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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 045. 1955-04. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 18, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1234.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1955-04). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 045. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1234

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955 - File 045, 1955-04, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 18, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1259/show/1234.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Contributor
  • Evans, Medford
Publisher Facts Forum
Date April 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 045
Transcript IN BEHALF OF OPPENHEIMER (Continued from Page 9) fore, we had very close relations because I was lhe leader of one of the divisions, one I believe of seven divisions. We met almost daily, certainly al leasl once a week. In f.ies Alamos again I wanl to sav now difficult a job il was anil il seems l{| mi' that no enterprise quite as hard M ihis had ever been attempted before. I believe thai Oppenheimer had absolutely unique qualifications for this job '""I thai the success is due mostly to "im ami mostly lo his leadership in the project. 9- What wile' some of ihe factors 4al made it sei difficult? A. There were many. One was in the technical work itself. Q. I simple wauled lo indicate the nature of lite difficulty. A. Il was lhal all the time new difficulties came up in different connections, new technical difficulties which had lo lie solved. Q. Apart front technical difficulties. A. Apart from thai, one great ilif- '"iiliy wets lhal scientists arc greal in- ■uvidualists, anil many uf lhe scientists 'here had very different itle-eis how lo proceed. We needed a unifying force j""! this unification could only he done I ''>' a man who really understood everything and wets recognized by everybody • he '" superior in judgment and superior in L'hly knowledge to eill of us. This was our director. Il was also a mailer eif char- a,'tcr. of devotion lo lite job. of the W|N to succeed, li weis ei matter of judgment of selecting the right one among "•any differenl approaches, ll weis a "'■'tier of keeping people satisfied thai ney had a part in the laboratory, ami U[' all ha,I the- feeling lhal we had a part "' the running of tlie laboratory, ami "'.'l eit tl,,. same time' eil the head of the "boratory somebody who understood ""'ti' than we did. . V. Turning to another subject, Dr. "'hi', what wa- the- attitude of Dr. Tpeiihi'inii'i with respect to the' retirements of security ai I.os Alamos? v II. was very security-minded eom- '''"'■'l lo practically all lhe scicntisls. lie '"'"I'iial a position very much inter- '"''tliale between lhe Ainu anil lhe "'"lists. The scientists generally were "'''' lo free discussion, anil flee elis- l"ss">n nf course was allowed in the '^oratory completely, and litis wets one 'he reasons for pulling it al lhe re- °'" place. However, many uf us eliil "' see sometimes lhe need for Ih . '"'tues. nf 111(. requirements; and Dr. iriu ._ ... requirements; anel epenheimer was. I ihink. considerably rn, ready to see- this need and to en- security rules. <• I.el me ask \ou. Dr. Bethe, if yon can speak of il. whal views diel the scientists have about lhe moral or humane problems that many people have discerned in the alomie bomb program at I.os Alamos? A. I am unhappy lo admit that (luring lhe war al leasl. I did not pay much attention lo this. We had a job lo do and a very hard one. The first thing we wanted lo do was to gel the job done. It seemed lo us mosl important to contribute lo victory in ihe way we could. Only when our labors were finally completed when lhe bomb dropped on Japan - only then or a little bit before then maybe diel we start thinking aboul the moral implications. 0. Whal did you ihink about that or what did the scientists generally think eileeuil il? A. There was a general belief that ill is was a tremendous weapon lhal we had brought into the world and lhal we mighl have been responsible for incredible destruction in lite future, thai we had tu do whatever we could to tell people', especially the people of the I nited Stales, whal an atomic bomb meant, and thai we should try as much as possible lo urge an international agreemenl on atomic weapons in order lo eliminate them as weapons from war if this could hi' agreed to by all the major nalions. Q. I would like to come' back lo lhat subject, Dr. Bethe, bul firsl lei me ask you whether you were' familiar al the lime—lhal is. at lhe close of lhe war with the problems that were posed I tin so-called May-Johnson bill for mestic control of atomic energy? A. I wets try do ll Wa yes. that bill lamos, anil if itbjeii of interest and discussion al Los Ale so. in whal terms? A. It was tn ei considerable extent, although nut as much as some other laboratories nf lln- Manhattan District. Mosl uf the scientists al I.us .Mamos were opposed to lhe May-Johnson bill. Q. Why? A. li perpetuated Army control, which we had fell was rather irksome', and work weis perhaps not conducive lo lhe best results in research dining peacetime, li included ;t loi of very severe eiml unprecedented stipulations as lo punishments for almost any move ;i siii-ntisl might make, finally, il seemed to ns lhat it made it very much harder than necessary to achieve international control, which seemed to us the most important aim. (,). Do you know what position Dr. Oppenheimer took on this subject? A. Yes, Dr. Oppenheimer supported ^CTS FORUM NEWS, April, 1955 —Wide World Photo Dr. Hans Bethe lhe May-Johnson bill, and he wets very much attacked for this by some of his colleagues. I personally did not feel very strongly, by the way. He supported the May-Johnson hill because he thought thai this was lhe only way lo preserve the laboratories as running units to continue thc work for lhe lime being. rather than to have an interim during which the laboratories might disintegrate. O. Dr. Bethe, I would like lo return now lo ihis subject of international control of atomic energy which you mentioned. Did you observe as lime went on lhal is. from lhe close of lhe war during lhe next couple of years, any change in attitudes on the' pari of scicntisls and on the pari of Dr. Oppenheimer on this subject ? A. Yes. definitely so. Q. Would mi" spe'eik of lhal;' A. Dr. Oppenheimer was one of the members of the' Lilienthal board which worked mil ihe American plan for international control. Q. What date was lhat? A. Thai was in lhe spring of 1916 I can'l put il very much closer—in the earl) spring of 1916. Then he was an advisor to Mr. Hariieh who weis the American representative lo lite United Nations. At eill these limes he pul a great effort into working out a plan which would give ihis country some measure nf security from fulure atomic war. However, the actual negotiations started in lite United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, ami it was sunn ei idi'itl— Q. Thai would still be in 1916? A. Thai was still in 1916. ll started in June, 19 1(e. I think, ll was soon evident, at least lo Dr. Oppenheimer, thai the Russian atiituele' was very inflexible. Q. How do you know lhat. Dr. Bethe? ll was soon evident, you say? Page 43
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