secretary George Marshall (right) and Mrs. Anna Rosenberg (center), Assistant Secretary of Defense, were among those witnessing the ceremony. Page 12 - Wide World Ph01' The late Dr. Karl T. Compton lo prc1 e11l a hot war. or lo ddl' nd ollr· '''"!'' if "'ir -.hould <·on1t·. we mu­adopl l' r!'-.id1·11l Ei,f'n ho\\!'r's militM' "'fl i<·e plan. a11d "!' rnu't pro1 idr ,,,f fi1·ir11l appropriatio11s to admini,11·r properly. Tha l was on(' side of the qucstioJ\· \ow co111 1•s the 011pos il e s icle-argJI· lll l' llt S of S Olll {' "ho no '.\OT apt>rO' ' of Eisenho" er's new military ~e 1· ' · ice plan . Wr '' '"" that the Soi iels' fir,t Ii• of allack al!ai11'l Aml'ri!'a is ffl'1 11 itlri11. \ nll'rif'a is infi11it!'iy more po'' 1·1 ful 1ha11 Iii(' SOI it·t l 11iou -oo ""'' mon• 1'""1·rful that th!' So1il'l:< c:1111' 1·n·n ill'gi11 lo 1lri11k aliout co11qul'ri11~ 0 11111il tl1t·y ha11· d1n•)!1'ro11,fr "'·akc" "" inll'rnally. Th!')' Ira' 1· h1·en in ti< pha-.1' of th1· allack again'l Americnf• yl'ar-.. Th i, i-. 1101 a mi litary operHl1'j aud 11 t' <·:11111ot clc1 i'c a11y rni li tnr~ '.' f1·11"'' agai nst it. This is a wa r of 1th a liall lf' for lhl' mi11 d,- of mt'n.11 ' Till' Sm it•l -.hof'k troop-. in thi ,; hall arl' \ 1111·1iC"a11 trditor .. lllt'llllH'r ... of 11 Communi'l party a11cl their S) 111p:1lh1 1·1-. a1ul llw mi~μuid1·d idP .. tli ... t" '1 1111\\illi11~l) do tlwir \\or!.. for tlwn•· 1 If, by i11fillralio11 and ,ufn1·r .. ioJ1· 1 Comm1111i-.1-. rould <·111 t1' loo'!' froJll 1 moori11μ-:-. of our 0\\11 tradilion~ '(I pri11ciplt» a11d 11 1io11al l'rid<'. and I' pa rt· "' lo a<Tt'pl 1d1al l ht') ,·all 1 wmt· of thf' fulun·. the pla111ll·d "" omy. tl1t• Sof'iafi .. t slate thf')' rould '. slro1 tlu· \ nwrif'a11 <'Olhlilu li onal ' tf'm-a11d intt·grale America into thr ~'1'. l'nion of S01i1·l . oriali st llep11 1'' without firillμ' a shot or landinμ' 3 - dirr on our ~1ores.' 0 Oln iow.fy. l k<"s proposed rr,cr11' parlialh-lrai1wcl -.oldi<'f' \\on'l hell' l"ACTS FO!t M NEWS, Awil, I '1t1111t>r tl1i 0 11 I Ill' ,. .,f p1·an·li11 ir,._ '"' ha' 11nporta11l ave th!' A1 \~·r lu11 • <lie 011 for!' ![f'llt>ration 'Pread of , •1·nt ial ft'al 'Ory milita . ~\'h y did rl it1 011!'- an< ;·r1.rnp11 J.. .. on lrr 11g that • l.1 t o r ~ ') rn Do,;'1 1o lhat tilt' (Ir; ar. Tlw o a~ lo mol mil itary ,1 ' 0 uld l<·a11 So 111· 1 1910. all \ :i.rr .... (1 μro"I'' 111!' draft ~as l!Oin~ 1'\l n·ar " \ ,. <'a rh· lifl "Oinrr. ( IQ takp a~1 ,. 'IUil'I dri.1 lilty S('f\ ii'( l,v ac Io pt11. 1 1111!.11 ·on ·frnd our wc rru1- ; miJilllf\ O\ iclc '"' ii11i--1cr 1ucstioJ1· •-argu· appro' r ry ~er ' · fir,L Ii• ·a is fro' nore p0\ 1 !:iO 111llt r t::; rn1111 flH'fill~ tl 11t'akrll 'n in th ;11rrica f, operatir iliwr)' •1 tr of ick· enY• t this ha\ wr• of I 'Yllll"''"' ali-1- '' r lht•Tl1· cr ... io11· 1 <' front I ition~ ·' . and !'1 , call ;IH'<I 1' 1 ' could' tional ' 1 o the gr'i lkp111''. linp; ll f('-.;('f\t' 1'1 ""''' April,• ••t111l1·r thi- kind of 'im il'I allaol. 011 lilt' rnnlrar}- in :1<·1·<·p1inl! 1111• ich·a 11f pt·an·tinu · t·ompul .... or) rnilitai ~ -.1•n lf'f•. \\P Jia\f' alrt•;.Hh lo:--1 OIH' of the TllO-.( 1lnporta11I hattlt>:-- ·i11 th(' μ:rl'al "a1 111 •a1c lhC' Amniean "ay of !if,.,'" We ha\C' 'l'nl <\mrrirnn >oldiC'r' lo 'lie on for<'if!ll -.oil in thr<'c ''ar~ in om• ~<'1 1c•ralion o,1c•11>;ihlv lo rc-,i,1 1111· 'Jlread of diC'latorohip;;. \VhaL is thr t'•· •t·111ial fl'alurl' of diC'lalor•hi11 ·; Compul· 'Ory militan ~1·n ice. . ~\'hy did '"c rqn1dial1· our 01111 Ira· •11111,,,_ and idt•al, in IC) JO m11I adopt '1m1p11J .... on military ~t·n it-t\ th<' \t•n thing- that ,,,. hal1·d° 1110 .. 1 al•n111 1l1t• di1 ·­l, 1tors •;io llo,;'t 1ou n·1111·ml11·r·~ \\·,, 111·r1• told 1l 1at ti"' draft la11 11ould kt·t·p '" 0111 11f 1ar. Thi· onh """ for '"to aH1id ""' '.'~lo mol1ii"i11·. 1·111ild up >tlC'h ma•,iH· "11htary .. 1n·111!ih that thC' clil'lal111- '1011ld l1•:t\I' '" alo111•. 1 So 11c· mohili1C·d. On (ktol1t·r 16. 910. all \ nwri<'a11 nu•11 iu ihC' propt·r ~gp f!roup:-. rq!i .... t1·red for thl' fir:-ol 1wac·t>· 11nw draft i11 \m1·rirn11 hi,lon. Thal '\\l!-1 g-oin:r to kt•t•p u-.; 0111 of w.nr. The tii•\t n•ar we \\t'lll lo \\tlf. \,·c·arh a- 1911. \\hih· th!' \\ar """ ;Iii! l(oinl! on and thl' JH'ople \\C'rt' likt·h '> lal.d· a11Ythi11μ-. our lop l(•ttd('r~ lw~an 1 ~11i1·t dri\f• lo fa,lt·n 1·01111nil-on 111ili· :1ry "f'n i('(• 011 tlw nation 1u·n1u;1w11th ' 1 \' adopli11~ 1111i\l'f"'al mililan lrai11- 1rig.11 RECKLESS HASTE AND WASTE f. lh1·y didn ·1 l!C'i it done. ho11 t'\l'r. I 11 1~•·t. <Hlr l1·:1Clt·rs it'd us a_ fan.lasli<' d.i•· ,,,.,. 111 the oppo..,11· cl1rl't'l1011. \\ 1th '''•lit·" 11<1,I<' a11d ha .. lt', 111• dt'ntohil· :h•·d. (h<'rnil!hl 111· junked. dumpt'd i11 r Oc<•a11. and μaH' U\\a' thP :.rreatc ... t h''"''l'lion of fil!hlin:z rqu.ipnwnl in iht· 1'lory of tlw 11 oriel. That lol(!'tlwr 11 ith H'<T!'L aμn·t·· "'''Ills 1d1id1 Hoo"!'' 1•IL and Truman had ~udp 11 ith Stalin al T<•ltc'ran. Yalta. and Qlsdam crratrd all O\'!'r thr 11orlcl ifl' ''"1' f \·ac·u11m..; 1. 1110 \\ l1.1 (' Il S0 \ .J ('l j)O\\('I QWed. \\'.In lC'ss than fi\t' yrarR after World fou~ II en<k<l. 11c· 11ere at 11ar a:zain (~'nst ihr pupp<'ls of our partner in the 1h111lrd 'ations. our former :zallanl allv: r · O\if'l l 1nion. 12 1 1'hr dri\e for 1111i\rr .. al military lrai11 · '12 stari<'d all O\C'r a"ain . For many , ritical ~1onil1'. iht• l\m<'ri · 1 1 11 l><'opl<' appart•nilv paid no at11·nlio11 1 1) \vhat \\[Ii;; ;:roin~ on in \X'a...,hinμ.ton 1'"1, hv thc·ir ill'1t1·t'. ":tYe apprm al lo '" •dwme, for l '\!T ,.. ' nut •ucldrnlv there canw a i'lll'llinμ- 1 ''il111r,1 of public indi"nalio11. 11 hid1 ~ud an immt•cliale C'ffec·t.,..Thc• l \IT la11 Ila, 'ht·ht·d In· a roll·rnll \OI<' in tlw 't''e 011 \ larch 5. 1952. 1~ our months later July. 1952 11u1 ~ f) lllajor politif·al parti(':-. no111i11a1t·d ,' 1·a11did,111·s for thr pr!' .. idc'11n 11111 n,.,1 \\ho \\ t•rt• on rt•f ·nrd a' fa~ orinμ" <\("1'8 FORl'M '.\'E\\'S, April. J.?:-.5 t111i\t·r ...... d mililar~ 11~1111111μ: \dl .. ti ~lt-- 11·11,on and lh1 i!!hl ll. l·.i,t•nho11t•r. \fin 1111· t'lt•c:li1111. J.:i,t•11ho111•r i11di ,.alt •d that lw 11011ld 1101 ""k for a l \1'1 pro;.rram. llut this n·s1·n t' sl'n ice plan of his i,. i11 t''"''nliak identical with thr sd11·111c· that 1"ts ealled uni\rrsal military train· inl! in 1952. Tiu• n· .... 1·n1• :-.t·n i1·1• i:-- to hC' n \olu11 - \t'1 •r ~t·n i('(•. hut \\t' \\ill al~o conti11111· the· 1·ompul .. on draft. Thr draft is in· l1·111IC'd a- a ..111!1 lo 111akC' tlw hov• 1 nl· 1111ft•,•r for n· ... t·n1· -..pnil'c•: ' If ihc•y \Oltt11IC'!'r. ilH'\' 11 ill ht• l!i\1'11 .. j, 1 ~ 1011i1i ... or af'lual lrui11i11;.r a11d 1111'11 plan·d in nn :wli\t' n· ... 1·n1· for 11irH' and ,1 half \<'al•. d11ri11)! "hidt 1i1111· 1111•\ this ~talLh of Font·- Trl'aly al!rt'!'ll1t'111 "ith 1110,1 of 1111· 59 nation- 11 h!'rt' \mf'rif\_111 troop-. an· 110\\ !'-t'nin:r. All of ihl'm. of l'Clltr•t '. ha\t ' la11' 11 hirh art• -.fra11;.r1· In \nll'ri(".:111 ~nldicr .... \rp ha,t· 110 \\ ;.n of "-no'' in~ ho\\ mm1\· of th(' fi\l' h;111dr!'CI HHn<:·odd l\ntc'rican •ol· dirrs alrracly in forei:zn jail;; a;; a result of I It i' I r !'a I ' '"' I"!' st' 11 I I 11 j a i I o 11 lru111p<'d·11p dwrl!'" or for cloin:z som<'· thin;! that ilw,· did not know 1"1' a \ io· lalion of la11 "hr11 th!'\' did it." rhi- i- ih(' ki11d of thing \ntc'rira11 11111- 11111-i anli<'ipalr if ihC'}' don't 1nl· 1111lt•t•r for lk1: ... rf ' '"f'l"\P ~rni''f' plan. \f11·r ihr draftt·<·s hme •ened tllt'i1 l110·11·ar hilC'h if thr1 art· -till ali1t• and not in jail 1111•\ an· plact'd in tilt' -Wide World Photo President Eisenhower and members of his National Security Training Commission shown Dec. 14, 1953, aker a report was received from the commission which stated that a military training system and a draft can be operated at the same time by using a lottery. Left to right, seated : Eisenhower and Julius Ochs Adler of New York, commission chairman. Stand­ing: Admiral Thomos C. Kinkaid , Retired, of Washington; Lt. Gen. Roymond B. McCloin of Oklohoma City, Warren H. Atherton of Stockton, Calif., and Dr. Karl T. Compton of Com­bridge, Mass. ntu•l allC'ncl drill one night t'\l'ry \\!'t'k a11d go to summer encampment 1110 11c•l'b 0111 of l'\ery y<'ar. The militar) '"'' ihl'm on lap and in hand for It'll n·ars. :' · If a ht>\' doc's not Yoluntcc•r for this ,,.n it't'. he; 11 ill he drafted and assigned lo 1111· l!'a>I dt• .. irahlr ;;en· ice for a 111 O· , <':tr hitC'h. Th<' drafter. morroYrr, can he• .. hipp!'d mer>!'a>.• This is mo"l important because. 11 hrn 1111r S<'n:tlC' ratified the talus of Forct'• Tr!'al\' in Juh·. 1953. we gaye a11 ay tlw 1·011 .. 1i.lutional°ri:zhts of our ;;oldil'r' srn· i11" O\!'r-ras and surrrndrrrd criminal j11~i .. cliC'lio11 O\!'r thrm to fort•ign gm· 1·rnm,·n1~. If an \ nwrican soldier :Z<'Ls in trouhlt­i11 Fra11<'<' and c·omc's hefor<' a Comm11· 11ist jud:zr. thr Amrriran Army can no lonμrr ~('l him ::incl try him in an i\mrr­it ·a11 militarv court. Antc'rica mt1'l turn hrr hack 011 hrr own soldier and kt tht• ( .c11111111111isl judge hair him. W<• hmr acti1r rcsrne. along 11i1h the Yoluntrrrs, 11 hcrr they too 11111'! ><'r\l' out their ten yc•ars hy attending \\eekly drills and annual encampment;;. All this in thr name of national de· frn;;e! Defense again>! 11ha1?1• Rreall 11 hat a terrible strain it is on us powerful a;; 11e an• C'\l'ry time we ;;end our armirs aero"' ih!' oceans to ;;ave ;;omehody from sonwthi11g or other. Thrre is no nation or group of nation;; on earth- and that incl11d1•,; all of thrm put to:zrthrr ~1 hirh could IZl'l <' llOH;!h mrn and materiel on our shore lo make a '<IC'!'e"ful land inrnsio11 of our homr· land.10 Oln iouslv. the million;; of half.trained !toys the P~nla:zon wants arr not nredrd lo dd,.nd Amrrira a:zain;;t that kind of allark. o onr in his ri:zht mind hrlieYr> that ;;urh a11 allack will <'\er he mad<'. But if one "rrr. "e 11oulcl not need a C'ompulsory military 'rn iee law lo make •\ meriran mrn defend l\mnira. Thr Pnge 13 ,pirit uf th~ Te\as \ lamo is not en­tire!) tleatl 1t1 "") ul the forty-eight -iatP- n11r i11 thP Di,trict of Colum­l1ia. 1 b Aml'rica in dangl'r of any kind of militan atlaC'J..: rrom ahroad '! \\ ",· ; ..... told that ilw :-,"'id' ha11 · tl11 · •ame supern('apo11> \\(' ha,c: atom and II\ drog1·11 liomlh. \\ 1· kno" th<') ha11· a \ a-t f11·d of l1omht-r- c·apalil1· of m aki n ~. lrollt lh1·i1 ho111t• kt .. t" "· round-trip l1u111l1111 !-! 11111 ... 1111 lllt• ... t or 0111' rnajo1 i 1li1· .. . \\ 1· k1111\\ flu·\- li.:t\t' a11 i111u1t·11 ... t' lh ·d of -ulo111;11i111 ·- ;, ith an •lro1111d -th1•­'' orld f<.lJl!.!t '. Cdpa!iJt• or ~ll(' a k_ i11μ: in do-<' lo our ,hon·-- "lw11· tlw Cit'"' l'Ould q11i1·kl) .,,,1·mlil1· -mall \ -2 typ•· rod .. ..t- "ith lndro!!l'll l1omli \\ar lwad­and fin· tlll'm- "iti1 rifle-li k1· aecuraer into tlw c1 ·11t1 ·r- of our Iii μ- c·oa>tal ci I i<' ... 11 NORTH AMERICA JUST A CINDER? ( )n tlw lia-.i' of "hat ha> lwl'n 11·­' 1·ali·d pulilidy. \\ t' m11,1 a''llnll' th at 1h1· :-io1 it"t- al,o haH' a th ing rnllt'd iht· .. in11·rnalio11al lialli-.tic, mi,.,i le:· Thi> i, a guidt·d "'·apon 1d1id1 rn11ld lie fired rrom la111whi11 ~ platform ... in Silwria and 1d1id1 illl'on·tirnll) ha- thl' pot1·nti­alit~. not m1·n·I) or ,,iping out a ft ·\\ .\ mPrin111 f'itic• .... liul o( ft'thwinμ- tJH" \orth \ nwrican c·o11tirtt•nt In a rindt·r. 11 \ II of tlJl·-1 · fri!!hlful thing- a11• in tlw hand- of t' ranh "' '" ·1·11-lonH'd lo ,lll'cl­dinμ- thl' l;lood of illl'ir 01111 p1·opk thal human lif<· j ... rn1 -.111i11!.d1·-. .. to lilt'm. Y c,.. indt'1·cl. \ nH'rint is in dangl'T of attack from aliroacl. 11 But ho11 mtwh good 11 ill it do us to 1"111· fi"' million or l111·nty mi ll ion \ mrri1w1 1101' s1·atterrd around tlw t·n11nln in th<~ a c·tiH• n· ... <'nP or 't·n in!! m t' r-1·:1- if •ud1 an atlal'k i> C"\ l'r made :' Do wr ha\"(' any drfrn~e again-I thi­kind of attack ? Onk n'l'rnth h,n r 111· ma1k a l ... !!i11- 11in!!. But ''r do11·1 ha\1• 4'11011~'1 morn ·' to do it quid .. ly or adequately. We are building thi• kind of dcte1»c on a pu1- ny-pinching basis, bt'cause we mu't hm e enough money for foreign aid. and '.'-landin:;? armie .... a11d OH' f:-<t 'as troop:-.. \\'(• han· known about the danger of thi, kind of altal'k l'or >!'\l'ral H'ar,. We hm r kno1111 that thi, i, thl' oniy kind of atlal'k that 1·a11 IH' mad1· aga inst Lb. For many )l'::tf'. our μo\1•n11nenl h a~ l1N·n la~i11g- from th i11 la\t'S m<lll}' timrs mor1' th;111 1·11011~h lo linild thl' kind of .i, .f .. ,,,", "" ,,..,.,L 1.111 -1ill """·1 h,111·. 11 AMERICANS PAY-DEFRAY GIVEAWAY \\ hat ha, our gol!'rnnwnt heen doing \I ith all that mo1ll'Y •t Paying tlH' hill, of thl' l nitecl "\a­ti on-; gi,ing and I..nding abroad fo r lit1ildi11g fal'ilitit•s that \I ill lllOre likt•ly Ii!' ust'd again>! 11- than for '" in the l'\t'lll of a \\ar ''itli Hu-.:--ia: main tain· in~ \a-.t armit· ... of .\ntt•r i f·a11 ~oldicr:-. and l'i\ilian <'mplo)t't'' all o\l·r ihl' ea rt It~ and huildinμ-. in fort' iμ11 land .... military hasC's 11 hich 111• 111'1) 111·\l·r lw p(•rmill!'d to use or 11 hid1 might he lakrn O\l'r and "'"d I" th!' Comn11111i•I -. \011. 11 hill' •till l'11r1aili11g our (''l><'n­ditun ·- on thr onh !..ind of ddl'llH' that miμ-ht ,,Om(' day >me us from dc,-tnw­lion. thP Pl'nla;!Oll ,,a,111 .. lo "P<'nd from 1hr1·1· lo l\\t'hc hillion dollars a yrar 011 thi ... :--ln111f!C c·ornpul .. nn milit :uy. ~Pf\ i"1 ' pro,:rram. Tlw kind of dd1·11-1· 1•,1alili,hnw111 that "r need l'an Ill' liuili only with '-11 · pPrior seientif il' and indu,trial kno11 l­edge. l''Jll'ric111·p_ faci lities, and ah il it'. It could be mannl'd by a relath·cly small numlwr of hif(hly- lrainl'd e>.pt•ri-. "ho do not n1·1·d lo he drafted - 11 ho l'Ould Ill' hir<'d al 11ag1•, high rnough to rnmpct!' wi th 1d wt thl'y <·ould irct for ih<' ir -!..ill- 1·1·1·11 lwn•. This "ould he a n·al ~pur to younμ--.tPr:-o. to arquir<'. on ilwir 011n . lrai11i11μ- and -!.. ill' \\hi..!1 tlll')' 1·0111<1 '"" at a good pri1·e. 1r. -Wide World Photos Army, Marines and Navy were represented in 1940 standing guard over the draft bowl before the Liberty Bell in lndependenoe Hall. The bowl was used by President Wilson in 1917. The bowl was used again lat right) in the first peacetime draft in history. Staff Sgt. Robert Shackelton of Fort Dix, N. J., picked the first number from the "goldfish bowl" in August, 1941. Assisting Shackelton is Col. Charles Morris, who blindfolded Newton Baker for the first world war lottery in 1917. Page 14 - Wide World Pho'· In 1948, petitions urging U MT were pr~ sented to legislators in Washington ~1 representatives of the Women's Potriof1' Conference on National Defense. Left to right, Speaker Joseph Martin, Jr. IR-Mass.I: Mrs. Grace L. H. Brosseau of Greenwi'~ Conn.; Mrs. Lee W. Hutton of Excelsior Minn., national president of the America~ Legion Auxiliary ; Mrs. Sally Cannon ° Washington, D. C., and Senator Arthur Vo•· denberg ( R-Mich. ). <.0111p11l-.11n militan ~t · n it't' tuk1 111illio11-. of our 11(' .... t ~ c;ung 111(' 11 out t1 prod1wli\I' joh, or .111a) from .t!h an«. l1Th 11 irnl or i11d11-11 i.d or •1·iC' 111 if1 I rai11i11:.r. or 0111 of 1·ollt'gt·s forl' i11 il Jl·m lo 11<1>!1• ilwir liml' and ih l' ID' pay1•r,' n101ll'Y al'q11ir i11" a li ttlP •n"''' tt•ri rq.r of mil il ar~ trai11i~1 g '' hieh i~ l(~ tall) 11-1·!1·-- i11 d1 ·f1 ·11di11g the na tion. ' NOT THE DEFENSE NEEDED In -hort. 110 kind of l'Ompu l>ory n11 itar) ~ t'f\ if ·t• ('an μiH• u~ Llw d('f('11~r \I 111·1•cl. \ 11) kind. on th!' othl'r h•u•0 ,, ._hit •.. . ; :-.o mud1 of our man JH)\\l'f tll1 mon<'y that "'' l'a1111ot afford adl'qll'11 dd('ll'' '' of 1 lw I) pi· I ha t 1·mrld prol< 11s . 1 " Finalh . 11 111·11 1111·-1· 111i li1ary rp-rfl' real'h 'ul'h 11t11nl11·1» I hat th ey a11d t l~r fami lit·s 1·on,titutl' the la rgl'>l , otn• bloc in thl' nation, wi ll Congrl'ss rc;I' th eir p r C'~ s ures fo r more and bi[!P' H·l .. ran" hrndit- fr!'e hospitaliza tir' fn·p wdi1·al can\ pen~io11s. 1101111 .. 1 ~o' 1· r11J1H·111 - ... 11J...,idi1t·d '1011-.inμ-. ~ O' cr1 m1·11t--11l"idi"·cl 1·d1wa1ion " \\"1· an· plunging l1li11dh into an ' that n ·-1•mlill'- llu• t11 ilighl p<'riod. '11u·i1 ·11l Honll'. 11 hC'n the lloman Lei!'''; had 111•1·01111· ' " 1•0111•rf11 I that th<'' '. 1 mandl'd 'l'"'·ial fa, or< 11 hid1 rntpll' till· pulilic lrl'a-.11n. paup!'rizPd th<' 1'1 pit •. and dt'-lron·d ill!' nation. . "" \ational d1:f1 ·11•1·" tlw "'"' 1111 which th <' So, il'ts ju,tify tlwi r . ''"' lahor C'llltlp..; j ... tlH' OIH' \\ l1idt \\t' ;II us in ~ lo ju,tify 1h1· d1•,lnwtion of <'1cr' thin !! that \ 111l'ri i-a •land, for. ( ( ontin ucd on Pa.Ct' ~ FACTS FORUM N'E\\'S, Ap,-il. I" C'7f.BHI J out 1la> o[ 0 tlw hi,to 1·0In. In 'itat<'S it il1plfth ( of John ll1i1H' ... t lrork1·r- • ('\ ('I] ( or dcstr 11 ho•e ~i of Ll'wis 11 i ~ 11 ho l.1•11 Politi1·a ll ' 1'<·ni Iha .. old day frirnd, a fnunrl 01 Politi r al \Ian1 I hini " ci1d lhl'ir patl lh" Sont old rl'a('[ 311 <1 only 11liout hir Thus ' '11 ll'gor;· late fo111 1 •iion \ \l"ar hr lar,i,1 1 " l top 0 ia 1.1 ·"11 ·, ,m ifn1 :1•.11 rk1·d ti '•th Am •na11n h1 th,. <'mis l11·rhaps. ;, John L l"A.C'T. I World Ptiol were prt' hin9ton ~f s Patriof1' e. Left r• I R-MoSS·J; Greenwi'h Excelsiof Ameri'0 ~ :annon ' lrthur v·•· ""' ta~' 1·11 out r a(hanrt ~('it'111ifi forrir•, I thl' ta' ttlr snlirt· ri!'h is I~ • I nal10ll· •ED bor)' nii den;r 1 l('f "·"'' O\\ er n11 aclcquJI Id prot• , f("•·C'f\t and thr ol , oti~1 rC'ss rc:W rel hi~~· talizati11r 1>01111.;t !. ~n,1·r1 10 an 1 H·riod II L<'!!:jtl '""; ,,, rmpti• th<' I'' pri/, JI' -Wide World Photo C"71.u1n 11n 12 ''a' ('t'i<'hruit'd chroul(h· J oul lhl' l ' nil(•d , talt's as th(• birth· da) or On!' or th!' greatrsl prt·sidrnh in tlw history of tlw nation. Ahraham Lin · 1·oln. In som(' sr<'tiom' of the l "n it<'cl latps it was a dual crlrhration. for thr h11·lfth of F(·hruan is also th<' liirthda' of John L. I ,('\\ is. 1°irtual ('Zar of th<' coal niirH'-. and llt'ad of thl' l ' nitf'd \l i111• l\'orkt·r- of \nwri<'a. Sr1rnt1-fi"· 1'1t'11tful l'<'ar> fruitful Or dl'Strurtive )'t'ars. 1iq>t•ncli11g upo11 11 ho,r sidr onr may hr in a di"'tr"io11 of Lewis' life. It is rurious iud .. t'd to u11cl1•rsla11d 11 ho l.1•11i< n•al oppo1w11h an· i11 tht•,,· l1oliti<'ali) confu-inl! time,. It 11oulcl ~'"'Ill that th(') ha11· <'hani(t'd from tlw old day,.'· In fact. sonw of his dos1•'1 ~rirnds and stronl!!''I support1•rs arl' no11 OUnd On th(• l'OIN'l'lllli\t' sidl' of 1111' l•olitiral frnrr. 1. \Ian) lt·adl'r, of larl(t' u11io11s rn11sid1·1 111ll ''old." a " misl'rahle roadlilo"k" on th,.;,. path to -urcrs,. On<' l.10 la\\ )'l'r in th1· South slatl'd !'andidli that all tht' "Id n•artionari union IN1cl1·r, art· l(Ollt' an 1 cl only Lrwis is left. " Do11'1 11 orri a 'Out him." hr adcl<'cl. Thus, Le11 is is plarrcl in tlw samr ;·nt1•gory as Gre!'n, \lurray, and otlwr l~l~ founder.. or th(' latt• \mnirn11 1111on \lol!'mc•11t. Thl' impli!'al ion i-. \tar. lil'rau-..• John L. L1·11 is is not '.~ ar\hl. hf• j.., a ··~torn;· 111 1l1t• .. road 111 l topia. 1 .. "- mini' 011 nrr 11 ho'" 1•111".ri~;·j,,., ,;, 11 rs fn·q111•nll) u-1·d to ··raid rt'- ,<rrk1·d that it '"'' at lt••rst lwttt'r to dl'al '\ 1th Anu·rif'an-mindPd 1111io11ists 110 ;ra11,.,. ho11 t•·rrihi!' than to dl'al 11 ith It· C'rni~snn or a ron·i!!ll idcoJou·y and i'<'thaps l'l(';l a foreign jJO\\C'I'. r John Llc11 cllyn Lrwis' policies rarncd "A.rTs FOnUM NEWS, April, 1955 JOHN L. LEWIS hy J. L. E" in;:, III him tht• halt· of mani Anwricarh in all 11 alb of lifr 11 ho '!111 his d!'mancls on tlw !'oal i11du:•try di""'PI lalzor !'"""'' timl' and timr a{!ai11. In inl<·rnal 11nio11 politi"' a11d affair,. lw 11as a11,11·d1•d tht' linl<' of n11ion l .. ad1•rs throuμhout tl11· oqrnni1<·cl mo,rmrnt. Ewn somr of his mirn•r ... 110\\ .... pr him a!"- om· cau-.(' of thrir prr-rnt situation. On tlu• otllt'r ha11d. tilt' l 11itt'd \lirn· \\'orkt'r-. i, one of thl' most po111•rful and \\Calthy unions in th!' co1111lr). It o'''h '''o of th<' laq.w:-1 hanki11~ in· -1itutio11; i11 thr 11atio11\ nq1ital. ht'sidt's larμt• hloc» of <'Orporalt' stock. and 'till has a most rf frt'li10 1oil'1' i11 un ion ar­r air$. ) t'I tht' rnal i11d11sln toda\ is 1101 a ht••rllh) indusln. It i~ traμ-i0!'U i1) -i!'k. \l an1 1•c·onomi'b throuμ:h 1111• n ·a r» ha1 ,: >lat!'d that the l ' \I\\' poiici!'s 1101dd 1•11·ntualh prirl' r·oal out of thr ··pnc·r~y markr1.·· Consider the pH'H'lll situation. In this 1•ra of atomic· rru·r~~ and rod~.PI .... hjp .... the produ!'lion of !'oal is not quitr up to thr fil!un• of th!' \Yriμ:ht Brotlwrs·hill) Ila" k rra at th!' turn of thr c·rnlury. Tn 1901. for inslarH't'. more hitumi11orl' !'Oal 11a< minrcl than in 1951. \ol 'i'""' ] IJ[l6 ha' thPrt' h!'l'n >tll'h a had year in thr anthral'itr industry. Thrrr is now a total UJH'mplo,·mcnt of rwarly 150.000 "orkrr;. and thos!' 1d10 11 ork an~raf!C on!) thrrr dais ea"h 11 C'<'k. True• t•noul!h. the pa' '""'" of tilt' workrro i' for greater than was e\ l'r dn•amrd in tht• .. old cla\ ,_ .. hut !'Ou Id it hP that too mu!'h of a μ:ood thing has rt•,ultcd in -onwthinl( ,., ii'? Ir no one buys coal, 1'1'rlai11h thl'r<' i, no 111·1·c-.,ity for opera­tion of thr minrs. Thus it 1'<111 "" said that Ill!' hii(h prin• of l'Oal ha- μ-r<'all) a"istrcl othrr pO\\t'r indu!°'lrie:- i11 <'On\ertin:z thl' ·\ mPri!'an indu,trial machine away from !'oal. Thl' railroad;. for iri-tann·. ha\t' 1'0111 t•rt!'d in f!rl'al part r rom coal to l'illH'r 1•lpc·tricit1· or di!'sel oil. Tlu•n• i' -onw 'PP!'ulation that t•11'n atom ii' 1 n­t> r;:r~ may he 11 .. ('d to power lof'cnnotin·:-.. TVA's Wilson Dam at Muscle Shools, Ala. Pag-e 1.") -Wide World Phd'> Edga r H. Dixon I lonu·- an· l11·in« lwaL1·d all o\ l'r 1111 11alion I" oil a1:i1 natural I!"'· Lhank­lo Liu· nalional pipl'lin1· •)•lt'lll. "hid1 in Lill' pa-I ll'n \t'ar- ha- l11•1•n nlt'nd1·d tlnouμhoul tlw · 11alio11. i1wludi11!! f'oal· J111r11i11!! an·a .... Th,. n·-11lt i- that toda\ !'oal '"l'l'li1·- 011I~ ... onw :~ll 1wr (·pnl of \nwri<'a·:-­.. l'IH'f!!\ ·· i1i...lt·<..11l of tht· fornwrh "JTal riμ-un· ·or<)() ""' 1·1·111 at till' t11rn° of till' l'f'lll llf\. ~ l'I it ma~ al ... o lw aq.!11t'd that a11~ ind11-Ln -ho11hl •11pport rir-1 Lho-1• "ho \\ork in it. and onh thc>-1· -hould \\orf.. in it \\ hom it c~111 ... upport. Lt•\\ j .. : artion, ran IH' ahh dd1·ndl'd '" a nu·n• 11.--niption of th,: l'ondition of tlw in· d1Hn minn·\\ i-1· d11rin!! tlw ··fwvday."· Thi· ·101 of thl' a\t·raμ-;. miner is far hl'IL1·r than it "a- fi rt' wars al!O. Thank- lo \Ir. Lt·\\ i>. ~af;·h in th!' mint• .... ,,hid1 \\<..I'· at orn· li~t· almo:--l 11onP\i ... Lt·nt. i:-- llO\\ a paramou11I ft·a· t11n·. Thi· l \I\\ . 11ncl1·r \Ir. Lt·" i-· μ-11ida1H't'. htb l11•t·n in-istt•nl that th!' rnndition or Lill' mini·- II(' impro' .. cl to nlt'd ril!id •tandard, -•·I do" n h) th!' 11111011. 1 n I lw old d,l\ -. in nran' 1111n111" an·a .... t•ad1 mo111;tai11 l"Olllflll~nity \\U~ -q1aralt'cl to an almo-L 11nlll'li1·\ahlt· ,.,. t1·nt. In 1·ad1 litLl1· minin!! t1n111. till', oal compa11~ O\\flt•d tl1t· ... 10.1-i--- from \\hid1 till' min1·r- pron111·d food and tlw lll'n·-­... jtit· ... of Ii\ in!!. \\ J.!!t· ... \\!'IT fanta:--lil'alh 1011 and tht• .mi1lt'r. 1"1' al11 ays in deht. 111· n>11id not l1·a\t' till' mint's. nor rould 1,,. impro\t' hi- lot. Conditions do11n in· ,id1· till' mint·• 11t·n· appallinμ- and hu · !llan lift• -•·t·nwcl Lo lw not hi!!lil1 '"''It'd. "in1t• thl'n. thanf.., to \Ir.' L1°\\ i,. thi­ha- 1 han!!t'd. Tlw lot or till' a\l'fn!!I' mirll'r todil\ i.-. !!ood ... o Ion!! a ... ht' i:-; \\ orlin!!. Thr;>u!!i1 tlH' Yt"a 0 rs. I ,t'\1 i, ha- dia11!!1:d had ,.(·mdition~ to t'\ln·nwh :,!OOd o;H':--. Friend and fot' a1f..no" lt'dl!t' that hi• stature i' lwroil'. l 11fortunal<'h. ma11\ ~ay he ha' !!Ont• too far. \011 '. he ha·s hC'C'll forl't'd to mu.kt· an ··a::wnizinμ- n·· apprai,al"' or hi, 0\\ n i11du•tn' \ln·ach Ir!' ha-. pril'l'd hirns,.IL his n;iner-. a11cl llH' mi111· O\\ 111•r, al1110-t out of their jolts i11 marl\ art'a~ . ...,o I ,t'\\ i .... tht' hani-hitlt'n indi·111·1;d1·11t. th!' 111a11 "ho hat<·d 1!0' ern· nwnt intl'rfl'n'1H·1·. has had lo lurn to ihat 11 hid1 ht' 11-l'd to d1·•pi•1• nanwl~-. llw ~n\Prnmf'Jll. l.P\\i"' j.., al .... o. oul of ru·c·t• ... ...,il\. for('l'd i11lo a po-.ition of partrwr-hip ,,"ith 111an· il.!!t'mt•nl. ill' has n·1·0111mt•11tlt·cl that th!' !!O\ t•ntmc-11t '-'<'l up a ··national ful'l:-­i'" lic·\"' "hid1 ''ould pt•r111it ('()al lo par· li1·ipalt· in tlw nation al ('('OllOlll\. al Jpa ... 1 lo Iii<' t''\ll'nl that t•\i:-;ting irnt'~lml'nf:-- of !10th till' mint' 01\JH'rs and th!' l \ [\\'an· prol!'l'll'd. In short. John Lt'\\ is \\ants llu· l!""'rnmr•nt lo s!'l up a ddinitl' lint• 11 h1·n·I" tlw us!'-. of t'oal would IH' fir111 and :ruaranll't'd and prnll'!'t!'d from ollwr .. 1·111 r;:ry prodtwt .... :' \l on·o\t·r. ht• \\a11l:-­\ nwril'an {'Oa I pro111ot1·d a II "'1·r i IH' \\ orld. \t th!' -.1mt• Li111I' ,1 nunmillt't' or ,1at1· '-'""'rnor- ha, n•r·o111m1·1Hli·d that Con­.,,... __ •·011-idn tlw importan1·1· of l'oal ~. till' -··nirit\ or tlu nation. Both L1'l1 i- a11d -pof..1·,nH'll for ilu· mim· O\\IH'r:-o an· in u~!rt't'nu·nt that im· port- of oil i11 l't'rlai11 art'a' ,hould IH' haltt'd. llo11t'\l'r. th !' mi111· 0111u•r, hlam1· part of their po:--ilion 011 μ-o\t•n1mt•nt interft·n·rH't'. r<'"'lriction .... ancl limit atio11 ... on tlwir op1·ralio11-. \lon·oH'r. tlw 1!0' · nnnwnt. th<') daim. <.upport1·cl otlwr ··1·nt·rl!'" prod11d-·· al tlw '''JH'll'-'l' of 1·nal. Lt'\\ i, has l11·1·orn1· a fort'mn-l pro· lal!oni•I ror lht' t'Oal i11du,ln in tilt' nation. Ill' in hi' lalt•r n·ars has lt'arn('d la- oilwr- htl\I' l1•arn;•cl) tlw rolh· of 1'\lrt'mi~m in any ('Upa<·itY. Both L.<''' i~ and thr min(' O\\ 11cr;-; un· i11 aμn·Pment that to •an• tht•ni-t•I"''· tlw' mu•I pn•· \1°111 furthl'r inroad- from othl'r •n11rcT-. Politically spt•af..i11~. John l.1·11 i•. th!' !!rllff <kmon or till' mint· 011111·r-. th1· ;>!!ft' from "hom rnirn· O\\IH'r ... · ,·hil­dn ·11 orwt• \\t'rl' ta111!hl to rl1·t·. ha- II('· mill(' Oil!' of till' filll'•I afli1·- or till' !'Oaf opC'ralor-. On Lh1· otlu·r hand. Ill' is al-o a po" t'r lll'h i 11d I Ill' min<' 1n1 1u·r~ t'a..!1 i- clqH"11dt•11t 011 till' oilll'r. .\- an t'\ampl1· of 1h1· lo"· pac·L lwl\\t't'll lht' mi11t• O\\ rH·r-- a11d L1'\\ j .... 1111' al1l1· \\arrinr ha- pt·titio111·d till' ft•d. P1al μo\t•rr111H·11l lo prolt'd tin· hi~.d1 \\i.l!!t' ... of tlw 111i1ll'r- throu: . d1 1111' ll""t' of tlw \\al-Ii-I l1·ah \ rt. Thi- l1·«i-lalio11 \\a .. dt· ... i~11t·d lo pro1t•1·t \\a!.!t• ... ,...of lo\\· -Wide World Photo Euge ne A. Yates paid i1ul11 ... 11 ial \\Orkt'r:-. ..... 1wh il"' tlin:-1• c·rn1>loH·d in tlw toliatTO. pai111. ''""" o.111d dn1μ- i11rlu ... 1ri1· .... \lon·o\('r. Lt''' j .. ha, •wn1-c·d till' T1·11111·•-t'I' \ alln \ 11· thoril\ of l11n i110 n1al from 1101;1111io11 l'la11t- al a 1·111;-icl~·rahl, ''""'r pril'!' than 11011ld lw till' .. .,,,. 111T1' T\ \ 10 1111\ rrom 1111· (\I\\ rn11l1i1t'I 111irlt'•. 111 hi· appt>i.d to tl1t• ~o\ 1·111111t·11t. 1111d i11 par lirnlar l.al101 ~1·nl'lan \liidwll. L•"' i­i'" joi1wd 11\ ... 4·\t'rnl n1al 111H'ralor--. Ii i• -aid ihal ~1·1wlt111 \li11 11!'11 i- 1101 al all 1111 .... \ mpatlwl iC' to l.t'\\ j..,, \it·\\"· l.t•\\ j ... ha .. 1111! onh joi111·d forTt•..., \\ ith 1111· mine 0\\11t·r .... l1t• j ... i11 appart'Jll <.1μ-n·1·111t·11t \\ ith l\\n otl11·r μ-t•11tl(·1111·11 narni·h th1· \li·--r-. lli"'" a11d 'I all'- '' ho al ... o arP ,·on ... icl1·n·d in :-.onw quar· lt'r' to l>1· i11 oppo,iL io11 10 T\' A. 1'1·rha1"' l.1°\\ i- f1·1·I- that 1111' ( \1 \\ 11111rlcl adualh ill' lwtt1·1 ahl1· to harl!ai11 "ith pri,at1· i11d11,1n tha11 "ith Lhl' ;!O' " l'f111l1('111. If ... o. lw j..., 1101 alo111· in a Jnr::r•· a11cl ;rrn11 inμ- fi..lcl of labor l1·ad1•r, hoil• al horn1· a11d abroad. 11 ho a1'1' lt·:1111i11•1 al lhr l'\fH'lht' of tht·ir 1111io11 .... and 1111io11 lllt'lllill'r- thal ii is r:n •·a-ii'!' lo d1·•11 "iLh pri\al1• ind11•ln 11 hid1. afll'r :di. i- •Lill rompl'iili\l'. ratlll'r 1l1an "ilh '1 !!O\t·n111w11t 1·11kq1ri ... 1" Tod ... n- <·oal llli.I\ 111· i11 --1·rio11 ... tro11lilr· l'h1 lro11!.l1·, lllil\ rn11tin111· lo n111ltiph hut 1111· lo111,·r.:11111t• 011tlook j.., 110011. • "· r . - •. I Loof..111;.r far 11110 tlw f11111n· of ... t•\t'1•1 d1-..aclt·-. rrll'I 1·,1wrl• •1·1·111 lo r1·1·I th•11 c·oal prod1wt io11 lllil\ ''"'" do11hl1" 111 hi, '''"'11L1-fir1h war. Joh11 J, . l.t'l1 i< roma1u·1· 11 ilh till' !'oal op!'ralo1.. . hi- :q1pan·11I -hifl i11 philosopln 10 '1 111or1· "011 ... t·n al i\ 1· \it·\\. and thl' cr~1 · ha11l1·d pn-ition of tilt' l'oal i11cl11str)' 111 μ-1·rn·ral. mak1· 1,,.,, i ... llw lio11 in a nr'' JH«.1<·1·.:1hlt• ki111!dom. The Pr !T. By DA One of lro,·er ial tariffs. The slo Ull llllU:-,UC the world. ~a.li?ns, \ r1v1ng <'• flow ratht froni us.' The >lo lo lo11(•r forei~n fl 'old lo m f A nati< or 1951 federal g J!olicy of ly lo the LN's '" "-anwntal '•tlt·s of th " houl cl First, say Hy(' 0~· leh, For •led Stott ~ Arl's F< tJio-.1 ... 1im. Lt'"i­,. \11· {union c thnn o li11' 111 hi- 1 par I .t •\\ i~ 1:-- . 11·11 1- \it•\\'."'• ' 11ith par<'lll IH'll alt'" q11ar· T\' .\. l \I \\ 1qzni11 t• :tO'" l Jar~" _ both n11in~ 1111 ioll ) ""'" ' I all. 1ith ,, 0111•" ultiph 1t()041. t~t · r•il ·I th•11 h11 J,. rut or~· 10 " (' t•fll" tr)' i•• a J1t''1 The Pros and Cons td !TARIFFS By DAN SMOOT One of the mo•t complicated and con· lrowr,ial prohll'ms of today is that of tariffs. The ,,Jogan, "trade, nol aid," capturl's an unu,ual amount of allention all O\ C'r the .world. Thl' ,,logan means that foreign ~a.ti?ns, which for years have been re· ·r1v1ng eC'onomic hl•lp from us, would ;1ow rather ha c trade 11 ith us than aid rorn us.1 rT he slogan is an appeal lo America l?\\('r or abolish all tariffs so that 0 re1gn products C'an more readily he ' 01d to us lwre in the lfnitcd Stall's. r A national high Sl'hool dchal(' topic r°r 1951 "as the proposition that our edcral go\crnmcnt should initiate a j'01icy of free tradl' "ith nations fril'nd­y lo the nilcd Stales. I Ll't\ t''<lminP thi, M1hjt'<'I on a fun­'. anwntal 11·\l·I that is. lo discuss both '1 '~~,, of tht' bald qu1•,,tion: hould America abolish all tariffs?" * * First, lhe arguments of t hose who say "Y'-'s." • * * * * 1$0bin\ cr: the end of World War If, Amer· C>.ports ha\c C:\!'t'edcd imports h, j 0 ut fi,c billion dollars a year. We 1 1 a1e been able lo maintain this un· ,'.al~r1<·e by furrrwling American tai.pay· ,.:, rnon<'y into foreign treasuries lo abl,, them to pay for our goods. Our foreign aid policy is based on the realization that our friends in Europe bore the brunt of a devastating war and that our help is essential if lh<'y arc lo get on their £eel and restore production and a stable economy. But our foreign a id investments arc more than mere chari ty. As our friends in Europe become more produ<'tive and self-sustaining, they become more cffi­l; cnl all ies in our system of collective s1•rurity against possihlc aggrc sion - and they become better customer for u .' Prosperous European allie will pro­vide markets which American business and American farmers need now, and may well need even more in the future.' ow, after having pent bi ll ions of dollars and years of effort to build up the l'<'Onomies of our allies, 11e are jl'opardizing our own inl'estment by tariffs and other trade r<'slri<'lions which prc1·rnl our friends from selling us their produrts. And we scream if they tracle 11 ilh Communist nations. ObYiously. they must trade with some· one. If th<'y cannot trade with us, they mm;l citll('r turn th<'ir trade elsC'whcrc or permit their ne11 ly re\ i' eel indu,1 ri<•,.; to di<'. We shall thu lo e our gigantic im cslml'nts in European cc·onomic Tl'· <'O\ <'ry and in the economic dc1 rlop· llll'nt of many other areas of the 11 orld.' If we stan c our a ll ies, W<' shall only ,;tan P our-.·l\f's in the long run he· """"' we arc a ll clrpendPnl on <'aeh other. Thal is the blunt hut accurate 11 ay to describe the e<'onomic condition of the free 11·orlc1 todav. \t present. Britain a;1d our other al­lil's gel Amcri<'an dollars only on con· dition that they spend on armaments mort' than thl'y can prop<'rly afford. Our dollars arc linkt'd to their suh­"' Pn iencc to our poli('y in ~ustaining thC' rnld war. This rnld war is ruining 1-:nropean nations hy forcing thl'm lo 'J!<'nd on arma1TJents 1a't s111ns 11 hich thl'y 1lt'ecl for u,cful ime,,tmenl and for maintaining thl'ir standard of Ii\ ing.' The indu,trial areas of We tern Europe hal'c dnclop<'d on the assump· lion that they will he able lo sell and aJ,o lo buy in a tolerahly open 11 oriel mark<'t. mainly hy <',!'hanging manufac· lured goods and c·onsunwr goods for foodstuffs and raw mal<' rial> from the f!'sl of the 11orld. The inddinilt' contin­uance of military l''pcndilurcs 11 ill Ill' fatal lo Europe unl1•ss she ran enjoy brisk f orrign l radc. If we do nol permit such trade, we 11 ill make it impossible for Europe lo carry her share of the burden of col­lccti'c d!'fensc. and we will find our· sch es cul off from \ital ra11 matcriab. sources 11 ithoul 11 hid1 our own economy and our 011 n dcfcrl'e system cannot ~llr\'i\'C. COMMUNISTS SEEK TRADE WARS ThP Co1111111111ists haYC always looked for trade wars within the free world. Tlwy ha\c always' icwcd the free world as an economic unit 11 hich they should alll'mpl al all co,.ts to di1 ide. Economic unific·ation is the best foundation for a political union. Look al our 011 n hiotory. The llnit<'cl tal<'' was fir,t formed as a political union of 13 'o"·reign stales. Initially, it 11a' difficult to cstahli,h a firm union 11 hich would protect till' rnricd eco­nomic intcrc>ts of 13 different states. l'ndl'r the Arti<'lc, of Conft•drration, earh so\'ereign state impo>cd its own restrictions and trade harrier'; and trade holh domestic and intcrna-l , . . . . -Wide World Photos Uri it e~. Fore19n Trade Zone in New Orleans, La. Usual custom restrictions are wtthheld except on goods shipped through the zone to the •d States. At right, Brazil nuts being dried in the New Orleans Foreign Trade Zone for future shipment to stores in the U.S. f<\ f'Ts FORUM NEWS, April, 1955 Page 17 tional - fell into chaotic confusion.' Rut in ratifying th!' Constitution. all •tales agreed to impose no burdrn on inter.tale commerce, and we now ha\e the largest free trade area in the world. It would admittedly he much more difficult to establish a frer trade •ystem with the peoples of Europe who belong to ancient and varied races, histories, and ci1ilizations. Rut it is worth a try. The alternati,·e is more Amrriean aid, or reduced e'porls and unemployment, or both.• By aholi"'1ing tariffs we would demon· slrate to the world that we mean "hat we say about "free enterprise." While srreaming about unfair competition from abroad. socialistic industries, and international cartels, American ad1·0· rates of the "protectionist" tariff are, in effect, trying to preserve their own brand of go,ernment protection and non·competition. We simply aren't prac· tiring what we preach. If we would abandon our tariffs, we would greatly •trengthen our own position in urging F:urope to abandon re•trictive practices and tradr policirs.3 ECONOMY WOULD GAIN Our economy, too, would gain from the specialization and comparative ad· 'antage in production to he found all owr the world. If Australia can produce wool more efficiently than we can, fine. American 11 ool producers can either increase their efficiency or turn their energies to something they can do heller than the Au>lralians producing dishwashers, for exampl('. Thrn the consumers - not j usl the produc·ers. but all the people, in America as ''ell as in Australia - can enjoy a greater abundance and lower pric·es of both wool and dish· washers. Protective tariffs are an essential feature of the economics of scarcity. They represent l.be same economic think· ing of the "{cw Dealers who •laughterrd pigs in order to protect the pig market. l'nder a tariff svstem, production rather than consumption becomes tlw objective of indt1>lry and commerre; and the in· terest of ilw consumer is sacrificed to that of the producer. In effect, tariffs are an cxpensiw form of prier control. You cannot logically dt'fcnd tariffs and oppo e gov· ernment controls of prices and wages and other violations of the free·market principle.' On!' of the worst evils of tariffs is that tlwy furnish a rationale - a justi· fication for a government·controlled econom1·. Tlwy .a re, in fact, the original spring· hoard for the argum!'nls of go1ern· m('ntal c·onlrollrrs and planner . Free tradP is a feature of the eC'O· nomic-s of ahuncla11<·<'. in \\hich goods arc produced to he used. Free trade -en rs the interest of the consumers rather than the interest of special cco· 11omic :rroups.!\ Free trade promot<'s prosperity in the -Wide World Pkotos At top left, stevedores sort bales of sheet rubber which arrived in New York from Malaya under exchange arrangements of the Marshall Plan. At right, thousands and thou · sands of tons of coal a re shipped annually from the United States to Europe, the Far East, and South America. Lower, warehousernan checks a shipment of a million pounds of potatoes imported from C:anodo, Page 1 only way possihle - abundant produc· tion of goods.' High prices and high wages do not spell out prosperity. A man, or a family. or a 11at ion is prosperous materially when it has all the material goods it nePds. Fn•c trade promotes the highest pos· siblc production by permitting each re· gion of the earth to specialize in pro· clucing those things hrst suited to it• dimale, its ~oil. its resources, or the >J)('Cial skills of its people. The infant·industry theory always crops up in arg11menls for tariffs - thr th<'ory that 11ew industries cannot corn· pete, while i11 their infancy, "ith estab· lished foreign industrie>. . If this theory had any validity, ti should be applied domestically as well as internationally. This, of course, would require the go\('rnmcnt to subsidize every 11ew business venture until some· one de ·idc that it is old enough and 1>trong enough to stand on its own feel and meet competition. Tariff aclrnc-alPs fear that competition with "cheap" foreign labor will drive clown America11 Iii ing standards. 'f~c fart is, !towner, that foreign labor 15 cxp!'nsi1e. rather than "cheap," becau~e it is murh less productive than Amert· can labor.6 Thr llnitecl Stal<'s, with the highrol wage ~;cal1•s, has the "or Id's loweot pro· du!"lion rosts. It is ahsurd to fear thnl our great industries would be put out of business hy !'Ompetltion with forei~11 inclu::>lries 1d1i<'h are far behind ours JJI equipmc·11t, efficiency, and capacity for \olume output. EASY ACCESS TO MARKETS The Anwri<"an produ<"er has the add_i· tional adrnnlap;c• of "''"Y acces. to )JI' markets, "hil1· fon•ign·produ!'!'cl good' must include tl1r cost of tran,portatioJI half.way aro1111cl the world. The comJH'lition with foreign go~d,. instead of destroying our own industn~'· sho11ld spur th<•m to <'OSt·rutting and tW !'reased efficiPnc·y, which means lowrr pri!'es to tll(• co11s11mrr, which mrttJI~ morr <·011sum<•r pur!'hasing, which means greal<'r profits to the producer. Amerif'an tariffs ar<" ao outmoded '1' isolntio11ism.' D11ri11g the dq1ression of thP 19:;0"· ma1~y goH·.rnnwn_h tried to fin? shcltl; l)('htnd rnrio11s kinds of protcctn·e tra< I1 arn.e rs sett.i ng up quotas an d t r.·1 ck·t n·•tric·tions in 'ain dforts to protr• tlwir "" 11 inclustri<'s and achieve 1in· tional self.sufficiency. Their effor.1' failed. and the free world today is 111 diffintlty due in part to these di•tor· lions of tl_1r normal flow _of t_raclr. ·iii Close lies c·an he marnta1n!'d 111 .. othPr countries onh if th<" cco11o_n1r tics are strong and mutually bC'ncfirt\1 If \\C 1rnulcl aholi,h tariffs.\\(' 110 11 ~ IH'ndit as indi, id11al consumers fro dwapcr prkPs on thi11p-s we buy. FACTS FOHUM XEWS, April, J9S' By P would r abroad We ci we rdu gi1ing r while r kind frc to imp< li,ing 1>t ft'~OllfC'(' Accor ran mar fi1e or foreiμn would 11 •·an peo1 would b fit, and tnrans a If WC abandon only a I· clc•morali hr self., HI Lower a greate1 . lltnrr n 'lanclarcl Free t lion 10 clo"'" 't r in the I fl('{'('S"'llf) ly ancl 'lri<"tions " μ-re. StatPs <'< "t'l an P' 11 0Uid !H nf otlwr lnoki11g , O\\n citiz At the fi ~:•rty 1 o,, ~ "'"tries , , ~'P i vaa ra ~~ •te Gen Oberts a produc· , do nol l family. atcrially goods it ICSl pos· each re· in pro· d to its or the always s - the 1ot coin· b estab· idity, il as well e, would ubsidite ii soine· 1gh and own feel petition Jl drire ds. The labor is becau'e Ameri· highe>1 e;;t prD" ~ar thn1 put out forei~Jl ours in city for lC addi· to hi' I "0011· )r~ttiofl good'· lustrieS· and in- 3 Jo'frr mri111~ i rncnrtS By pnrehasinf! for<'ign produrb. Wt' would <'rt'al<' prospC'rous dollar markl'ls abroad for thr thin gs "<' prodtH't'. We C"Unnol fort'\!'r continut• lo si·ll. if 11r rd use lo huy; nor ran wr <'Onlinur gh·ing a"ay Lhr products of this nation 11.hilr r!'fusing lo a<Trpl paym<'nl in kind from abroad. This will sent• only lo impO\ nish our proplc, lower our living standards, and deplete our natural fC'sourcrs. According lo lle1iry Ford, tlw Anwri­"? n mark<•l rnuld e:1'ily absorb another ftve or si' billion dollars worth of forrif!n f!OOds !'ach year \\ hid1 \\ould nl('an mon• ;:oods for the nwri­i ·an peopl<'. Busint»•s would benefit, lahor Would b!'rwfil, agri!'ulturr would b<'nt'­fit, and thr general consumer - that rnrans all of us - would ll('ncfit.2 If we permitted free tradr. \\!' could abandon our foreign aid, 1d1irh is not on ly a hrm y burden for us hut is also drmoralizinf! lo nations whi!'h want to br self-supporting. HIGHER LIVING STANDARD Lowrr la\Ps al home, togrllll'r with a l(n•aJrr ahundanrr of tariff.free <'On· •umrr l(Oods, would mran a hil(hrr •landard of Iii ing. . Fret• trade offers us a simple solu­tion to many of thr world's ills. IL ?or,n't requi~c endless hours of ckhal<' 111 Lil!' l 'n ilrd 1ations. IL isn't <'H'n 11<'<'t•s,ary for all nations lo agree joint· ly and simultaneously to remo1·c re· '-lri<'tion~. A l(rcal nation such as th<' United 'latl's eould safrly do it and thrrPby '''l an P\ample for olhrrs to follow. It '10Uld not hr nwddling in thP affairs ;•f ~tlwr nations; il wou ld lw nwr<'h Ool,,1nl! aftt•r Jit(• br,l inlt'rt•,ls of our 011 n citiz!'l1s. And instead of being re- A. -Wide World Photo ~•o ~the first annual New York Import Show, r:.0,/ Y. 10,000 items from at least twenty ~or "!ries were displayed. Above, Erro A. s ~1!t'Voa ra , comme rcial secretory to the Con­~• b e General of Finland, shows Miss Ann erts a lion target rifle made in Finland. F' ACT,• FORCM .\'EWS, April, J95J -Wide World Photo British cars reach U.S. market. ~rntful. othpr nalions would be gratrful. * * * T hal was one side of the questi on. Here, on the other hand, are argu­ments of some who do not t hink that America should a bolish all tariffs . * • * * • WE cannot intelligently dis!'m•s the "trad<', not aid" subject without some meaningful comprehension of our aid programs. Ju round figur<'s, we have given away to foreign govcrnmrnts approximately on!' hundrrd bi llion dollars since 19 10." That sum of money would have built trn million 10,000-homes in the United Stal!'s - a home for one out of ewry four American familiC's. Or it would hu\e bought a new car for c1ery family in nwrica. Or it could ha1·e built fine churdws, school huildings, and recrea­tional -educational facilitit•s in e1rry city, C'\ t·ry to1111, el'ery 'i ll age ( c1·rry com­munity) in the nation - if it had bC'en left in th<' hands of the Americans who rarnccl il, to us<' as they saw fit. INEXHAUSTIBLE SOURCE? This is the rC'ality of our forl'ign aid JHograms. Since the hcginning of the 1·11 D!'al, many Anwricans ha1c come Jo lool.. upon th!' fcdcral go1 crnmenl a;; an int•\hau,Lihle 'ou1Tt' of monry. >\dually, of course, t'1 cry dollar which our go\('rtHlH'nl ha:.;, ~pends, waslc:s, or gi1t•s a11ay rrprl':>!'lll8 >;O much produc· tion (lahor and effort) on the part of thc Amrriean people.0 Americans by \\'O rkin~, SU\ ing, in- 1enli11g, i111e,ting - produce wealth. Our govcrnmrnt seizes that WC'alth - lakPs iL away from thrm by force of law; takes iL out of thci r pay checks hdorc they get a chance to sc it - and then gi1t• it a11ay lo foreign gov· ernmenls. Th<' e'<'use for all of this is that it 'onwhow, in a roundabout way. h~lp s America.0 One of the by-products of this 'lrange acti1·ity is the so·called unhalanced trade situation. Thi situation, in turn, ha• tTC'alrd a new hue and cry for America to aholish her tariffs so that foreign products can he sold here more easily. For years the \ olunw of American goods going abroad has been much grC'ater than the 1 olumi- of forpign goods coming into Anwrica. The 1111halanec hao been caused, howeH'r, not by our tar­iffs but hy our foreign aid.8 In one typical year - 1951 - on "hich some offieial l 'ni tPd Stalt•s gm. t·rnmenl fif!ure are ca:sily arnilablc, we -enl abroad American produC'ls totaling 2.5 billion more than lhC' Iola! value of all foreif!n f!OOds hrouirht inlo th<' l 'nitrd tatrs. Th<' , alur of the Amrri­can goods that 11e ga1<' UIHI) ahroad that year. ho11e1er. was :ti) hillion.' Analyze thc,e fi gures, and you will di•co1cr that in Olll' typil'al \!'ar, the value of all foreign·madc goods 1d1ich we Amrricans houf!hl 11as gg20 million grralcr than the 'alue of all American f!OOds actually sold ahroad. 1 n ol lwr worik \ rnPri1·a is :uul al- 1rnys has bren a hellrr cuslonwr for the rt'sl of the 11orld than tlw n'sl of the "oriel is for ti-. 10 l·'orei{!n nations liki• En gland, \\ hich complain that \IC arc• hnrtin" them and dri' ing them into tlw arrns ,~f JIH' Com­m1111i> ts hrcause 11r ha1(' high tariffs and rdust• to huy lh!'ir manuf:wtured prod­Ul'ls, an• ·imply nol IPlli1w the truth . Th<' trulh is that thpy ha1 ( hi•dwr tar­iffs Uf!ainsl our go1ids than ~1c hm!' a~ainst theirs. We actually hur more of tlwir goons lhan they huy o( ours.10 Our mrragc tariff rall' 011 all im­po~ ts i · only a little 01er 5 per cent - 11 lnf'h makt's us tlw lowest-tariff major trading nation on earlh,11 Page 19 i-hinp; American tariffs. The reason is -imp I!': Lh!') are hig enough to go abroad and huild plants in the l~w· warre an•as of the world. Our forc r ~n aid" program:; ha' e helped to subsidize LhPir foreign markets. They now wa r~ I to reap a double har\'c t in the Amen· can mark!'L hy bringing in, tariff free, LhPir own £orcig11-madc producls.12 • The smallrr industrirs, the lilllc busr· ncb'man. 1hr laborer, and the farmer in i\merirn arr the ones who wi ll suffer hy the aholilion of tariffs. American·made planes in French Naval Air Force. Con,idrr a EuropPan manufactu:cr who has a plant built for him w~Lh Am!'riran funcb and equipped with \n11·rirnn machinN). I le pays his cm· plO)'!'t's l\\enly-fiH· cents an hour. Jl1> ,\ nwrican c·om1wtitor. \\ho has the sao~r ~ind of plant and equipmrnl, pays h r_~ <'mploy1·1·s l110 dollars an hour, in addr· tion to paying ta,rs "hich go to suh· ,idizt' the European manufacturer. If we let the proclurts of that European f~c· Lory com!' into the llnilecl Stairs tanff· f rre, the American plant is obvious!)' going lo he so undrrsold in its 011 11 market that it will go out of busines' and all of those Americans will be un­!' mployed.11 The British ("ho roined th· ··trade. not aid'' slorran) ha\ e an a\!'rage tariff \\all t" icr a: high a' ours - in addi­tion to outright !'mhargoes and quotas on foreign good, "hich we don't have at all." The French - 11ho aloo claim they 1rnuld rather han· trade with us than aid from us - ha\e even higher tariffs than the Briti<oh. In fact. th<" Fr!'n!'h for many years le\ied high import duli!•s on the goons that we were givinf?: them. SLOGAN OF SWINDLE "Trade. not aid"' hao b!'comc the slo· gan of a propo-ed giga11ti · international swindle against the Amrriran pt·ople. All o,·cr the contirwnt of Europe. American lax money hao built great factories. We harn supplied them 11 ith American equipment and power ma· chinery. We ha,e taught them Ameriran production techniques. In our offshore proruremenl program. W!' ha\!' !''I'll rri\en thrm profitahl!'. guaranlerd long· rerm order' Lo g!'l thl'm 'tart!•d." For c~ample. let us say that one ~f our forei"n alli!'' does not ha\e an arr force stro~1" enot;gh for its 011 n dcfrnse. \Ir. Achcs~1 or \Ir. Dulles or '.\Ir. Stas· 'en or somebody fli<•s 0\ er thrrc to talk to them ahoul it. They haH• innumerable cfo,ed-door. high-le'el confcrencrs." Whrn the American rrpresentati'e finally come' home, our gowrnmenl proudly announct's another great Ameri· ran diplomalir triumph: our foreign ally has conoenled to strPngtlwn its 0\\11 air forrr for its own protection. al our ex· pen<e. To gel the thing slartl"d. we build a great airrraft plant in their country gi'e it to them. \'\'c equip it with the latrsl and h<",l Amnic·an mad1inc·n._ and teach thrm the be,t Amrrican p;oduc· Lion method,. Wr then plar!' orders with that plant for the typ<· and quantity of military aircraft which our foreign ally has consented lo ac!'!'pl as a gift. When the planes an· produ!'c·d. they arc de­Ii, ered to our ally. and LhP hill is sent to u .1 :? That is our offshon• procurement pro· er ram '" But Llw -tory do!'s not encl there. The So, i!'l;; hrgin to complain. They ,ay they are a p!·ace-Jo, ing people, and it hurls thrir fcdings lo sec our foreign allies huilcling up their air forces. Now our allir , for the mo t part, would far ralh!'r pleasr Russia than cooperate with u,. Consequenll). they begin lo cul back on the production of military aircraft and, with the plant we ham gi\'en them, -larl producing cj, ilian aircraft. But "hen th!')' produce c·i"ilian aircraft they mu,t sell it lo somconr. And America, of course. is the richest market in the world. \1'hat Lil(• American businessman is heing a'kt-d Lo do is fantastic. He is being asked to continue lo pay tJ1c highe,l wages in the world because neithrr the law nor the unions will per· mil him lo lower wage lo meet foreign compdilion; he must carry a crushing ft'deral ta\ load, approximately one· third of which is drained off lo subsi· dizc foreign industries; and then he is e\pected to compete in a free market "ith his foreign competitor whom he is compdled to subsidizc.13 \Iany of America\ giant ma s procluc· Lion firms like the Ford :'lfotor Com· pany arc. of course. in fa, or of ahol- USED AS POLITICAL WEAPON The idl"al of world-11 ide f rec trade i> heauliful a l"topian ideal for a _Dt0j pian world. But as long as the natJon~ economy of ev!·ry nation on ear'.h 1j under politic-al control, internatJond trade simply rannol be frcr. Tt is use ' by govcrnmcn ls, as a political wcapori wi th out. r!'gard lo C'Conomic law ... d Consrder a rerenl, wcl l-publrcrzc !'asc: Preside11l Ei,enhowcr's incrcasin~ the tariff on foreign watches by sorne 50 per C<"nl in 1951. The American wat!'hmaking indu>lf) was being clPslroyc•d, nol by fair con1· petition from for!'ign producers, but h) an international cartrl. under the coll" lro~ of ~Ort'igr~ goH•rrunrnls, with ho"j,~ offrcrs rn , 111lzerland where watr making, the prin<"ipal national industr)'j i- und!'r politirnl <"011Lrol. enjoying Icg3 -Wide World ptiot: This photo taken in 1944 shows train loaded with weapons, tanks--all made in Arneri'0 war plants--enroute to the Russians under lend-lease. r ACTS FORL'M :\E\\'S, April, JPS Womt •tnd politic ''Ill lo c·orr l1usi11ps-;. ll \\H". St \rn<·ri<"an rif \ nwri<-. Bi 195: ~alc·hc•, b lllad!-. '• FO eason is lo go he low· forril!n ubsidize 1w want Amcri· iff free, 5 .1 2 lie busi· inner in I suffer [aclurrr m with ·d with his rJll· rnr. Hi' he saJllr iays hi.' in add1· lo suh· •r. If wr ~an fac· s tariff· bviously its 011 11 hus inr'' be un-lN track i> . a Uto· nationnl ~ arlh js national is used· weapon blicizrd ·rea ~ in ~ +y son1f' ndu>lr) ir con1· hut Ii~ he cow h ]JoJllC watch· 1dustr)'j ng k gn ·ii, J,Q5 -Wide World Photo Women watchmakers at Elgin, Ill. and politica l farnriti'ln . This ca rtel was ~lit .lo !'O rn pr for it , t:>Jf the \\atd11naking 111 ' 111!'"· In ordPr to achi c1c thi s end, It \\ as s(• ll ing- s\\ i~s \\ atchC's in the \1111•ri !'an ma rkPt al prices helow those <if \nwrica 11 produ!'rrs." B) l 95:l. 69.8 per crnl of all wrist •atdw, hPing sold here were foreign tnade." CONSUMER BENEFIT TEMPORARY Th<' AmPri can consumer was tern· 110.rarily hPrwfiting from a rr lati1 cly low / 1r1c·p on watdws. Th!' payoff lo the in· h·rn ati orwl !'a rl PI wa' lo come when it ad a monopoh . ThPn the American c·oris urncr would ha1 e s uffered from high ~ald1. pricPs far more than he
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