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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 2, February 1955 - File 069. 1955-02. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. February 21, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1189/show/1188.

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Facts Forum. (1955-02). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 2, February 1955 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1189/show/1188

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Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 2, February 1955 - File 069, 1955-02, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed February 21, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1189/show/1188.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 2, February 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Contributor
  • Evans, Medford
Publisher Facts Forum
Date February 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript "Liberty of speech inviteth and pro­t• oketh liberty to be used again and so bringeth much lo man's knowledge." -FR \"\CIS B \CO.'i "Communism is merely the imposi­tion of socialism all at once by t•io-lence." HERBERT HOOVER, The hallenge lo Liberty, ( cribner's ons, 1934). "The penalty that people pay for not being intere ted in politics is to be gov­erned by people u·orse than themselves." PLATO "It is an axiom in political science that unless a people are educated and enlightened it is idle to expect the con­tinuance of civil liberty or the capacity for self got·emment." -Texas Declaration of Independence "l n question of power, let 110 more be said of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution." T11 O\! \S J EFF'ERSON "/ am a man of peace. Cod knows how I loi·e peace. But I hope I shall never be such a coward as lo mistake oppression for peace." Ko Tn The \few Dictionary of Thoughts, 190.). " uch statements a the following we hear every day, and they reveal total in· comprehension of the nature of commu­nism: 'We must eliminate social abuses so that communism may not flourish." Cancer was never cured by improring the general health." "People ulw are interrst<'d in u-hat Communists do, but not in their phil­osophy, are like dairy farmers uho are interested in milk but lune no in'Prest in co1cs." On. FRED .. CHW\RZ • • * • Person submitting quotation "hi ch are used in this column will receive one­year subscriptions to Facts Forum News. If already a sub cribcr, the contributor may designate another person to whom the award sub cription will be ent, or he may wi h to extend his present ub­• cription. Be sure to list the authors and sources of all quotations. FACTS FORUM NEWS Vol. 4 FEBRUARY, 1955 No OCfieial publication of Facts Forum, lnc., 1 02 Main St., Dalla11 I, Texas. Published mot' in the intRrt'11ts or Facts Forum participant& and others concerned with dispelling P' apathy. Any article contained in Facts Forum News may be /rQ('!y reproduced. class mailing privi!PgC'8 authorized nt Dallas, Texas. Print('{! in U.S.A. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Roi>E>rt H. Dedman, Prl'!'Jident; John L. Dale, Vice Presi Warren A. Gilbert, Jr., Secretary; Joe Nash. Treasurer; Mre. E. P. Lamberth, Mrt· McCrary, Robert B. Gossett. ADVISORY BOARD: Major B. A. Hardey, Chairman: Dr. Arthur A. Smith, Lio Skinner, David P. Strickler. Harry E. Rogi<>r, William N. Blanton, Mn. H. L. Hunt. H. N. Rutu1ell, Jr .. Mrs. Wallace Savage, W. G. Vollmer, Doak WalkC'r, E. E. McQu Gov<'rnor Allan Shivers, General All>E>rt C. Wedemeyn, G1·neral Robert E. Wood, H• McNider, John Wayne. COMMENTATOR: Dan Smoot. EDITOR: Medford Evans. BUSINESS MANAGER: 0. M. Spence. Ir you wish to make a contribution to Fnl'ts Forum, nddr('Rg Joe Nash, Treasurer, f Forum, Dallas 1, Texas. Such contributions carry n t..nx-d<-<luctible status. FACTS FORUM is a nationwide• public E'ducational Hntur<' dedicated to arousintr interest in important current events and stimulating individual participation in the sh• or public policy. Do lntern1 "atom Facts Forum is nonprolit and nonpartisan, Rupporting no J>Olitical candidate or ~ ~~ft:11F~j~~:s b~Jl~~:~;s t~!f i~~!g~~ r~~h~r~edn\h~o~JiJ;~tfo"ne c;/e~eo~~e~r;;~o;~~r~ U 8Clvee to learn all th<' facts and come to their own conclusions. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $1 for six months, $2 for on<' Y<'or, $5 for three years. l'!~~~~ f [Tt ~i~~~: N 5Ew1s f 1 :ndd~reC:" n~~r~~~\o8F ACPr~n~e8R0UM mN!~Ws.'ag~P::t" CA, Dallas I, Texas. Plf'nse allow three we<'ks for change-over. In let's that ment ATO\!S FOR PEACE? £POCH \L TT \CK O.'i C.\PIT \LI \! i\1JST\KE I'\ OCI \LI T THEOR\ FEDER \L Arn TO EDUC . .\TIO"\' EGllEG \TIO:\ 1-; PUBLIC CHOOL RL' I \:\S II \TE CO\I\!UNISTS lIO\lE OF J[ IPPY !IEROES ARE O\IM NJ TS T\Gl:>G \ CoMEB\CK 1-; IIou.nvooD? Tn!E 11 \"\'GE E\'ERYTIJl:>G F\CTS FoRL\! hTmv1E11s On. BELL.\ V. DODD FOU'\D\TJO'\S CO.'iTl"\'UE TO BE CO'iTllOVER I \L A \SIVER FOR AMER!C.\ "\'S: \!ORE O\ FEDER \L A1D TO £Due \TIO'\ PROGRES IVE EDUCATION TE.\Cll co~n!UNIS\! I"\' CJJOOLS? C11 n1eER or Co1nrERCE C111EF REVJE11s Ecovo111c PnoBLEMS F\CT FoRu\l Ews ll\s 100,000 Ew HE.\DEnS JIO\\ ABOlT Z \llOL BIV '011? Co:\TE T RuLE LETTEll TO EDITORS lI.\LF·'t E\R LETTEJl CO'\TE T W1\'\EHS R \DIO \'ill T CllEDULE )\'\ \RY POLL RE LT Pou. QrE TIO\S (FEBRL \ll\) Pou. QLE TIO'\ W1\\ER COVER The enterpri e and benefactions of Mr. Morgan included nurnel railways, the nited tales tee! Corporation, the Cathedral of St. J the Divine (upper left), the Metropolitan Museum of Art (upper cen~( and the ·ew York Public Library. All photographs are from Wide~' Photos C\CCfll that of the Cathedral, \\ hich is r rom L nclerwood and l 1n' wood. I.., TJJ at ions the enc f rustrat a• embl laborinl Butt them ~ effort hower. In a General Presider of stat , hi tory' The Eisen ho around Toda, l!nited j rrete ac of atorr Ei<enho1 · Peed1 b The i1 quencc c Posa! is i <implicit JlO<ed. Presid n1c•nded an lnter11 lie sun-g1 ducing" al eontrihut '.10rmal u 1als lo th <·ontribut details, sl c·onvcr. at The for contr lri buted FACTS I :ws NO· '· Published mo• ith dispellin8' J-" reproduced. ~. ale, Vice Preei Lamberth, Mrt· ATOMS FOR PE :\. Smith, Lio ' · H. L. Hunt. r, E. E. McQu E. Wood, H• -Wide World Photo h, Treasurer, 1 I Do you appro\ e of the Eisenho11 er l to arousine .. nternational Atomic Energy Pool or .tion in the sh• atoms.for· peace" plan? • • • rec years. ~MWs.18~~1P::ur 1 ~n the tradition of Facts Forum, 1et s exam ine two 01iposite sides of hat question, taking first the argu­ments of some who say "Yes." - • • • i~ .™E late fall of 1953, the nited thahons General As embly was nearing f e end of a session di tinguished by rustration. The statesmen of the world, r•sembled in the United ations, were EMS eel nurnef I of t. 1 pper cen11 Wide~ 1 and Ifn• aboring in an atmosphere of despair. th But the gloom which had sellled upon f;m and frustrated their dedicated cl Orts was lifted by Dwio-hl D. Eisen· lower. o G In a speech Lo the United alions P en~ra] Assembly on December 8, 1953, resident Eisenhower reached a height h' slate manship never surpassed in the 1 tory of mortal man.1 E· The dramatic impact of President a 1 enhower's speech was in•lanlly felt round the world. l: '.oday, more than a year later, the lllled alion has berrun to take con· crfe te a c li' on lo i. mplem"e nt the promi.s e f'· atoms for pc•ace which President -1<cnho11cr made in that electrifying speech before the lJ General Assembly. The immeasurable long-range conse­quence of Prc•sident Eisenhower's pro· Jl_osal is in sharp conlra•l to the beautiful ' 1mplicity of the plan 11 hich he pro· Posed. Pre,id<•nt Li .. cnho11 er oimply rccom· mc~dcd that the l ' nited 'ations create f ;1 nlcrnational Atomic Energy Agency. I e .sugge>led that all g°' ernmenlo pro· c ucing atomic energy should make joint contributions from their sto kpilcs of '.1 ~rmal uranium and fissionable mater· (i'aO ns [ lo'b th.i s agenc}' · The exa t ratios of I ri ul1ons, procedure• and other ( Clails, should lw worked -~ul in prim le c·onYcrsations bl'l 11 een the great power:;.1 f The U agen('y 0houlcl be n•,ponsiblc l 0 ~b controlling and storing the con· rt uted material , protecting them FACTS FORUM NEWS, February, 1955 Boon or Boner? against seizure by any nation, and de' is· ing methods of allocating them to sen e peaceful pursuits. Experts will he mobil­ized to apply atomic energy to the needs of agriculture, medicine, and other peaceful activities. A special purpose 11 ill be lo provide abundant electrical energy in the power-slanecl areas of the world.1 PLANE OF HOPE Thi was the Eisenhower Atomic Energy Pool propo al which lifted the U General A embly, and with it the world, to a plane of hope and high purpose.1 Before the world, President Eisen· hower pledged the United tales to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma of this age; to find a way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated lo his death, but con­secrated to his life; to guarantee that the world will not be consigned lo the hopeless futility of a belief that two atomic colossi, Russia and the nitecl tales, are doomed malevolently lo eye each other indefinitely across a trem· bling world. The Ei•enho11 er propo,al i' not -Wide World Photo merely an allempl lo reduce or eliminate the use of atomic materials for military purposes. It is not enough to take this awful weapon out of the hands of soldiers. It must be put into the hands of those who will know how lo strip its military casing and adapt it lo the arts of peace.1 If the fearful trend of a tomic mili­tary build-up can be reversed - as the Eisenhower atoms.for-peace plan gives great promise that it can - atomic energy can be de\'eloped into a hoon for the benefit of all mankind.1 If the entire body of the world's cienlists and engineers had adequate amounts of fissionable material with "hi ch to test and de,·elop their ideas, the capability of peaceful power from atomic energy would rapidly be trans­formed into uniwrsal, efficient and economic usage. The Eisenho11 er atom pool proposal 11 ill do just these things, by enabling all the nations presently developing atomic energy Lo pool some of their resources, lo dedicate some of their strength Lo serrn the needs, rather than the fears, of mankind.' The Eisenhower proposal holds out a -Wide World Photos At left, the United Nations General Assembly December 8, 1953, during President Eisenhower's address proposing that an International agency to develop peaceful uses of the atom be created. At right, a close-up of the President as he called upon the world's atomic powers to reverse "the fearful trend" of the atomic arms race. He asked that •n International Atomic Energy Agency be set up under the UN. Page 1 promi,e of 'a't atomic hou11ty to the 1111d~rpri1·ileged regions which ha,·e been mo't •u,c·rptihle to Communi't propa­!! anda. Like the hold \larshall Plan, ;d1ich was con('ei\'cd and carried out under the Truman administration. the Ei-.••nho" er atoms-for-peace plan can work with or without the cooperation of the SoYi<>t l"nion. Like the l\lar>liall Plan hdore it. the atoms-for-pcaC'c plan was offered to the world "·ith a direct and sincere in­' itation to the Scn·iets lo participate. If the So, iC'l l "nion should finall,· refuse to participatl' and turn O\ er fi;sionable material to thl' international pool, the l nited ,tales will go ahead as it ha• already started. and undertake to do the job alone. through l nill'd \'ations chan­nek If the _ 01 iets should decide to C'OOperate. then learning to work with them in this touchy field will further the "ause of world peace.' The Soi iets do not ha' c as much fis­- ionahll' material as we do. Thl'refore. an1 ('Ontrihution that they may make to th(s prop<H•d { \ stockpile would affect their homh manufa('ture more than our c·onlrihution would affect ours. .\meriC'a C'an make substantial con­lrihutions of atomic material lo an inter­national pool without hurling our own -.;lrikin~ po\q•r. PLAN IS FOOLPROOF Hence. this Eisenhower plan is fool­proof. If the Hussian do contribute large quantities of fissionable materials, they largely reduce their ability to pro­duce the articles of war. If they give little or nothing, they con1 ict themseh·es in the court of world opinion. When the atom pool plan was firot suo-gested, the oviets rejected it. The other nations of the world which gener­ously and unanimously accepted the proposal did. nonetheless, express grave doubts that the proposal would e1·er serve its basic purpose of easing inter­national tensions unless the O\'iet Union did participate.2 The oviets apparently rejected the plan primarily because they wanted to use the Unitl'd 'lalions forum as a prop­aganda platform for louting their scheme for intl'rnalional atomic di · armament without international rn· spection to insure compliance. John Foster Dulles, howeYer, stole this propaganda possibility from the 01 iet by saying that he did nol think the con­tro,- ersial arena of the United Nations General Assembly was a proper place for di>cussion between the oviets and us o\·er their participation in the atom pool plan. Mr. Dulles made it quite clear that such a delicate matter as this •hould be discussed in secret negotia­tions. By the latter part of 195l. it became apparent that the negotiations had con- Pair;e 2 - Wide World' Yishinsky and assaciates alternately gay and serious about atoms. Soviet UN d•IS with British Dele<Jate Anthony Nutting, center, and U.S. Delegates C. D. Jackson I top photo) and H. C. Lodge Cleft in lower photo I. siderably softened the attitude of the oYiet Union. The oviets were no longer saying flatly that they would not participate, but were indicating that they might come in if we would permit other nations which to the oviet l'nion meant Red China to partlCI· pate; and if we would put the new atomic pool agl'ncy under the l'N Secur­ity Council. whl're the oviets have a veto. \Ve stood firm against both of these oYiet proposals, however; and, on December i. 195 [., the oYiets made one of the most startling concessions to the C nited tales that they ha,-e ever made in the l.nited "lalions. The1 joined us and all othl'r member; of the l N Gl'neral Assembly in a unanimous endorsl'ment of a resolution approving President Eisenhower's aloms-for-pl'ace plan.• Almost simultaneously "ith this of­ficial U action, the Unill'd talcs gm·e reality and impetus lo the Intl'rnalional Atom Pool plan by making a gift offer of 220 pounds of proC'<'ssC'd uranium.' '\ow, 220 pounds of proce.sl'd uran­ium is no insignifiC'ant amount.' It costs onlv ahoul two million dollay, lo pro­du~ e. hut if used as atomic fuel it could in theory produce in an efficiently i atomic generator about 21/z billion r watt hours of l'lectrical power, o much as is produced by all of the ncs cc Valley Authority's hydroel~ generators in a month. In physical dimensions, 220 po of processed uranium is only about size of a regulation soccer ball. Bui use in isotope research, it is en° to supply dozens of laboratories thr0 out the world. Although this American gift is 1 technically to the International At• Energy Pool, it i carefully hedged 8 "ith safl'guards to pre1 cnt its ~1l When shipml'nls of the mater~J aC'tually made, they will be sent 111 -.nail quantities, protecll'd b)' ~ ml'lal containers, and under esc0' armed L nited tales guards. The1· he consigned, not into the hand' 0 international agC'n y, but directly 1' rrrciving rounlrics.4 Bdore the sh i pmcnls are acl mach-, however, the international 8~ must he set up to administer th~ '' wid!' rc,t•arC'h program for which Aml·rican c·ontrihution i · made. Th!' Fisenhower atoms-for-peace calls not only for the international FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februanl• Im how!' pool, mis~.;j 1 want~ la he I up a '\mer of th wa~ < Stat(' Coun< :-.ur(•st of otl and t1 it. \\ proje( Il er that ,, Agrnc mu"h a~C'n<·i \\ill hi up of ll!'r na it \\ill board the pc 11hid1 lirnefi< means In don flul'ncl pool a more !'iUgma ination By t of the 'PeC'ial to dc•i·e r n lwo <'il't'lrir should imnwdi ing up regions. desert 1 \~ e I fis~iona The ing son. not ho1 f'Our~c, The ~onw se e££icient1Y i 21/z billion 11 power, ot r all 0£ the r's hydrorlr ns, 220 p0' 1 only abo01 ·er ball. Bot 1, it i~ en° ·atories thr0 an gift is 1 ~ational At• ly hedged 8 ;rnl its 1111' e material he sent in cte<l b)' ~ rndrr ri;cof ar<ls. The1· he han<b 01 l directly 10 s are art national o ister the" for which ; made. ;-[or-peace rnational V Febr1wr1i· ing o[ actual fis;;ionahlt· malPriab. but also for the e'change of atomic enrrgy knowledge. In connection with the e,. change-of-information part of the atom pool plan. it is thrilling to notice im· porlant concrete steps that the l'nitcd tales has already taken. • .By _'\lay. 1955. 11 e will b<•gin bringing sc1ent"lS from all oYer the world to study radio isotope techniques al our own Oak Ridge Institute 0£ uclear Study. We are, moreo,·er, selling up reactor training schools for engineers and scientists from other countries.• " MADE IN AMERICA" lmmediatdy after Prrsidenl Eisen· ho11er's initial propo:sal for tht• atom P~ol: America's Atomic Energy Com· m1ss1on. although endorsing the idea. 11 anted to pin a ''\lade in America"' label on the plan. They 11 anted to srl up a~ agency that would he largcl) American-dominated and independent of the Vniled 'ations. This AEC scheme was defeated, fortunatrly, in our own State Deparlmrnl and lational Security Council. Our slalt•smrn realized that tlw '<•rest way lo alienate the participation of other nations in this atom pool plan ~nd to <Teale widr,pn•ad suspicion of it. ~Hts lo parndP it as an American project.• ll rnn>. 11 <' ('an he rra>-onahly sure that 11ht•n thr lntcrnalional Atom Pool Al!rnc·y is scl up, it "ill function Yery murh as Lhr other l 'niLed 1ations a~encies, such as Ul\E~CO, opera le. It 11 ill ha Ye its o" n "O\ernin" body mad" Iu p of reprrsenlali\"e s from "a ll Llw mcm· .>rr nations of the United Nations. '\ncl 11 \\ill no doubt ha\'C on its special !hard of go,crnors reprc;enlaliH» from L c. J>O\\er-stan·cd areas of thr "oriel. ~d11ch .are suppo-.ed to be the >prcial lencf1narirs of the procrram. This !;,clans t_hat ~uch nations _a~ India ancl fl oncs1~ will liaYe an 1mporlanl 111· uence in the operation of tlw atom pool al!<'lH'y. This fa!'l alont' "ill TC" m.o'r from the agency any po"ihle ; 11 gr_na of colonialism or Wrslern clom· 1nat1on. By llw . pring of 1955, lhC' st'icntish o[ l_he world, studying in America',; ~pecial schools. will he learning how J° de\C•lop Lhc peaceful nsrs 0£ thr atom. ;1 l1'.o years, a plant for producing r C'Clncal energy from atomic power ;hould he operating in Asia. In thr unmrdiate future. tlw plan can he open· 1nl!. up coal-hungry and powcr·shorl r 1 egions. aiding induslr), and irrigating c esert areas.' f' .W . e do run CC'fl.11·1 1 fl!·- -11\ .S H· I g1•Y J· llf!; "· 1onahlc materials to other nations. . The atom pool plan will mean cri' · ing some atomic serrels lo Hu"ia, "bul not bomb secrrls. We 11 ill also, of roursr, l!rl atomic H'rn·Ls from Russia. The l nitcd tales 1-ill be giYin" up some selfish adrnntage by parlicip;ting FACTS FORUM NEWS, FcbnwnJ, J9!i5 in thi' pool a temporary ach anta~C'. that is. l na>much a, 11 c• ha Yr more wealth and more atomic plants and more surplus atomic materials than any olhrr nation. Ill' 11ill naturally be making morr contributions to the pool than any other nation "ill make. But the Joni!· ran gt• adrnnlag<':; to the \\hole world offset any minor conce"ions that \IC ma\' make immediately.• \''ar flo11s oul of a !'talr of mind. and if thr minds of the "orld can he hnsit•cl on the atom for peacr. the world "ill slop thinkinl! ahoul atom:; for war. This is the ('ssC'ncr of the EisC'llho11 cr atoms·for·prare plan. That was one s ide of the question: Xow for the opposite side-the views of some who DO XOT appro,·e of Ike's atoms-for-peace plan. * T111. l11tC'rnatio11al Atom Pool plan d\\ad~ all pr(\Yiou~ 5-chrmc~ for ::riYin:r \mrril'a a11a\ to tlw rC'sl of tlw \\Oriel. The atom pool plan will not only give away '\merica·, re,ources in fact. our mo:;t Yitai material resource but "ill also gi,·c away our security.' The l'n•:sidenl himself recognized the l!ra' c danger of an international bank of fissionable material in the Yen speech in "hich he suggested that one be s('[ up. lie said. "The ingenuity of our scicnLi,Ls "ill pro\ ide special safe con· ditions under 1d1irh such a bank of fis· sionahle material can he made essen· tially immune to a ~urpri~e ~eizure." 1 .'\011. 1'110 arc our scientists? 1£ this is to he an inlernalional agency under the c·onlrol of l \. "ill American scien· ti:;ts he the ones Lo deYise this system of <.,;,f'rurih ?; INTERNATIONAL CONTROL One of the sp<'cifically athcrti:;ed fea· lures of thr lnlernalional Atom Pool plan i" that iL i, Lo he inlrrnalional; that iL i,., lo he under the eonlrol of no one -Wide World Photos Peacetime uses for the atom--at upper left, radioactive isotopes serve as tracers enabling studies of electron mission in vacuum tubes and the penetration of preservative~ used to treat telephone poles. At right, the atom smasher has joined the drill press and the lathe as a tool of industry. Shown is the first industrial installation in the world and is used to kill bacteria in packaged drugs. Lower photo, atom helps grow better food, but "hot stuff" for farm test can be dangerous. Long tongs, heavy rubber gloves, a lead screen and a film badge pinned on the shirt are among the precautions used to protect the men 1 who work with it. Pai:e 3 -Wide World Photos Test house at Yucca Flat, Nev., shown (topl as built 3,500 feet from blast point. Lower photo shows the house collapsing and being pushed backward by A-bomb's terrific force. nation. Obviously, the scientists whom President Eisenhower refer:; lo as the ones to provide safe conditions are go­ing to be scientists from all over the world, including the Soviet Union.' Whom, therefore. are we protecting this atom bank from: oun•clves? Or someone from the planet \1ar ? Even if we could place the safety of this atom pool exclu i\·ely in the hand of American nuclear scientists, how secure could we feel about it when we reflect that for ten critical years Amer­ica's leading nuclear scientist wa J. Robert Oppenheimer, who, becau e of hi admitted, e\tensivc, and prolonged Communist activities, has now been officially declared a security risk ?8 We know that not only atomic energy >ecrets. but \·ital atomic energy mater­ials, have been stolen from American atomic energy plants, in spite of all the •ecurity measures and protective systems that the ingenuity of our scientist:; and of our gowrnment could devise. How. then, can w!' e\pect lo guarantee this international hank of fissionahle mater­ial against thefts or surprise seizures "hen the thing will be under the control of ocialists, Comrnuni>ts, and miscel­laneous hureaucrats of the l'nited ~ations ?• And if we do find that the So, ieb or the Chine. e Communists or Czecho· slovakia, or anyone else. is stealing from the international atomic ener!!y bank the Page 4 materials \\hi ch we are giving to it, what will we do about it? We have no control owr the bank. All we can do is to con· tribute to it and, perhaps, make feeble protests "hen we find out that it is being misused.9 We hm·e always known that nations receiving America' openhanded aid were mi using it. l\Iost of the big re­cipients of our aid, in fact, have misused part of it to build up their trade with Communist countries. But when they mi,;use atomic materials which we put into the international pool, they are not merely insulting us and wasting our resources. Truman, Acheson, Mar:;hall, Eisenhower, Dulles, and !assen have taught us how lo he patient and put up with that.9 DAGGER POINT AT AMERICA'S HEART When they tinker with our atomic energy materials, they are pressing a dagger point al the heart of America. This is a substance that can destroy u .. But suppose there arc no raids upon. or thefts from, the international bank of fissionable material. What safeguards do we have for the material which is drawn out of the inter­national bank in the regular way? Let's say that India draws fissionable material out of this international bank. How can we be ure that the material will be devoted to re earch for peacetime uses? How do we know that India will not use some of the material for pro­ducing bombs? What guarantee do we have that India will not let some of that material get into the hands of the Chi­ne e Communists or of the oviet l'nion ?10 If \\ e build reactors, atomic po~ t plants and atomic laboratories in Ind nesia and train Indonesian scientists an industriali ts to use them (as we a1 proposing), what will we do if tr Communists simply take over all Indonesia as now seems quite pD' siblc, even likcly?10 HUNT RABBITS OR COMMIT MURDER! The only protection we have is ~~ wishful thinking of our Congress, wht wrote the law granting the Presirlr authority to give away our nucle materials, and the platitudes of ~I Dulles and l\1r. Eisenhower, who a<•U us that none of the material can be Jll used. They lead u to believe that I atomic materials which we contribute the atom pool are a kind that cannot used for warlike purposes.10 That's like giving a man a shotg1 and claiming that he cannot co1?rr murder with it because you gave 11 him for hunting rabbits.10 The fact is that the 220 pounds enriched uranium which we ha already committed as a gift to the in~ national atom pool is quite u able making atom bombs, and in fact enough lo produce cores for ele1 A-bornhs. It is silly and dishonest to say I~ nuclear materials which are usable all cannot he used for destructive P rose . If it were othern ioc, why did Pre dent Eisenhower in his initial spel about the atom pool acknowledge ~ danger of the pool but then assure. that we could pro\ ide •afeguards agat the danger?' Why, if thc•c materials can be O· - Wide World '~ on] laki the1 'I the pro Arni th es grcs lhesi for. such the : lo £1 pro~ won year seen ovi1 licip Tl thing nothi So, iE lie p We c \\ant W1 on l for<'il c•rnrn1 Bui lo kc! the a pool. mater starve mean~ which quite can; 1 fi ltrat1 At left, the largest shipment of radioactivated cobalt on Its way from the AEC's "~~ research laboratory in Oak Ridge to the Los Angeles tumor institute. The carrier eo~ ~ 4,400 pounds of lead forming an eight-inch shield around six small capsules of the '~ -<>quivalent lo ten million dollars worth of radium. Al right, young scientists wor~ ~ long-range research pro]ect in an effort lo find a treatment for burns and radiati•" r atomic explosions. The picture shows laboratory study of the metabolism of blood pi9'1' Aton !left) a exarninec 1946. FACTS FACTS F'OR M NEWS, FebruarJI• atomic po111 atories in Ind in scientists an em (as we at we do if t~ {e over all ems quite P°' IMIT MURDER? we haYe is tr Congress, whi ' the Pre idt 'y our nucle titudes of M .ver, who a5~tl rial can be JJ1 believe that t ''e contribute I that cannot . 8 .10 man a shotg cannot cornn you gave it 10 220 pounds 1ich we ha •ift to the int< ~ite usable I md in fact res for ele1 est to say tr are usable lestructive P why did Pre' initial spel :knowledge U then assure. •guards aga1 Is can be U" only for peaceful purpooeo, <lo our law' take such elaborate precautions to keep them out of private American hands? The Atomic Energy Act of 1951, like the Atomic Energy Act of 1916, strictly prohibits American individuals and American bu iness Iirms from owning these fissionable materials. Our Con­gress does not trust Americans with these materials - which American paid for. But the 1951 law which expre ses such deep distrust of Americans permits the President to give the same materials to foreign governments, merely on the promise of those goYernments that they Won't misuse our gifts." Think about this a moment. After a year of begging and wheedling and >ccr.et negotiating on our part, the .o~ 1cts ha1e decided apparently to par­ticipate in the atom pool. U. S. JUST GIVES They have not promised to pul one thin!? into the alom pool, but there is 1!0th1ng in the arrangement to keep the So11c·t;, from openly <lrawin" out "hat 11c put in. It is an internanonal pool. We can't control it. We say 11e don't 11 ant to control it. All we ean do is gi1e. We are gambling the life of America ~n .the good faith and promioes of or<'tg-n gO\C'rnmrnts, including the go\· c•rnmc•nt of the SO\ iet l ' nion.10 But suppose \\e work oul some way to keep the oviets from getting directly the atomic materials we pul into the Pool. Where do we intend most of these material to go? To the big power­starvcd areas of the world which m1e~ns India, Indonesia, Burma: nations '' 1_1ch have proven themselves to be quite pro-Communist and anti-Ameri­~~ n; nations which are dangerously in­iltrated by Communist parties; nations 11 hil'h. in the Ul\, oupport the So\ icb far more often than they support us. Didn't we win a great propaganda , ictory by suggesting this atom pool, thus proving that we want to use atom for peace instead of for war? Examine the facts. The one thing which gi\'es America military superiority over every other nation or combination of nations on earth is its qualitative and quantitative superiority in the production of atomic energy materials. But America .off.ers to gi\e a11ay part of that supenonty to foreign nations.7 Americans are supposed to be a free people. Yet our President (without con­' ulting the people, or e\'en the Congress) -Wide World Photo Top interest at the West Berlin Industrial Fair in Gerrnany September, 1954, was at· tracted by "magic hands," rnechanical hands for handling radioactive material in atomic research. gl'ts up before the niled Tati?ns a.nd promises to use the power of lHs office to seize from the American people the product of their labor and of their taxes Lo take away from them by the force of law their most vital material resource and "i\'e it away to hostile foreign gov­<' fllm~nls on the mere promioe of those "0\·crnmcnts thal they will be nice and ~sc it properly.' \X hen the o' iets first rejected this ,,C'heme probably because they simply couldn't believe their cars"-1\Ir. Dulles threw away any conceivable propa­ganda advantage that we might h.aye had, by saying that he would negotJa~e 11 ith the Soviets secretly about their participation in the plan.13 SOVIETS GET MORE CREDIT -Wida World Photo Atomic cannon's test blast at French­rnan's Flat, Nev . lo,ers call the thing) than we got for starling it. What will happen later on, when the O\'iets claim that they endorsed the atom plan because l\1r. Dulles had >ecretly promised to let Red China participate in the scheme? '\1r. Dulles will loudly deny that he made such promises. But the oviets will insist that he did. The world will recall that it was l\Ir. Dulles who wanted the negotiations with Russia to be f'ecret. And the record shows that our friends in Lhe U respect Rus ia's word as much as they respect ours. In his original atom pool speech in December, 1953, Pre ident Eisenhower said that the real purpose of the atomic pool propo,al is to turn the world toward dewloping the peaceful uses of atomic energy so that we can eliminate atomic material· for military purpose . lt would be nice and just as ensible­if the President would go on record as being against sin. (I t-itornic Scientists Ernest O. Lawrence ex" . and J. Robert Oppenheirner as they 1 9~~'.ned cyclotron diffusion pumps In For merely going along with us - a year later the Soviets got more credit in the "forum of world opinion" (as the one-worlders and United ations The chilling reality is that the Soviet gangsters lrn\'e already stolen enough atomic energy know-how and materials from us to get started on what appears to be a fairly extensirn atomic energy program. As long as they can obtain atomic energy material., either by pro­ducing them in their own plant , or by stealing them from us, or by getting them via the international pool, the Soviets are going to continue building whatever frightful atomic energy weap­ons they can. 'o amount of wishful thinking, speaking, re oluting, treaty­signing, or sharing of the wealth on our part will change that grim set of facts. The oviets ay that they want to outlaw atomic weapons. They no doubt do. They would like lo engage us in a treaty tomorrow to outlaw the use of atomic weapons. That would guarantee the scrapping of our atomic weapons; but not of theirs." FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februa'i/, 1955 In manpower the Communi't nations Page 5 There, in quick re,-ie" , arc h \ O sides of a Facts Forum question: "Do you approl'e of the Eisen· hower International Atomic E nerjO Pool or 'atoms-for-peace'-plan ?" * * \\ c prl'"ent ihe,e programs in I~ lrop!' that \\(' arc doing some good l \ nrni!'a l1y hl'lping lo crealc publ i11len•:-.l i11 important contro\C'rsial qut lion:--. * * Bibliography l ·· _\n \tomi« ~tucJ...pile for Pt.~an•.' I),, i;.d1t D. Ei-.t•nhown, I "ital -"1wt•du·:~. J 1. 1951. p. 10~. ~ "So' i<'t l{t•pl) Dooms Plan for a \\ \tomic Pool;' .\'t•u: }ork Timl'.\, 'la) 1951. J ··1i...e·.,. \toniic Plan \dopted Una11imo11- 0mah11 l/'r11/d lhrald. \o,. 23. 1%1. I .. TIH' \\a .. Jiinμ:ton s('('ll(' \tomH· l~l Fir-.t Plunμ;t•," hy Wm. II. ~t1in~rr. (,h tiari _i..;,n·enn• .\lcmitor, ~O\. 22, 195l. ~ I 11 II .. , d ,c,l -Wide World Photo At Groton, Conn., comm1ss1onin9 ceremony placed the world's first atom-powered sub­marine, the USS Nautilus, in U. S. Navy service. • "ll"d' ll<·lav Donation to \ tom Pool, 1lt1 "'»'·" by !Iowa rel llanclleman, 1 \S, If in~ton Post, Dre. 9, 195 l. G "Sharin~ Our trrngth," Editorial, w11to11 Pa.11, Frh. 21, 1951. II ,,, fi. he outnumber ti• almo't lt•n to one. In Iii conYentional "capon,. they are already outproducing uo. Our chief adrnntage in force over the Communist world io our capacity for building and u-ing atomic 11eapon>. On the day when \\C outlaw atomic \\Capons we "ill outlaw .\mer­ica ·,, principal military adrnntage o\·er the O\ iet . On the day when we find ouroeh es with no mi litary advantage o\·er the oYielo we "ill find the o\'iet,; taking our nation oYer by force. ELIMmATE AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE? - upporll'ro of the l'rc,ident are out­ra.!! ed at the >ugg<•,1ion that the Inter­national \ tom l'ool i' part of an inter­nalionali- t •C'ht•nH' lo eliminate \ mer-ira \ r~"rntial in­dept'rHl<• nc<' a• a nation and lo pr<' pa rl' \ nwrica ror i11leg1alion in a !!.rcat OIH'·\\ orld ~';"iali-1 'lair." II i• inll'rt'•lirr!! lo nolC'. ho\\ t'\t';. ihal '"""' of thl' 11 a~ i (' r t'll lure .. and .onw of thl' f larrgua!!<' of Ei-- - Wide World Photo l'llhO\\er·~ 195;) Meyer atom pool propo- "" fir>t •ho" rd up irr 19 JU irr a houk ('nlilh•d l'l'acl' or lnarchy. \Hiltt·rr hy Cord \!eyer. Jr .. then pn•,i<lt·nt of ihl' l niled \Vorld F<•deralisb "ho•!' horu•,1ly-arrnounced purposl' is lo inl!'grale l\merit'a inlo a grrat one-\\ orld go' crnment. One of thl' mo.-t l!'rrif) ing and my,. leriou- pht•nom<'rHl of this gent'ratiorr i~ the :-oeemin~ly irre:--i-..tilile comptil-..ion upon our elcct!'d leadn, that i•. tht• Pre ident and the Congress of the United Page 6 ::>tat!'• -uicidl'. lo l!'ad \nll'rirn intu national r n this atom pool thing. we are toy­ing with death and destruction. \\'e are ri~king our liYcs our national cxist­(' nc·e on the promi'e' and good faith of "omc of the bloodiest Yillains in human history. There is no l'Onceirnble way for the International \ tom Pool to help the L nitcd late:;. But in a thousand ways, the scheme is laden with potential di aster for u•. • /111ma11 Ftent", Srpt. 29, 195~. pp. 2·~: •"In \latter of J. Robert Oppenhe1111. l'ran ... nipt or lwarinp; before Per .. onn1:~ rurit\ Board, \~'o.,.hinp;ton, D. C., \pn \lay 6, 1951. . :.1 .. Booh)·Trar 0£ lntrrnotionali ... m," h_~ H ~- \fnn. 41mt•rinrn .11ercury, April. l PP· as:RR. 10 "\'urlrar \ ... ._11mption ... ," Freeman, \pr· 195t, pp. 510-511. ' 11 Atomir Enrr~y \ct, 195 l, Facts on Fi/t' ~53 and ~67. "">\tomir Plan: Jump' in U. S. Red· \Var Thrrat." Christian Science ~Jon D!'r. 11. 195.3. "ll1111um E1e111.<. Orr. 9, 1%3. ~ ""Thr Atom Pool," by Mrclforcl Ernn'. I of \lr\lurn Coll!'gr, >\bilrnr, Trx•'· 1 Vishinsky Talk Spurs Atom for Peace Plan a, JOll \ l'ITI \I \ · · \ !TLD, • \ 110 ~. '.. \ . " 17 F,l.e11l1.l11u.•11t 1>I Ili c• world \I >mdor I'• .\ ~1·un. \\ ith tl1<' .!\dnd l 11i()11 > p.11t~1pJl1on, \\.,L\ f4>ft'>l1.tdo\\ ed lo<la) :J.') l ~"ll r ,e11lat1\e A11<lrt'1 \" i:.him.l .. ~ n.·ik1alt·d 111) gr>\r111111f"11t '\ pol1c} of NlOlwrahon i11 111t 1 11toc111I rHofh ft• promote tl1f' I' Niu! d -el P"' •I ol ""'"" ('O;,n~f,; TO~IOBUOW: "'';;.~7'. \ "1"'' l\ •• .:'! 1c.1, .. ' TltP D,.batP on ,.,..,.,1111 t'o·f~.d11/f>lf K ~ n 1°11.0 " "0 '" wl ' • '"' B MAX GORDON arl1C"'t m In lJ, > M 1 n t1' t1.r Y I ...-.. 1 ( .o 11m1lttt t-mplusiz:~l t h(" '----------------------~ Jlfh1 1 ... pee-ts o4 tht- thsc:us.sion oht.u.1 a pit\ 1k·g1 .. J l)m1h 011 " 111 l r~ tlft"M \\Ould :'!"" 11 .w1 ,,,,. .p Dtf!'<t u~iba1 ('(f lw Prr+1 "lu .. h t • unp1.hr 1t" '"11 • 1 th i.t'v111u.: <'llt'I~\ 1 .. uf J-1du1howcr s spHt.1t \I) th~ fi11111lt t"... Ml OYS ·"PfECH "' 11 <.rn<"r .. t A,)Sf"lr1l1h Dre . S. ·n1~ rt<.'Og•uhou :>( th • pna<1pk l!-fH Hoth rt-prt"s<"t •t• t.i\'n >HK tli.;il tlie ;,t;, 11 , < >inl> lru ~ l.:d'ihna \k1 011 .,-v,.- °' f ~t"~lr,j 1w,.. t1 fk".lhtHt of ti.,. '<"\Tll ,, 11111 I iiot 1, 11 t: I ,..~ 1 111 .,1 11,• 111 1ttl11' 1"!"1lf"' ol 11111 I 1 "- J'•l\\ .. r .,lutwu f()( ~ .. tali ltlohinK I (t"\I ~ ur ol!H t ,... ..l1•>t1l,l d. pl s I I fhf' l·'u .. tt I I \ Ul id '\\\"11l.i :t tornic t'llf'rrv 11111('"'"' .J11d l~riu ur- ,,,,. tt. 11 j ri i · ~ti 11 hi"' S:t d. 1·nce 1 •• wliw• t 1 II • d ,,. J, e111t\l'nin( .. 11 tutrrn:tt1mul Mk"Ul1 ll t" 11cl tht" t "'i. 11,.- :ll 111,.. t 1-11 ul alonur t"T1 rg,. fi ronf··"l"IK'r tli11••1gl1 1~ m:.c 11 under thl"' .. ,.1(1S ,f tlit" l Hri'" If,• clod .. 1('cl fo<i ;1 Jd I rn a11°f ··u11 I r tlM" 11rgu-" ol tbf' 1t , ko 1r 1h t ,. l1 1l , 1171 l ~ I 11 \ f 11t> l .. 1mc :1.111~ •I I I t t. The headline above was torn from the Commu•lst DAILY WORKER. FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februar11• "' pr \\ \i f'O -h J..1 '"· id, Sp SU - Oppen Lilienthal charges I IR.lowa) Next dai heirner a ~n·A111eri •n Cornrn1 FACTS iew, are h \ O um question: f the Eisen· omic Enerin 1ce'- plan?" * LAST WORD? ograms in tl:­some nood fc neat~ publ tro, ·c r~ial qut !h. J. Hobert Oppenhei111e1. ALC security risk, may yet ha1e the Ia,l \\Ord on the nation\ atomic policy. Dr. Halph E. Lapp. famous atomic scien­tist. 11 rote in the Bulletin of the ltomic Scientists for October 1951 (p. :n 1i: * an for a \\l1 Timn, "J) ed Lnanimou~ I. 23, 1951. \tomic P . ::-11 in~rr. Ch . 22, 1951. \tom Pool. nu man, 1\:-., 11• Editorinl, 9s I. pp. 2-.1: t Opprnhri111 ~ Jrr Per~on nt•I D. c.. \pril lali!--m," In Fr :ray, A pri.I. I H~ema11, ~\pr. F acl.'i on Filt' J. S. Rrd· Science Mn• ;3_ . )~ ford Evnn". rnr. Tt•xa"· 1 JI ,,..,,..,!"' lml;l .11N.f •111 \ ,.1.1 lbi• d~\\·1· KER. "Dr. J. Bohert Oppenheime1 made hio pl<•a for candor ... "-' llu• Jul) 195'1 issue of For­"' K" I /fair> . ... Operation Can­dor [a planned series of l're:,i­rli ·ntial hroadraols to rc1cal ~cc·ret atomic informal ion I ... 11·a_.• s1•_t in motion by Op1w11- h1·11111•r s plea .... Tht»<' plans f1ulr•cl out. ... It is significant. hrl\1f'n•r. that plat" for Opcra­l1011 Candor had reached a co11- n1·tc• form lwfore the 11 hole proμ-ram ''a~ uhandoncd . ... \\p can onh concluclp that acl- 1 i,pr, clo,e" lo the l'rcsiclenl coun ... (•l!'cl a;rninsl candor and 'houtc·d clo11 n an) opposilio11. \\hate\ er the rea;,ons. 11 c kno11 that the only pay-olJ of ~fi,, pla11n1•d operation u·as Pres- 1d<'nt Eisenhou·er's December 8 speech to the UN."' [Emphasis supplied. I - Wide World Photo lil?PPhenheimcr in 1949 defending David E. th lent al, then AEC ch airman, against (R~;ges by Senatar Bourke B. Hickenlooper Nexto~a) of ''incredible mismanagement." hei ay, June 14, brother Frank Oppen­Un~~ er ~drnitted to House Committee on in C rner1ca.n Activities his past membership 0 rnrnun1st party. FACTS FORUM NEWS, February, 1955 -Wide World Photo On June 29, 1954, the five-man Atamic Energy Commission voted four to one to deny Dr. J . Robert Oppenheimer's appeal to Ii~ his suspension from access to U.S. security data . Left to right, Commissioners Thomas E. Murray, Henry D. Smyth, Joseph Campbell, Eugene M. Zuckert, and Chairman Lewis L. Strauss. Page 4 T111: YORKEll, ~11Nun, ovaieEll 211. t'54 JI~ JOSEPH CLARK l ';'\ ~ T\IOl'!.f.Y ><[lprm c·tl. Th.ct '"" tll<' c·mpha;i, in di.<p.1ldl(•, ahont l'11it1·d l\.1liom .1doptiun of the I-:isrnlumn .. ,\lo1m for Peace" plan last T11esd.1) . .\ud it is tltt· l."t tribnte life p.1id lo Andi i \ ish111skr thJt he was working on a slalcmi·ut >11pporli11!( .111 .1tom:(' pool fur p<..ltdul mt• \\ho1 lit' tliul. 'J l•ougl1I.; f!O h.Kk to <"11111tk-." 11wdi11g:. of th{· l'nihd ,,1tio11 J\nd to .l prt.':-) <.,ouh It nu' !idd more tl1:111 M \ rn ) c.i.r., .IJ.!o wh< u l ' lw.ulq\1.irll'I\ \\,I\ ,ti J..1kt· S11< ("l' , l'lw ''hik·h.1in·1l cl.u,·f Su\ it I d1·!q!.1l1·, w!10.'e rudd}· f.1u• lnoLe (1•1! in ,1 \llllll• \C) (»hih·, \\,h ,1h\,1\S tl1e 11·11ltr of .1t fc·11tio11 .. t l '.". S11 1t nrp1 'le.I uobody \\l1t11 1uou· tii..11 500 l"l IJOr!elS frulll ;til U\ IC till \\tulJ hu11~:1 unt"lf!'' l!l•l~pu ) )Ot.U' ~ .!iiml\m lo ~our rd1ton•I collfl'n'lll'C <Ill St-pl.-·· 191.. uH14..<eJ. A iipplt! of l.mgh1t1 tuinul iuto And _tht>1<', pt:1h,lp\, lu.:., tht: loud ;\nd lw.:.irly 1.1111-?htu JI .1 u·ply . r1 .. 1,m1 lnr tl1e ... ilmt.mt efh·r\(~ ­\' 1.,hiu~l.. v m;ulc to .1•\\lltll'n Gllt'~· {'(·Un.• of the ma11 a11d hi.;; :tH)tlZl~).:: lion th.it had bet•JI 1>f1L1111tkd 1 1 ~· ~ rner~y Ill dt·b:ttt', ron~t<.l('riug his ~il. t"Or((''tJ>Oll<lt.nl\, fh~ ~ \\,111tul Rl{t! ~Uld .t )l)ll~-~ l.Ulding hf'arl-aj( lo lmow "h.11 \\lluhl h.1pp~ u ii meut. ,o\ndrei \ "1'h"111;l..y \\.l.'I ne\:tt thei r "<·re.• 110 .. ~'tH'• 1 t nt .... h<•ul ~imistic .-bout the fight for in ntomic t IH' ~~ .._ 1.111 I. \ -11111.,l..y k111:1tionR1 control of '41nrn~c fflt•rJ(~ ff'pb.d: .. !Hoir ~h Corn-. 1~u<lcnh: Lc;:aH' -Wide World Photo Dr. J . Rabert Oppenheimer, one of the A-bomb scientists, with Rep. Francis E. Walter ID-Pa.I, a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee, after Oppenheimer talked with commltt" members behind closed doors June 7, 1949. Page 7 Epochal Attacl{ on Capitalism Engels has said that at a "Congress" of the "Communist League" held in London in November, 1847, he and Marx "were commissioned to prepare for publication a com­plete theoretical and practical" program for the Communist party. The result was the COMMUNIST l\IA IFESTO, written first in German, quickly tran s lat ed into French and published in Paris in June, 1848, and by 1850 translated into English, Danish, and Po­lish. The fir st Russian translation was published in 1863. The MA IFESTO is the best­known Communist writing. It is still an essentially accurate account of Communist theory, and there/ ore a very poor guide to Communist practice. MA IFE TO OF TUE COMMU IST PARTY By KARL i\lARX and FRIEDRICH EXGELS A PECTRE is haunting Europe - the spectre of communi m. All the pow­ers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre; Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French radicals and German police­spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried a communistic by its opponents in power? Where the op­position that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reaction­ary adversaries? Two things result from thi fact. I. Communism i already acknow­ledged by all European powers to be itself a power. II. It is high time that Communist> -.hould openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims. their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party it elf. To thi end, Communists of various nationalities ha,e assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish, and Danish language . I Bourgeois and Proletarians* The hi tory of all hitherto exi ting -ociety is the hi tory of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman ·in a word, oppressor and oppressed stood in constant oppo­sition to one another, carried on an un­interrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a light that each time ended either in a revolutionary reconstitution of so­ciety at large or in the common ruin of the contending classes. In the early epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of ociety into various or­ders, a manifold graduation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patri­cian•, knight., plebians, slave ; in the :\liddle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild­ma• ters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almoot all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations. The modern bourgeois society that has prouted from the ruins of feudal -.ociety. has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new ela--.es, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch, the epoch of the bour­p: eoi~·dC", po~~e:"'~e:-, howc\·er. thi:-1 diii· tincti\e feature; it has simplified the class antagonisms. ocicty as a whole is more and more splilling up into two great hostile camps, into two great cla. 'cs directly facing each other: bour­geoisie and proletariat. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burgher of the earliest towns. From these burges es the first clements of the bourgeoisie were developed. lion of America, trade with the color the increase in the means of exch· and in commodities, generally, ga1 commerce, to navigation, to industr1· impulse never before known, and th hy, to the revolutionary element in tottering feuda l society, a rapid d~ opment. The feudal system of industry, u "hich indu trial production was in polized by clo cd guilds, now no lo sufficed for the growing wants of new markets. The manufacturing tern took its place. The guild-JT18' were pushed on one side by the in facluring middle class; division or bor bet\\cen the different corp1 guild vanished in the face of di1 of labor in each single workshop. Meantime, the market kepi growing, the demand ever rising. r manufacture no longer sufficed. Tb (Continued on Pa •By bourgeoisie i.• meant the class of "' rapitalists, owriers of the means of soczr 1foction and employers of u;age-iab< proletariat, the class of modern u;age·l•J u·ho, harin~ no means of production o oun. arr n-duced to selling their labor· rn order to lire. Fro By L of ir thoug labor pcrfo1 hard Ii no su unskil ger is the r1 ''llalll than 0 The tors. ] ishc~, of laJ,1 and 1d of Ii, i cannot "'PPO> the rn >hip Ii 11i1e th1 Com 11ork('r fJOsitio run ks. afford prcci>e -Wide World Photo Karl Marx The disco' cry of America, the round­ing of the Cape, opened up freoh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East In­dian and Chinese markets, the coloPiza- " Mos1 '>ale Un FACTS Page 8 FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februari· rn ndon com­s the and Po­best­eory, with the colo1 ~ans of exch· enerally, ga1 n, to industfl· nown, and th y element in y, a rapid d~ f industry. u 1ction was m ls, now no lo ng wants of urnfacturing he guild-rnS' .de by the m ; division of ferent corp0 face of di1' workshop. rkets ke1 l ~ver rising. ~ · sufficed. T ruinued on Po. the class of ~ neans of socitf of wage-la/JO' >d ern wagc·l• productio1' of g their labor· -Wtd• wor11 Jets , Februar'I• Mistalies • Ill Socialist Theory Dr. Ludwig von Mises is the internationally famou s Austrian econom ist, professor successively at V ienna and Geneva, anti author of many authoritative book s, including THEORY OF MONEY ( 1912) . /Je now lives in the United States and is con sultant to the Vationnl Association of Mmuifacturers. No one has argued more cogently that communism mu[ socialism are Mistaken . In BUR EAUCRACY (1944) he said: "Our age has witnessed a triumphal advance of the Socialist cause . .. . America alone is still free to choose. Ancl the decision of the Am ericmi people will determine the outcome for the whole of man­kind." From SOCIALISM"' By LUDWIG VON l\IISES NO CLASS CONFLICT of . . Tlw thl'Orists of socialism and meconcdahle class conflict talk as ' though there was some kind of abstract abor 11 /1 1· c Ii <'1eryone was qualified to /)crform and as though skilled labor •ardfy came into the que tion. In realitv no ·~ieh ''alhof utc" labor exist" or i.s uns~illed labor homorrcncou" A scmen-gIc r is· c11·n · crent from a" porter. '.\1oreo1er tic role of unskilled labor is much shm aller· cons.i·cI crccI purely numeri. cally, 1 ~f~ orthodox class theory assumes .... ic members of a class are competi· ~o,r:;. lf the numher of 11 orkers dimin- 1' H's and 'ff . d of l~lio 1 tie marginal pro ucti1.ity a I . r gro11 s aecord111gly, wages nse, ~c .".'th them the income and standard 0 111 ing of the worker. Trade unions cannot after this. When they, 11ho 11ere ' 1 l1Jlposed lo he called into hein« to li"hl t 1e entr . o c I. . cprenl'urs. close their member-s ' 1P like guilds, the) imp l icit ly recO"· 1111C the fact. " Com1><·t·11 ·i on operates amona the llor.k.c rs· " Ii en t Ii cy compete for rh igher Pos,i tion·, a n< I f or promoti. on to I" ." I i cr raITn ,.·, · '·\T p m Ii er o f ot 1i er classes r can a 01:d to remain indifferent as to the prec1>e persons 11 ho arc numbered among the relative minority which rises from the lower to the higher strata, so long a these are the most capable. But for the workers them elves this is an important matter. Each is in competi­tion with the others. Of course each is interested to see that ernry other fore­man's job shall be occupied by the most suitable man and the best. But each is anxious that that one job which comes 11ithin his reach shall fall to him, even though he is not the most suitable man for the job; and the advantage to him outweighs the fraction of the general disadvantages which may eventually also come his way. SOLIDARITY OF INTERESTS The theory of the olidarity of the interests of all members of ocicty is the only theory 11hich shows how society is po ible; a•1d if it is dropped, the social unity di solves not on ly into clas es, but into individuals confronting each other as opponents. Conflict be­t11cen indi1 idual interests is O\'ercome in society but not in the class. ocicty kncws no component other than in· di1iduals. The class united by a com­munit) of special interests does not exist; it is the imcntion of a theory incomplete ly articu lated. The more complicated society i , and the further differentiation has progressed within it. so much the more numerous arc the groups of persons similarly placed with in the social organi m; though neceo· sarily, the number of members in each group diminishes as the number of groups increases. The fact that the mem· hers of each group have certain im­mediate interest in common does not, of itself, create universal equality of inter· ests bet11een them. The equality of posi­tion make them competitor , not people with common aspirations. or can any absolute community of interests ari c from the incomp lete similarity between the positions of allied groups. As far a their positions are simi lar, competition will operate between them. The interests of all cotton mill owners may run parallel in certain directions, but insofar as this is the case, the more are they competitors among themselves. Jn other respects only tho e owners of mills 11 ho produce the same count of yarn will be in exactly parallel posi· lions. Here again to this extent they are in competition 11 ith each other. In other respects, howe\'er, the common interests are similar 01er a much wider field; they may comprise all workers in the cotton industry. then. again. all cotton producer , including planters and work· ers, or further. all industria lists of a1w kind, etc.: the grouping rnries perpel· ua lly according to the aim and intC're ts to be pursued. But complete similarit\' "M - Wide World Photos • ~of the families in the United States own a motor car." At le~. traffic in Detroit, Michigan. Right, street scene in New York City. 1 ale Unrrersity Pres•, /9SJ. Pages 338-3-12, 350-351, and 525-532. Reprinted by permission. FACTS FORUM NEWS, February, 1955 Page 9 there is rare. and. 11 h!'re it doc• cxi,t. it leads not only to common interests ,;,. a-vis third parties hut, simultaneously. to competition between the parties within the group. * It is the same 11 ith the workers. \\ho are contrm,ted with thr 011 n<'fs of the means of production. The special inter· e't' of the oeparate workers' groups arc also not unitary. They ha1 r quite dif· ferent interests arrording to the kno11 I­edge and skill of their members. It is certainly not in 'irtu(' of its cla'' po,i­tion that the prol!'lariat is that homo geneous class the , oriali,,t partie• im· agine it to he. Only adhC'rrnre lo thP ocialist ideology. 11hich ohlig<'s e1ery indi1 idual and ev!'ry group lo gi1·e up his or its special interC'st:;, brings it about that il i:; so. The daily work of the trade unions consists preris<'ly in effect· ing compromises het11e('n the,,e connicts of interest.' ... The community of class interests does not exi>t inckpend<•ntly of ciao:> con:sciou~ne~s, and cla ... s consciousne""::. is not merely additional lo a communil) of special interest:>; il creates such a community. The proletarians are not a special group 11 ithin the framework of modern society, 11 hose attitude is un· equivocally determined hy their cla•s position. Individuals are hrought to· gether for common politiral action by the ocialist ideology; the unity of the proletariat come , not from its class position, but from the ideology of the class-11ar. As a class the proletariat does not exist before socialism: the ociali t idea first created it hy combining cer· tain indi1 iduals lo attain a certain poli· tical end. There is nothing in •orialism which makes it especially appropriate to forwarding the real inter!'sts of the proletarian clas<:e;. -Wide World Pit' " Capitalism Is stlll very vigorous in the Western Hemisphere." Top photos, left to ri~ Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Southern California ; large caustic storage tonks at Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's chlorine plant in West Virginia. Lower, left to right, 6' era! Electric's General Engineering Laboratory in Schenectady, N. Y., and the Essa Pfa~t Bayway, N. J, In principle, class ideology i no dif· fert'nt from national ideology. In fact ther<' is no contrast betwcC'n the interests of partirular nations and raCC'S. lt is national ideolog1 which first creates the belief in special int1•r('sts and turns na· tions into sp<'rial groups 11 hirh fight each other. \ationalist ideology di1idC'<: •ociet) 1t'rtically; th<' ociali•t ideology di1 ides society horizontally. In this sense the t110 arc mutually <·xcluoi1e. omC'limC's tll(' on<' has the upper hand, som<'lilll<'s th<' other. In Cer111an1 in 1911 tlw nationalist ideology ~houl­derecl the • ocialist ideology into the background and suddenly there was a nalionali•t united front. In l 918 the oc· ialist triumpl]('d 01er the 11a1io11,tli,I In a fr('(' '>OCiety no cl:"'"' .•C'parated h) irreronrilahl) contrn• intcre,,ls. Society io thC' ,,oJidarit) int('rcsts. The union of '>p<'cial wo has always as its safe aim the dcstr tion of this cohC'sion. lts aim is D social. The ;,p<'cial community of I lctnriau intcrcots extends only so far they pur;,uc one aim to hrC'ak up ciel). It io th<' oamc 11 ith tll(' sJ'' con11nunit) of intl're,to 11 hi ch is · J>OH'd lo C\ist for a 11hole nation. Beca1p,e \ larxian theory doc' defirl(' its not ion of class more clo, p<'oplC' ha1 r heen able Lo use it for expres,,ion of the most di1crse ;di When they define the deci ive co•' as that between owners and nono"' or between urban and rural inter• or between bourgeois, peasant. worker; wh7~1 they speak o~ th~. lerests of armament capital: "alcohol capital," of ''finance capita when al one moment they talk abo111 Golden International and in the breath explain that imperialism i' to thC' conflicts of capital, it is co· "re that these arc the mcrc"t ra1ch 11 of the demagogue, dernid of an\ sociological interest. Thus in it' fundamental contentions, J\1arxi>'01 never risen above the level of a dorl for the soapbox orator.8 • • • • • A cotton mill In Manchest er, N. H. ... the concepts Bourgeoisie, \( ing Class, Proletariat, are fictiooj: cognitive value of which depen · the theory in the service of which Page 10 FACTS FORUM NEWS, F'ebruar'I• are 1 doct able. sible ciaos exiot >loot "iOCie sho11 of a \\C h1 cone( tlwor Th, of d11 antira and p the SJ Clll<'rJ dog111i that t tatio 11 <'>ca P• \01 1igoro Capita rc111arJ )<'ar,, great Ii 'llppJj, and ,, j a ~hor ('\JlUll( f)nalit) of th<' gO\C'r11 Pnrlies lion j~ its ~O<'i "Unwrs μoods. It;,, nirnts fic<·r~ \ Jlro1 in! the pri the 111e and bu '-('r\('!; ! the fan l11otor c in Jll'r a, c"'"'I of a C<'1 of la 11 , U('f'Oll1f> Pnlar"<'c huilt 0 n1 One n contem1 it. Enta statiom they an go1ernm eierythi1 fACTS -Wide World P~ 1tos, left to riq age tanks at r eft to right, <' the Esso Pion! e 11<11io11ali,I 10 rlassl':-i 1hly contrn' r soliclaril) special wo im the drslf ts aim is 0 mu11ity of I , 0111)' so far o break uJ' ith the sp<' 11hich is · le nation. eo ry doc' s more clo' o use it for dil'erse id leci ive co11 rnd nono"1 rural inter• peasant. •ak of 1he. capital.' iance capili , talk aho111 1d in the erialism i~ ti, it is rO' rc:>I ca1ch11 id or an\ us in it~ J\1 a rx i sl11 ;I of a docl • rgeoisie, ~ re fictionJ: :h depen · of which are applied. This theory is 1he J\larxian doctrine that cla;s conflict is irreconcil able. If 11e consider this theory inadmis· sible, then no class differences and no class conflicts in 1he \larxian srrn.;c exist. If 11c 1>r·o1e that, rnrreell) under· stood, the interrsls of all nwrnlins of society arc nol in co11flicl, 11c ht11e 'ho1111 not nwrrly that the ~1arxi1111 idea of a conflicl of interests is 1111le11ai>IC': 11 e ha1c clisrarded as 1·tiluel<'ss thr 1('1")' conc<'pl of class a.'i it figures i11 Sociali~l Llwory. * The d1aradcristic mark of this age of d1clators, 11ars a11d rcl'oinliorn; is its antirapilalistic bias. J\lost rro1ernnw111> and polilieal parties arc earr~r to n·strict the •phrrc of pri1atr i11i1a7i1<' and free enL<'rprisc. IL is a11 almost n11challe11gcd do!!n1a lhat capilali"n is done for and that lhc cominrr of all -ronncl n•«imcn· llllio11 of cro110~1ic acli1 itics is b~Lh in· Cscapalil<· and highly d<"sirahlc. . \011ctlwlcss, capitalism is still 1cry (n' go. rou.s i·n t I1 c We tern Jlcmisphcrc. .a pllal isl production IHI> made 1 er) rcmarkabl(• prorrrcss l'll'll in th!'s(' lasl )!'ars.. \Ic'l I1 odse of producl1. on 11!·re ~rca1l) impr01ed. Co11"11nc1-, ha1!' hcc11 supplicd 11 ilh better and ch<"aper "O<Hls and II ith man) new articles unhea~d of a short lim<' ago. 'Tan) rounlri<'s ha1!' expanded the size and in1pro1cd the quf a! il) 0 f II l('.l r niann f aCllll".l ng. Jn spl.l (' 0 lhc anlicapitalislic polici<"s of all /.!<llc.rnm1·n1s a11d of almosl all political par1 1l's. the eapilalist mocll' of procluc· ~ion is in nia111 countries still fulfilliug l[s S()('i•tJ f ·. . . "'llll~('rs'" . lllH'llO/l Ill !;uppl) 111μ- the ('Oil· II llh more, hellt'r. and cheaper μ-ood~. It. . IS ccrla1nly 1101 a merit of goll''11· rncnts r . . . f' . ' po 1l1cians, and Jahor UlllOn of- IC('r~ lhat lhe !'>landard of living is im 1;roi ing in lhc countries commiuccl to , 1 e pr111ciplc of pril'ale 011 ncrship or ~IC means of production. l\oL offices and hurcaurrals, but birr hw,iness de· '<'I"\ Cs I° f o 11 f. c.re( 11 or Lhc fact that mosl of 1 1e amd1(•s in lhc l'nited Slalcs 011n a noior car a11d a rudio scl. The incn•ase 111 l><'r rapita c·o11s11m1)tio11 in l\rnrrira as c· :rf Ontpan·d II ilh conditions a quarlel a ('<'nt11ry ag"O is 1101 an achieH•rnent !alls and (''!'r·11Li11' ordns. IL i' an 3 "'1 "oniplishnl('11t of husi1H'ss111!' 11 11 ho c11 ar"!'d LI . 1 •1 " IC SIZC of their factories or )l11 l nc•w ones. 011e must stress this r:oint because our cito ntFe mpor'ar i.c s are m. e 1·r nec1 lo .i gnore ~1: 1. -ntangled in the s11pcrstitions of <1 ism a l . th 11c government omrnpolc11cc, cy are exclusil'ely preoccupied with a11d wry little from the initiative of <'nl<"rprising citizc11s. ) el, the' only means Lo i11crease 11 ell-being is to increase the quantity of products. This is 11hat busi· 1H·.-.~ aim~ at. Jt is grotesque that there is much more Lalk about the achinements of the Tc1111c;sec Valley Authority than about all the unprecedeuLC'd and unparalleled achi!·1ements of American prirnlcly operated proces;,i11g industries. J 1011. C1C'r, it 11as only the faller 1d1ich en· ahlcd the [.;nited i\ations to 11 in the war and today enable the Lnilcd tales to come lo the aid of the i\larshall Plan countrirs. The dogma that lhc state or the gov­ernmc11t is lhe embodiment or all that is good and hl'ndicial and that the in· cli1 icl11als arc 11 retched underlings, ex­cl11si1 cly i11tent upon inflicling harm upo11 one another and hadly in need of a guardian, is almost unchallenged. It is taboo to question it in the slightest 11ay. lie 11ho proclaims the godlines of the stale and the infallibility of its pricsls, the bureaucrats, is considered as an impartial student of the social 'cit•nces. All those raising objections arc branded as biased and narrow­mindcd. The supporters of the new re· ligio11 of slatolatr) are no less fanatical and inlolcrant than 11 ere the i\Ioham­m!' dan conquerors of Africa and Spain. JI islory 11 ill call our age the age of the dirlalors an IL) rants.\\ e ha1e 11 itne•sed in lhe last years lhe fall of l110 of these i11fla1ecl supermen. But the spirit 11hich raisl'cl th<'>c kna1cs to autocratic po11er sun i1r,. It permeates textbooks and periodicals, it speaks throu!!h lhe mouths of teachers and politicians. it manifests itself in party programs and in plays and nol'els. \s long as thi:; ;;piril prevails, there cannot be any hope of durable peace, of democracy, of the preservation of freedom or of a steadv impro1ement in Lhe nation's economi~ 11ell-being .... Although capitalism is the economic system of modern \resLcrn ci1 ilization, the policie of all " 'cstcrn 11alions are guided by utter!) anticapitalistic ideas. The aim of Lhc,c intenenlionist policic> i not to presene capitalism, but lo sub· stitute a mixed ccouomy for il. Jt i> a'°umed that this mixed economy is neither capitalism 11or socialism. Jt is dc ·cribed as a third S)Slem. as far from capitalism as it is from socialism. It is alleged that it stands mi(hl3) bet11cC'n sociali m and capital ism. reta1111ng the advantages of both and avoiding the di advantages inhere11l in each. i\Tore than half a ce11tury ago, the outstanding man in the British Socialist mo1ement, idney Webb, declared that the ocialist philosophy is "but the conscious and explicit a:;,ertion of prin· ciples of social organization which have been already in great part unconscious· ly adopted." And he added that the economic hi;;tory of the nineteenlh cen­tury 11as "an almost continuous record of .the progres of sorialism."' 1 A few years later an eminent British statesman, Sir William llarcourl, stall'cl: "'We arc all ocialists no11."'5 When in 19B an American. Elmer Hoherts. published a book on the economic polici!'' of the imp<•rial go1ernment of German) as conducted since the encl of lhe se1entie•. he called them "monarchical social· i~m.""G llo11e1·e r. it was 11ol correct simply to !!01 ernme 11 t a I measure . 'f hey expect eierything from authoritarian' action -Wide World Photo "Achieveme nts of American ... industries ... enabled ... the United States to come to the aid of the Marshall Plan countries." Above, Europe.bound U. S. tank. f ACTS FORUM NEWS, February, 1955 Page 11 What they're saying ~ (=:.=~P.l .: - ,d .,_... " r. -;J ~I )/' a bout FACTS FORUM ... ~Ir. Smoot, my personal thanks to you for an excellent talk on a subject ['·federal .\id to Education" I that has worried me a lot. I am on (definitely) the side of the fence that ays it is one of the fundamental truths that the go,·ernment, the •chools and religion •hould be unequivocally separated. I am glad that my side was pre•ented, and for the sake of those who disagree, I am glad that their c:;ide wa~ c:;o ably pre!'ented. A. M. Johnson 7127 Claimont Dr., Dallas, Te,. . . . May I have a copy ol your talk? ... It co1·ered many of the things the American people need so urgently to know .... You.­for a better informed public, Z. !If. Eberhard 2635 Harriet A1e., Minneapolis 8, Minn. ... mo.-;t interesting and thought-provoking ... De~ire to re-read and help others to knm' ahout these thing:c:;. Thank thoc:;e responsible for bringing this •plcndid program before the general puhlic and for g"'ture of sendin~ a copy to tho..;e interested. Mrs. L Bott 5300 . Figueroa . t., Los Angeles 42, Cali!. 'I ou are doing n splendid joh on yoUJ Facls Forum radio program, and all loyal Americans owe you a vote of thanks ... Mis• Ethel Foresman 110 £.16th t., New York 17, N. Y. ... It is certainly wckomc and refre-.hin{! to hear contro\·ersial topics con:·rec.I c;o thor· oughly and objerti,ely. Robert 11. Smith 5824 Rid~e hr., Cincinnati 13, Ohio ... I found this program particular!) thought-provoking and would like to u<e it as a ha'<is for discu~i;;ions with frirnc.I~. Jack Lyman I Lyman Farm, l\!iddlefield, Conn. ... As a student for the ministry, 1 feel that 1 should krep informed. If there is ani way I can keep receiving your factual data. pleai;;e let me know. Daniel A. Dryer Gordon Divinity chool. Bc,·erly Farm , ~las-. ... Please send trial subscription to Fact.\ Forum News. '\\'e need facts- -not wrongly ..,)anted opinion"! ... Miss Jean Lowrie Edmonds 4 Hastings llou,e. lla•tings-on-llud<on 6. I'\. 1. ... :\lay [Facts Forum l grow, grow and crow in the interest of all ... Yvone B. Michon 1343 Dorr St., Apt. 23, Toledo, Ohio ... Your programs are wonderful and most necessary. Joe McNulty 43 3rd t., Brooklyn 3, N. Y Page 12 identify inlen·entionism and socialism. There are many supporter,; of inter1cn­tionism "ho consider it the most appro­priate method of realizing-step by step-full socialism. But there are also many inlen·entionists who are not out right ociali ls; they aim at the estab I ishment of the mixed economy as a permanent system of economic 1~anage· ment. They endea1or lo restrain, lo rcgu late and to "impro1e" capitalism b) go1ernmenl interference with busine" and by lahor unionism . • llowe' er, al I the methods of inter \entionism are doomed to failure. This means: the inlen·entionist measures must needs result in conditions which from the point of view of their ou·n adl'ocates are more unsatisfactory than the previou stale of affairs they were designed to alter. These policies are therefore contrary to purpose. '.\1inimum \\age rate,. 1d1ether en· forced by go1 ernm!'nl decree or hi labor union pre"ure and compul>ion. are u-ele" if they fix 1rngc rates at the marJ..et lc1el. But if the) Ir) to rai>l' 1rnge rates abo1e tlH' le1el 1d1ich the un­hampered lahor market \\Ould ha'e determined, tlwy result in permanent unemployment of a great part of the potential labor force. Co1ernment spending cannot create additional jobs. If the f!01crnment pro 1ides the fund required hy taxing the citizens or by horro\\ ing from the pub lie, it abolishes on the one hand as many jobs as it creates on the other. If !?O' ernmcnt spending is financed hi bor­rowing from the commercial hanks, it means credit expansion and inflation. If in the course of uch an innation the rise in commodity prices exceeds the rise in nominal wage rates, unemplo) ment will drop. But what makes unem ployment shrink is precisely the fact that real wage rate are falling. The inherent tendency of capitalist evolution is to raise real wage rate' steadily. This is the effect of the pro gre-si'e accumulation of capital In mean> of which technolof!ical methods of production are impron•cl. There j, no means by 1d1ich the height of \\agl' rates can be rai,ed for all tho-.e eage1 to earn wages other than through the increase of the per capita quota of capital invested. Whenever the accu­mulation of additional capital stops, the tendency towards a further increase in real wage rates comes to a standstill. If capital consumption is substituted for an increase in capital available, real wage rates mu t drop temporarily until the check. on a further increase in ca ital are remo,cd. Co1ernment measun 11 hich retard capital accumulation lead to capital consumption-such confiscatory taxation-are therefore d rimental to the vital interests of tl 11 orkers. Credit expansion can bring about temporary boom. But such a fictitio prosperity must encl in a general deprl ,ion of trade, a slump. It can hardly be asserted that t !'COnomic histOr) of the last decades r run counter to the pessimistic pred tion of the economists. Our af!e I lo face great economic troubles. fl this is not a crisis of capitalism. It the crisis of interventionism, of poJic designed to improve capitalism and substitute a better system for it . '\o economist ever dared to a•" that inlcr1entioni rn could result inn thing else than in disaster and ch• The achocates of interventionism fo most among them the Prussian JI torieal chool and the American J1r tutionalists were not cconomi,ts. 1 thl' contrary. In order to promote th plans, they flat!) denied that thrrf any su ·h thing as economic la11. Jn ti opinion go1ernmrnts arc free to ach1 all they aim al 11 ithout heinf! rrstrai hy an inrxorahlr regularity in thr qurncc of economic phenomena. I the German Social isl Ferdinand I salle. they maintain that the state is(, Tlw inl!'n l'ntionisls do not apprll' the ,luch of economic matters 1' scientific "ilisinterestrclnc". \lo•l of ti arr dri1l'n hy an cn1 ious re-.cnltl against tho,l' 1d10se incomes are la than their 011n. This bias makes it~ possible for them to see thinf!s a• t rca not rna! and izes 11 tnen al.lie ing, com1 instr SUrnt pren lo s in th lo Cl prod mark supp chea1 to us. lerial handi in lht their more busi111 ducin scram the la efficie the Sp ome, ne s"' filling Ant ope rat -Wide World r National Socialist Adolf Hitter FACTS FACTS FORUM NEWS, fi'eb1'1ta1'11> increa e in ca 1ment measu~ ccumulation pt ion-such re therefore d< nterests of tl bring ahoul uch a fictitio general depr ,ertecl that last decades I ;imistic prrd . Our age h : trouble:;. I ·apitalism. !' ism, of pohr )ila lisrn and ~m for it. larecl lo a>' cl resul L i11 a ;Ler and ch• ntionism fu Prussian I <\merican h ·rnnomisls. ) promote ti d that thrrt 1ic law. In ti free to ach1 1eing restrai 1rily in thr eno111ena. l •'erclinancl I he stale is G ) nol appr<> matter:-0 '' ,_ \Jo,t of th HI' n•senlll~ mes are la s mal-.es it thing~ n~ l really are. For them the main thing i, not to impro\'e the conditions of the masseo, but to harm the entrepreneurs ?nd capilali ts e\en if this polic} victim­izes the immense majority of the people. PROFITS OBJECTIONABLE In the eyes of the interventionists the mere existence of profits is objection­? Lle. ~'hey speak of profit without deal­rng with its corollary-los . They do not ~omprehend that profit and loss are the mstruments by means of which the con­umers keep a tight rein on all cntre-reneurial activities. It is profit and . 0 s that make the consumers supreme in the direction of business. It is absurd lo contrast production for profit and production for u e. On the unhampered market a man can earn profits only by supplying the consumers in the best and cheapest way with the goods they want lo use. Profit and loss withdraw the 111a­lerial factors of production from the ~lands of the inefficient and place the111 1 n the hand of the more efficient. 1t i:; their social function to make a man the more influential in the conduct of business the better he succeeds in pro· ducing commodities for which people scramble. The consumers suffer when ~;~ 1.aws of the country prevent the most 1c1ent entrepreneurs from expanding the sphere of their activities. \"'\Thal made som~, enterprise develop into "big busi­~ 1~t -1' was precisely their uccess in ng best the demand of the mas es. Anticapilalistic policies sabotan-e the ope ra 1i· on o f the capita list system "o f the market economy. The failure of inter· , entionism does not demonstrate the necessity of adopting socialism. It mere­ly exposes the futility of inten,ention· ism. All those evils \\hich the self-styled "progressives" interpret as evidence of the failure of capita lism arc the out· come of their allegedly beneficial inter­ference with Lhe market. Only the ignor­ant, wrongly identifying inLenenLion­i:- m and capitalism, belie\e that the remedr for these C\ ils is oocialism. Footnotes tf:H'n the Communist Afani/esto has to admit: .. The orp;anization of the proletarians into a class, and thus into a political party, is ever and again hroken up by competition amonp: the workers themseh-es." (\1arx and Eng:els: Das Kommunistische Manifest, p. 300). ee also \l arx, Das Elend tier Philosopliie, 8th F:di1ion, Stuttgart 1920, p. 161. 2 \t which point people quite illogically O\·er· look the fart that the wage-earner too is in­trrestt.• d in the prosperity of the branch of production and of the plant in whirh he is rngap;ed. 3E\t'n Cunow (Die Alarxsclie Ceschichts-, Crs­ellsrh11fts ·wul Staatstheorie, Vol. 11, p. 53) in his uncritical 1\farx apology has to admit that \Ian and Engels in their political \\ ril. ings ~peak not only of the three main cla""-es but differentiate between a \\hole ~eries of minor and side classes. •Sidney Webb in Fabian Essays in Socialism, first published in 1889 (American edi tion, New York 1891, p. I). scr. G. \I. Trevelyan. A Shortened llistory of England (London 1912), p. 510. Of.Jmer Rohen", Alonarchical Socialism in Germany (New York 1913). -Wide World r olf Hit ler "'ebruarJI• Global Soclall1t Sidney Webb FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februarv, 1955 What they're saying J~4J a bout FACTS FOR UM ... I recommend Facts Forum to all I meet. I regret I did not know about it long ago. Mrs. Al eta If ans en 8325 Indiana he., Chicago, 111. Congratulations on your splendid work in successfully awakening the American people from political apathy .... Randolph Bolles, Jr. Washington, Conn. ... Congratulations on the splendid work )'NI are <loin;; in presentinj:!; the problems of today to the general public for their con· "iderntion. llart'ey C. Brown, A/2c, U AF flox 315, Goodfellow Air Force flase, Texas * * * If you are interested in building up the circulation of the PACTS FORUM NEWS, you may wish to buy copies of the current issues of the NEWS In bulk that your sec· retary may hand one to a caller upon his departure, suggesting it is for his airline or train travel reading. In this way you may at once maintain good public relations and help counteract common Mistaken ideas and Influences. Order at special bulk rate of 15 cents a copy. • * • • * ... Your programs are tops. Ret'. A. A. Niederhelman Plymouth Congregational Church, heboygan at lllarr t., Fondulac, Wis. ... your broadcast ... on "Guaranteed An· nual Wage" ... ga\"e an excellent summary of the Yiews of hoth lahor and management. Charles T. IP heeler, Jr. 419 N. Adams St., Ypsilanti, Mich. Congratulations. Your l1ri ..... tmas edition of Facts Forum News i~ a g-em. It is inspiring and alarming: Inspiring in that it ghes the reader a clear-cut picture of the philosophy of go,•ernment that made and has kept the U.S. "the land of the free and the home of the bra\'e." It is alarming in that it giYes a clear-cut picture of the extent to which dia· lectical materiali-.;m emanating from .Mosco'\ has contaminated the proud ~pirit of cour· age, loyalty, and faith to which we were born. ince the Chri&tmas issue, I have done this with my copy of Facts Forum News after I ha\e read it: I give it lo a friend, I say to him: "II ere is a magazine that is the or~ly on~ of its ~ind jn America. I know you will enJOY readmg 1t. Be sure to bring it back to me after you have read it unless you have a friend to whom you can pass it on." It might not be too bad an idea for our side to start multiplying ourselves, too. Robert D. Bluntzer Wilson Bldg., Corpus Chrbti, Te'"' Page 13 Federal Aid to Education America is built upon the faith of the American people in education. Our d1ildn•n arc the nation's hope, the nation's future. houlcl the federal govcrnu1t·111 lw responsihle for guaranteeing equal and adequate educational opportunities for all? Classroom and teacher shortages spur some forces to urge imnwdiale and suhs1a11tial federal action in the field of education. Others spurn federal aid SH) i11~ 1lia1 suhsidies bring control and that the federal government is already in the educ·ational field to a dangerous extent. Dan moot presents the pros and cons on this 'ilal i,;,uc'. D 0 ) ou appro1 e o[ federal aid to education·~ We presently have two important laws providing assistance to local school dis­tricts in areas where federal activities have resulted in an increase in school enrollments and a decrease in local taxa­tion because of federally-purchased property. Public Law 815 provides for school construction in such areas; Public Law 874 pro1ides for assistance in school operation and main tenance.' And there are, of cour e, many other types of federal assistance to local edu­cational facilities. According to the Li­brary of Congress, there may be as many as 275 separate and distinct fed­eral acti1ities in the field of education. The 195 i federal budget included o\"er a billion dollars in various aid-to-educa­tion programs. Despite all these specific measures, ho11e1·cr, no 01er-all, general, and inclu­si1 ·e program for federal aid to educa­tion ha ever been authorized by Con­gres despite continuous efforts on the part of those 11 ho think we should have such a program. l n the last ses ion of Page 14 -Wide World Photo Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby the 83rd Conl(re s alone, t11enty-one hills to pro1 ide federal aid to education failed to get approval.' ecretary 01eta Culp Hobby, of the School Days Department of I lca lth, Education. Welfare, asked that action he dci• until a report could he made h) White House 1·onfl'rt'n<·e sd1eduk1I ovemher 30, 19:)5. In the mcanti111t one-mi llion-dol lar fund 11as appr< for allotment lo s tales for t·on fcrcnre· educa tiona l problems, preliminan this White llouse confercnce.3 Such organiza tions as the at!• Education Association. the at1• Parent-Teadirrs A>sociation, and l\ational Child Lahor Committee I urged immediate and substantial a of the fcdC'ral go1crnmcnt in the fir education. * * * * Let's consider some of the ar~ ments which they, and many other have presented in say ing "Yes" the question: "Do you a1i1irove of federal airl education?" . I\ \Ia1, l 951, there was an i111po1 c<•n·n11>J11 at the White Jl ouse. President ,·igncd a hill whieh pro' about one billion dollars per year in eral aid to the states. The Presiden pressed his gratification oYer the e FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februari· Let rnent grea t sion t the v re. poi rnaine nized a resp But aid t reeoro higl11v arc tH But than E the n lrai 11 c.\• nation ways.• I l SI found Until II goes u tional that it suppor But few 111 crnors Pigeon Ill and nad0 ~I aid Oie But 1 hope a no sud legislat have so and, ar and i n1ent n1 sides th we ougl two or rnany 1 this legi FACTS lren ihl<· 1tial dit'b o a Ed ucation. ion hr ckl" • made h) · •chC'cluird he 111ra nti111 11 as appft · eonft> rcnce· preliminan Cll CC.3 s the ati• • the ati• nlion, and : ommittce b 1hsta nti al ~r'I it in the he of the arr many o(hf' ring- "Yes" federal aid . as an in1p01 ite House. wh ich pro' per year in 1e Pres icle"1 oYer the e Februarf· 350,000 CLASSROOMS NEEDED A go\ ernment survey shows that there is presentl y a de fi ci t of nea rly 350.000 class rooms, and the s itua tion is ra pidly gro" ing " orse. An C\Jll' nditure of ten bill ion dollars on nc" schools " ould merely permit us lo ca tch up "ith our present needs. El ementa ry school e n roll me n t has cl imbed past the 23 million ma rk. By l 965, the fi g ure for elementa ry and sec­onda ry chools is expec ted to hit '14 million.• - Wide World Photos Left, dangerously narrow hallway. Right, crumbling wall in century-old school build ing, \'\Thy, then, in the face of the e gov­ernment statistics, is th ere any opposi­tion to federal aid to education? One principal argument made by the clie­harcls is that the local communities and sta tes will take ca re of the itu ation them­selves. They overlook the fact that many local communities which have in the past borne the entire finan cial respon­s ibility of education can no longer do so, even when they tax themselves to the limit. rnent of this legisla tion. l le cited the g_reat need fo r moderniza tion and expan­slon to. rcmo, e defi c ienc ies and to meet 1 ie vastl y increased demand. Prima ry responsibilit), the Pres id ent said re­n~ a inrd in the sta tes but the law r~CO"· n1 zed ti t I f ' b ia l 1c ede ral government had a respons iliilit) in this problem . . Fut the one billion dollars wa not for 8 " lo our schools. It was an all -time j:corcl for fl•dcral aid to highways. 1ow, ugl111 ays a rc, indeed, important. They ar~ ncccsoa ry for na tional defense.• ti ut ran the) be any more important 1 1an adequa te educational fa cilitie for lie_ na tion's c hildren ? urel y well ­tra1. n cd c1·1 ·IZ cns a re more important to national defense than s i~· l a ne hi ~h - ways.• r f It seem,, ho11 c1 er, that mone) can be ou~i1d for every federal respons ibility un11 we come to education. Then the cry f oes up th a t we have a s taggering na- 1;onal debt, th at our taxes are high, and iat it is impossible to set as ide funds to support our chools' 13 . f ut jus t let some of the states go a cw 11 eeks with out rain and their gov­e~ n ors wing their wa'y like homing pigeons lo the na tion al capital to de-mand cl f . 11 1 ' an get, ederal relief. Let a tor- /I n·s trike. or a clam break, and federal ' ic ie., to the stricken area. h But the nood of children, the nation's ope and the na tion's future receives lneo .s uI <'h cage r a ttenll. on from th' e f e d era I h gis ature. Congress alway seems to a a ~e so many more important matters n ' 1 a ni way, th ere isn't enough money anc if there were the federal govern - lllent n . I ' s" l 11g 1l control the school and be- 111< es there is a big national debt and 11~0 ought to study the matter for another or three yea r - and there are so :h~nl ~ech~ical questions in drafting eg1slaL1on and we might try to get FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februarv, 1955 to it at the next sess ion of Congress!• l\lcamd1ilc. thousands of children go to school day after day in unsuita ble and dangerous buildings; a re taught on half­tim e shifts by underpaid and under­train ed teachers.• The la rgest number of children in proportion to population is in the areas with the least proportion of wealth. The people in some south ern states who pay the highest tax rate for the -Wide World Photos Education's "battle of the bulge." Above, f irst graders on prolect In corridor. Below, one-room school, typical of nearly half the available buildings, Paire 15 education of their children are below the national a,·erage in school expendi­tures per child. If some slates put their whole general budget into the public schools alone not a thing into legisla­tures, courts, police, or what not-they would still be far below the average for the nation.• Even in the mo t prosperous states there are many educational problems and need for federal a istance. Vastly more important than adequate school building are the people who pre­pare our children with knowledge and teach them to think. The school teacher is the central figure in the education process. We entrust the minds and the character of our children to the teacher for many hours of the day. We look to the teacher to mold the chil­dren for the respon ibilities of manhood and womanhood. Inevitably the charac· ler and influence of the teacher are woven into the character of the entire nation. Yet we are guilty of shocking neglect of our teachers. We have never given them the recognition, the appreciation. and the financial security they deserve. Poorly paid even before World War II. their situation is much worse today. Their earnings have not kept pace with earnings in general. Rising co. t ha\c forced thousands of teachers from the classrooms and they are still leaving. The drain is greatest among our be,;l­trained teachers. Teachers with emer­gency certificate are becoming less the exception than the rule. Teacher-train­ing colleges cannot even begin to meet the huge d ·mands for teachers from the dwindling graduating classes, as young people abandon their teaching ambition lo economic necessity. We need at least 125,000 new teach­ers each year. We are not getting nearly that many.• COLLEGES IN DIFFICULTY, TOO All our colleges are having serious financial trouble, whether they are stale institutions, land-grant colleges, large private universities, or small colleges. A New York Times survey shows that half our independent liberal art instilu· lions are operating in the red. The college are having serious dif­ficulty in receiving funds from the source which ham supported them in the past. as estate and inheritance taxe no longer make it posoiblc for rid1 I pie to give large support lo such in' tu lions.• othe1 infer child for" ferri1 of th space tics j and, terne1 Present college enrollment is do11 which means that tuition, 'o often ~ backbone of our higher institution'· dwindling. At the same time, steadily rising l lion and living cost.~ are making it creasingly difficult for children of I< income families lo obtain the benefi1' a college education.• It one 1 do1rn facili t gre s, fundi which the d There arc ten million adults In Cnited tales who are functionallv illil ate that is, \\ho have completed fe than five years of schooling. Dur• World War II, over 600,000 men "' rejected for military service becau'e functional illiteracy. Three hundr thousand were rejected for the ss1 cause during the first year of the Kort conflict. The end of segregation in schools a colleges will create further educatio problems. l t will require. in most ca• the removal of a considerable nun1l of white children from schoolholl' which are well-equipped, convenier located, and hygienically maintainrO In nation lie spe incom El Am( Ameri the ea1 munitJ 11as th1 lie,ed of Ami that ti sought ~hroug. l'homa pect 1 expect be."s This nian ci govern1 educate l\nieric. the del Conven recogni the pre educati< lllay at interest At th< clear th1 leave sti rom111u1 lional ir On ti state ar ~ssistan< llonal ir ?n educ. 1n the tr the extre foreign< other ha fed~ral 1 rntional cooper at ship in e -Wide world~ Modern school fac ilities offer students diversified activities. At upper left, physical education class at Oak Ridge, Tenn., high ; gymnasium, while ( upper right l class in California Intermed iate school learns to cook. Lower photo shows boys at Washington lnl iate School, Bellflower, Calif., workln9 at Mveral crafts In well·li9hted workshop. Reacti, able to L FACTS PaJ?e 16 FACTS FORUM NEWS. F'ebni.arrl• 1lc for rid1 I' 'I to 'uch in• :ment is do11 n, ,o often t institution'· 1dily rising Ii ~ making it :hildren of Jc 1 the benefit! 1 adults in 1ctionally iJlit ompleted fe~ ooling. Dur1 1,000 men 11 vice becau'e 'hrec hundr for the sn1 r of the Kore 1 in schools a her educatio , in most ctJ!" lerable nun11 n s hoolhoO l, convenie~ r maintained ?ther schoolhouses which are drasticalh 1 n~erior in all respects. Bringing egr~ children into schools heretofore reserved ~or ~vhite children will necessitate trans· errmg some of the white children out of their chools to provide the required space. This would mean inferior facili­ties for the transferred white children and, in many cases, resentment and bit­terness.' It is not the American way to raise ~ne group by pulling another group ~ 01~1.1._ Our traditions call for attractive acil11Ies for all. It is the duty of Con­f'e s, therefore, to appropriate adequatP ~~ds for unsegregated classrooms. ;h 11ch _will mean an improvement for all e children and a harm to none.' l_n Ino we pent 3.0 per cent of our national income for schools· in 1951. ~ie pent only 2.5 per cent of o~r national income on chools. EDUCATION SECURES FREEDOM \ Am_erica i built upon the faith of the '1 merrcan people in education. Among tie earl) English coloni tr. the first com­munity undertaking in each ,ctllrnwnl ~~as the colonial ,chool. The colonists he· ,;reel fi~mly. as succeeding generations 1 Americans ha,·e believed after them. t 1 at the political freedom "hi ch tlw1 <ou ht ·. I g could be made secure onh Tt Ii rough w1. d esprca d popu Ia r r d ucation. . 10mas Jefferson said "If a nation ex-ep ect to b e i. gnorant , an d f ree ... 1. l bx~;cts \\hat never was and never will e. • This basic idea that only the educated nian can be truly free, and that self­gdvernment i pos ible only "ith an ~ uca.ted citizenry, pervades all earh thmerrc?n hi~tory and underlies all of Ce dehberahons of the Constitutional • 0 nvention. The founder of this nation ~hcognized a valid national intere t in de promotion and encouragement of e ucation a national intere t which ~iiay at times transcend the more limited •nterest of the individual states.• I At the same time they made it equall) Ir· ear that ti ie nati·o n' al government wou 1c1 eave strictly to the tales and the local romrnun't' h l lio I . 1 1.es t e control of their cc ura-na institutions.• st On thee two foundation tones lation which \\ould have fulfilled the promi.e of this partnership. It i incon­ceivable that they should have succeeded thus far; it will be disastrous to our edu­cational future if they continue to suc­ceed. control of the children for educational purposes .. - [the late] deprives the father of the sacred rights of parent­age .... "Whence does tJ1e State derive the right to take charge of my children and say when, where, what, and by whom they shall be taught? Whence does ... [the State l deri,•e the right to take an­other man "s money and devote it to the education of my child? ... A free people whose heritage and hope of freedom are in the equal opportunities of their children musl not he deterred by the mi placed cries of "states' rights'' must not be frightened by the false rriPs of communism rai~rd again~l C'\'C'r~ movement to deepen the meaning of \ merica for all \ mericans and to extend freedom and opportunity to the people in all areas rural or urban: prosperou• or poor. Helping lo 11uaranlc•p Pq11al and ad!'· '·If the tale ma) upon the plea of 'nece<•ar) to the general welfare' take under its control the education of the people. it may. upon the same plea ... take charge of their religion. for if edu­cation be nec·e•-an to the maintenance - Wide World Photo Kindergorten room with fenc e-e nclosed ptay-yord ot streamlined school in Bellflower, Calif. quate educational opportunities for all the nation' children is a federal respon­< ihility. We must insist that our federal g<H ernn1ent as ume it. That was one side of the question. Here, now, is the opposite side - arguments of some who DO NOT a1iprove of federal a id to educat ion. * * 0 September 29, 1875, a Mr. an­som, whom history has forgotten, addres ed the Texas Constitutional Con­' ention, expressing oppo;;ition to a pro­po al that Texas set up a public school system. He said: "Mr. President .. . . of good government ... religion is more so .... "Friend,, of public education [say] that if \IC do not provide a good system of public schools, emigrant will not come ... [to Texas] to settle and develop the wealth of this great late. Very well sir, let them stay where they are, or g~ somewhere else. For one, I do not want men to come ... [to Texas] "ho are moved to do so by the desire to have the hard-earned dollars of other men applied to the support of their familie . And I 'hould think. sir. that men who are too lazy to educate their own children and mean enough to want other men io be forced to do it for them, would be a long time in de,·eloping the wealth or greatness of any state."• -Wide World • enn., high i' lngton lntfl" 8 a~e and local control. with federal 1. sistt~ce and support where the na­aiona mtere t requires we have built in hducational system which is unique th t e truest sense of the word. Avoiding f e ~xtreme centralization found in man) ~heign countries yet avoiding, on the red er hand: the evils of a "do-nothing" c l ~ra] policy concerning national edu­c a 10nal problems we have evolved a ~?Perative local-state-federal partner-s lip in education.• abFeactionaries in Congress have been e lo block constructive federal legi - "How dare a government professing to be free ruthlessly invade the sacred domain of private duty and private right? What right has ... [ governmentl to lay violent hands upon ... American citizens who have not attained their majority to force them to attend particu­lar schools, study particular books under a particular teacher? ... By assuming Mr. Sansom, of course, lost his battle. Texa has a public school ystem. But notice M.r. Sansom was talking in 1875. At that time, Texas was economi­cally the poorest state in the Union­the very poorest. Yet nowhere in these debates i there one word about asking the federal government for help. Today, when Texa is among the most FACTS FORUM NEWS, February, 19.55 Page 17 prosperou> . tateo in the Cnion. you ought to see the list of Texas school sy · terns which have had, are getting, or want federal aid. That list is a long as vour arm. THE PEOPLE PAY Where does the federal government get its money? From the people in the indi\ idual state,. Why sl10uld the people of Florida pay money into the federal treasury in Waohington in order to get a small portion of it back for helping to finance their local schools? And a small portion is all they e,·er get back, becau'e a \ery hea\ y percentage of all the money \OU end into Washington has to be spent to maintain the frightfully expen· si,·e machinen of administration. lsn"t federal aid to education designed to help the le,s pro,perous states in order to standardize and equalize educational opportunities for all the children in the nation ? 10 That's "hat the proponents of federal aid to education say. because it gi,·es them a good talking point with the ing that private schools are bad because they keep all children from getting the same kind of education. The idea of Dr. Conant, as of the 'ational Education Association, seems to be that all our chil­dren hould be forced to go to the same kind of chools, use the same kind of huildings, read the same kind of books. have the sam kind of teachers, eat the ame kind of lunches, think the same kind of thoughts, play the same kind of games, until they arri\ e ultimately at the same kind of sameness which charac­terize the state-indoctrinated youth of the Communist countries. 11 The Ie,eling argument of federal aid to education proposals al,o makes an appeal to the em y and natural greed of some people. There are folks in Missis­sippi who rejoice at the idea of getting for their public schools federal mone) "hich was taxed out of the pockets of those \ ankees in Pennsylvania. And there are. no doubt, people in Oregon who like to feel that some of the monn the' "re getting from the federal go,ern·- -Wide World Photo Dr. James B. Conant (at right ), U. S. High Commissioner for Germany, shakes hands with Dr. Edwin Fels, Dean of the Mathematical Science Faculty, after receiving an honorary degree of Doctor of Science from West Ber lin's Free University. It was the forty -fourth degree received by Dr. Conant, former president of Harvard University. Socialists, welfare-slaters, and miscella­neous do-gooders who believe in le,eling off and standardizing who think of the problems of educating infinitely variou' human heings in the same way that thev think of rai ing a fine, uniform herd of "hite-faced cattle: uch people, for exam­ple. as Dr. James Conant, formerly pre,;i­dent of Harvard and presf'ntly America' f!iah Commissioner in Germany Dr. Conant one power behind the cenes in the '\'ational Citizens Commission for the Public chools and the cherished darling of the ational Education Asso­cation and of all the other similar organ­izations, such as the national PT A. which have become fronts for nationaliz­ing education in the United tatrs. 11 Dr. Conant has publicly decried the con­tinued cxi<tence of private schools, say Pllge I ment comes out of the coffers of the oil millionaire in Oklahoma. But the politi­cal promises to tax the richer states in order to provide better schools for the poor states turn out in the end to be a lie, like all similar soak-the-rich prom­i" e of ocialists and vote-buying poli­ticians. In the end, Alabama. California. \"ew York, Maine, and Utah every one of the forty-eight tales pay more into the federal treasury because of federal aid to education than they ever get back as aid to education just as they pay more into the federal coffers in gasoline taxes than the)' get back in federal funds for roads." SUBSIDIES BRING CONTROLS foreover, and more importantly: it is both fal<e and foolish to say that the federal g°' ernment can subsidize a~' activity whether it be farming, shiP ping, or ochooling that it docs n also control. There is not a chool 5)' tern or college in the land that can g a subsidy or contract from the feder govrrnmrnt unlrss it compliei with I~ notions of the administration in Wa•h ington about segregation, loyalty, an? on. If the federal government g1 1 ~ money to help pay the salaries of tenc ers, the federal goYernment is going. have the final authority in the elecll of teachers. If the federal goyernme gives money to buy books, the federl government is going to resen e fi authority to apprO\e the hooks. 13 But if we just have a little bit of I era I aid to education, just enough 1 smooth out the rough spots, can't avoid the extent of federal control th might be dangerous? Anion the colon Lies SU( field tri1 behave~ how to I 0 PPosite They rnuch ab o~vn nati pied With ~nternati< rng the k ?Hd Patri rdeals b Once the camel gets his nose in tb tent, he takes O\er. \Vhen our jiubi chool systems first began w h ic 1 "J only about seventy-five years ago thf "ere concci,·ed as systrms which wou he organized, controlled. and financed the local level to provide fundameni training in the basic tools of learl11 for children. This system has alres mu,hroomed, ernn without the final '1 of converting it into a federal sysle until it has got completely out of hand and beyond the control of the P ents who proYide the children and money. Most public school adminislf tors today. looking upon themselve' professional experts, are resentful of 3 kind of interference of parents and I· payers in the operation of the pul schools. They do stage exhibition d· "hen parents are invited to come arou on embarrassed and awkward visits.• they pay lip service to the idea thal school belongs to the parents. Actufl however, they bitterly resist any e on the part of parents to examine If books or change curricula." lmagin iears if 11 111to this authority Washingt administr NO TIME FOR LEARNING fl~es ure < , 1·1a. tion, J Moreover, the public school syste111 1 n11ssion fc again, even without the final, fata · lohby gro of federalization have already ~ grown the original notion of what pU But wh I I d b T 111• 'd100Is ir 'C 100 s were suppose to e. n ~ afTord atle of the biggest, most expenshe pu s hool systems in the C nited tale' answer to day, students !!<'l little effectiYe in~I g.over111ner lion in grammar, spellin!!, compo•1I ;ihility of language. geography, or any of the ~I :; 1 ~u~- O\\ basic ubjects which used to con•ll; f 0 l('c the curriculum of the school. The ttH'\ ofr it~elf professional educationists as the) th Primar to call them~elves don't believe in ere nevi of this old-fashioned nonsense, for ·htates whc thing·, and for another. man)· of ~ e educat Ing. modern schools simply don't have 1 for them. Their time is taken up· Anothe with the routine of exposing childre'' ~1ar\y in the mental discipline of learnin!l• 1 rolol(y , with more expensive and relaxing arl F°ACTS F' FACTS FORUM NEWS, Februarl/• mbsidize an• arming, shi~ . it docs n a chool S)" I that can gt n the feder plies with t~ lion in Wa>~ oyalty, and· rnment gi1e Hies of tear 1L is going. 1 i the selecll 1 go\'crnme s, the federl resen e fin •OOh. 13 tie bit of I st enough ots, can't ii control th s nose in n our pub "hi ch " HS ago th' which wot id financed fundamen A. -Wid• World Photo the c ~on~ early American colonists, the first community undertaking in each settlement was 0 onial school. Above, costumed schoolgirls In New York enliven early Americana. s of learni has alres the final sr deral syste y out of 1 rol of the f dren and 11 admini•l1 themselve• sentful of 3 :ents and I· of the pub hibition d come aro0 ird visits. idea that nts. AclU9 ist any efi e,x. amine ti ties •u .1 field t _c 1 as archery, square dancing. beh rips, class di cussions on how to howa~e on a date, adole cent seminars on opp .0 make yourself attractive to the OSlle sex, and "projects." rnu~~ey I no longer teach children ver} own a ).Out the glorious history of our llied "?~on, becau e they are preoccu­intcr Wll. the one-world idea of leaching ing lhatk'nal understanding and prepar­and paetr' id~ not for li\'es of dedicated ideal biotic service to purely American s ut for world citizenship.'• lrn · )cars ~1i:i.e w~at we will have in a fe11 into lhi, ve .bring the federal government autho . · P1 lure and tran fer the final Was) ~lly over our public schools lo adrn;1'~1 gton, 11 here the one or two lop Pres nistrators are constantly under the RNING f'iati Ure of the l\ational Education Asso­ool syste111• llliss~n, /TA, ational Citizens Com· nal, fatal· lohb on or the Public Schools, and other already y groups. of what pu~ ·!But what are 11e going to clo about b e. Tn 111 ,, a' 'f fioorodl s tli· n t h ose stales "iJi ch just can' t ensi\'e pu ans we a equate school y tems? The real led late' gover r lo that question is that before •cti\ e in•l· . nn1ent sta t d t · ·p 'ibilit · 're. axing away our pos-compo'' in 0 Y o[ educating our own children ) of the ~I its puorl. "" n way; before the ;late used to Con•lll1 f or itselll'fC and t axi' ng powers to neale I. The nJO' of pr· a near monopoly in the field - as the) there imary and secondary education believe ill . lates never was a place in the United cnsc. for theed whe.re a child could not gel all of many of ing. ucallon he was capahle of ahsorh­n't have 1' aken up· Anothe 1 childrel1 '.learly i r ans" er !'ouched more lg . g rdrol n the terms of our modern ear_mn ' 1 ov;y which presumes moncv. lo he :laxmg ac F' ACTS FORU!\1 NEWS, February, 1955 ebruarll• 1 the ans11 er to all problem is that every individual state in this Union i infinitely helter olI financially than the federal government is. The debt of the federal government is now pushing the 275-bil· lion-dollar mark. The combined indcLt­cdness of all stale and local government' in all forty-eight states is about eighteen billion dollars. 1 • With such a condition as thi exi ting, the very suggestion that the federal gm· crnment give financial aid lo the stales is idiotic.•• Po\\erful forces in America have for ) ears been plugging for nationalized •chools under the label of federal aid. fn every Congress, dozens of bills are introduced. The federal go,ernment is already in the educational field lo a vast and dangerous extent. When the elabor­ately prepared White House conference occurs in l 955, according to Mrs. Hob­by's schedule, we shall see: it will con­dude "ith a recommendation for a fed­eral aid to education program. If we Americans sit on our hand and permit our public school system to be nationalized; permit the responsibility for educating our children lo pass into the hands of politicians and bureaucrats in Washin~ton, we shall gel 11hat we desrn e. and we shall descn c what "c gpl.16 T here, in quick review, are t wo opposite sides of a Facts Forum question: "Do you approve of federal aid to education?" Bibliography ' U. S. Code, 1952 Edition . '"Educational Legi•lation in the 83rd Con­gress, Second Session," by Rex II. Turner, \EA Journal, October, 1954, p. 432. ' Remark• of the lion. J. Glenn Beall, Con­i: ressional Record. Sept. 3, 1954, p. A 6648. • NF:A Journal, Lrptemlwr, 1951, p. 345 (4). 5 Remarks of the Hon. Paul 11. Douglas, Con· wessional Record, July ~. 1954, p. A 4815. "Rrmarb of the Hon. l.i,ter Hill, Congres· .<ional Record, Sept. I 0, and Oct. 1 and 31, 1951. Reprints from Superint ndent of Co"· t•rnment Dorumrnh. ; "From Our Re2ders," by Edmond Cahn New R•1mblic, Aug. 3l, 1953, pp. 22-23. ' • 1nnual l'eport of the U. S. Department of llealth, !:.duration, and Welfare, 1953, pp. 159-163. 9 Debates in the Texas Constitutional Con· l'ention 1875, published by The Uni,ersity of Texas Press, 1930, pp. 101-113. 10 "Federal Education llas a Long List of Aliases," The Saturday Evening Post, Aug. 21, 1954, pp. JO, 12. 11 lluman El'e11ts, far. 18, 1953. " Remarks of the lion. Robert D. Harrison of lelJrac.;ka, Congressional Record, Aug. 16, 1954, pp. A 60-14-A 6045. 1 "Federal Aid to Education," address by I. Lynd Esch, President, Indiana Central Col­lege, Indianapolis, Indiana. 14 Pamphlet by the Indiana PTA members' study group on Federal Aid to Education, ov. 15, 1952. is "Educational News ervice" (Newsletter), Vol. 1, No. 8, Oct. 19, 1954, pp. 1-2. ic Remarks of the lion. Ralph W. Guinn, Congressional Record, Jan. 13, 1949 (Reprint). -Wide World Photo At the end of a day's session children leave the famous little red schoo1lhouse at South Sudbury, Mass., where " Mary's Little Lamb" followed Mary Elizabeth Sawyer to sch~~I nearly 1 SO years ago to inspire the fam1har verse. The marker in left foreground te.lls the history of the school which, aloag with many other one·room schools in the nation, was scheduled to be closed perma· nently. Page 19 Controversy on the American seen''- Segregation • ID Public Schools quired basic r ice in founda1 is a pr the d1il him fo1 in helpi C'nliron ful that Peet eel the OpJ an opr underta 11 hirh r "Cfual le I \ 1896 the upreme Court held that segregation in public schools i not a violation of the on tilulion. In 195-t the upreme Court - under the leadership of hief Justice Earl Warren - reYersed that earlier decision and held that ~egregation in public •chool Yiolate the Fourteenth Amend­ment. "hich says that no late shall deny lo any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.1 * * * Do you think that this recent segregation decision was good for America? Let's answer that question from two opposite points of view, taking first the arguments of some who answer "Yes." THE uprerne Court's historic de· cision in the school segregation cases was unanimous. It was handed down in l\lay, 1954. The opinion was written by hief Justice Earl Warren. It held that racial cgregation of chil· dren in public •chools is unconstitu· lional. There. 111 brieL bare outline, is the story of progre:.•i1e American democ­racy's l\\enlieth century 1 ictory 01er the forces of reaction. bigotry, and preju· dice.' A time goe:. by; a its real meaning filters into the thinking of people all over the world; as it intent is imple­mented by action throughout our nation the upreme ourt's decision in the school segregation ca e will do more good for America than any other court decision or official act since Lincoln's proclamation freeing the slaves.' While rejoicing 01er this great stride in the direction of national decency, we are prone lo gi\e all the credit to Earl \V arren and the eight other Ju tices on the upreme ourt. They are indeed entitled lo all the gratitude the nation can give them. But primary credit for the decision should go lo the man primarily responsible for it - Dwight D. Eisenhower. The President. of cour e, has nothing to do with the ourt' deliberations or decisions. But the f!uiet. determined. dedicated efforts of Eisenhower created the conditions the national attitude, the national atmosphere which made Page 20 that school egregalion decision possible in \lay, 1951.' Lnmotirnted by fear of pressure groups, with no thought of glory or political gain, Dwight D. Eisenhower ha put more personal effort into solv· ing America's race problem than any President since Lincoln. Unlike his predecessor, who tried publicly but un· successfully lo force cil"il rights legisla­tion through a hostile Congress, Eisen· bower has worked, often secretly, but always efTectively, lo eliminate discrim· ination both within and without the federal government.' The fir l effect of his convictions was felt in the nation' capital. Quietly, yet "ith grim determination, the Presi· dent has brought about complete deseg· regation in the District of Columbia. T"o days after he took the oath of office as President, the District Court of Appeals knocked d01rn two laws pro· hibiting discrimination in Washington restaurants. With full presidential back· ing, the Attorney-General intervened so vigorously that within four months a Supreme ourl re\ersal abolished this discrimination.• This 11as just the beginning. Jim Crow ha:. now been eliminated from Washing· ton's theatre,. park.. swimming pools, and other public facilities. 'ext will be the integration of District jails and merging of "hite and egro fire corn· panies. \lore than a dozen "egroes have been appointed to important govern· menl position . "o longer are naval hore washrooms and cafeterias segre· gated.• ARMED FORCES DESEGREGATED In the rnst majority of veterans' hospitals, 'orth and oulh, both staffs and patients are now completely mixed. All U .. attorneys and all FBI agents are getting special indoctrination in civil rights law enforcement. Within a few months after his inauguration, Eisen­hower ended segregation and discrim· ination among the millions of Ameri· cans in our armed forces.• No truly moral American citizen can question the rnlidity of Ike's FEPC program. And it was Eisenhower's appointees - Attorney-General Brownell and Chief Justice Earl Warren who were re· sponsible for the upreme Court de· cision ordering an end lo racial segrega· lion in the nation's public school .• When Ike first appointed Earl War· ren, there was some complaint that, although Warren wa a nice guy • deserved some kind of reward for ! porting Ike politically, Warren did have the legal training or judicial perience to qualify as Chief Ju, of the upreme Court. Actually, the absence of too 111 legal training and judicial experi1 enabled hicf Justice Earl Warren pull the upreme Court together fc unanimous decision which wrote a page in the history of human equal Where previous Chief Justices .1 found themselves tied down by jud1 precedents and hedged about by nail legalisms, this "nice guy" as Warren's detractors condescendi called him was able to rise abo1f lifeless letter of the law and inte~ our onslilulion as a living, dyna111i strumenl of government which can I pace with the march of civi lization guarantee twentieth century frc~ and equality for all American cill in keeping with twentieth cenlur) cepts of what freedom and equ mean.• Earl Warren was not concerned the propaganda or political implic~~ of his decision. lie rather impall' dismissed the arguments that segre schools are all right if children of races are provided equal facilitie; did not permit himsel£ to be dra11•n the ;,sue of "hether egregated s co•t more or less than integr' •chools.8 NO MUSTY LEGALISMS Ile did not bog down in must)' i ms about what this or that phr3 thi or that clause of the Constil might have meant a hundred yea rs and he did not give up in the f3' ancient judicial decisions made.' past and gone geueration of Amefl "'We '<'nted: Puhli(' , race, Cl; Negro Playground A great humanitarian, Earl \fl concentrated his attention in the · gation is ue on the effect that sd lion has on America's children I Instead of probing into the C lution, Earl Warren probed in1' "We c. Public cdi rate but cd ' hearts and minds of people for the Constitution was written. The upreme ourl said: "Today, education is perhaps th1 important function of slate and~ governments. Compulsory school d ance laws and the great expen for education both demonstral1 recognition of the importance of lion lo our democratic society. It FACTS FORUM NEWS, F'earunrl ucati 0111 equal."• EM or . cgrega l•onal con may take ~hi lclren. IS b ' h ound 1 cal th. Childrcr F' ACTS p nice gu)' eward for ! ;r arren did or judicial Chief Jw of too n1 'ial experii arl Warren together I h wrote a 1man equal ~ui~ed in the performance of our most . asi~ public responsibilities, even serv­; ce tn lhe armed forces. It is the very . oundation of good citizenship. Today it t"h ea Ip .r incipal ·I lls t rumen t I· ll awa k enm· g I. c/ilcl to cultural values, in preparing 1.111 '~ o~ later profe sional training, and ~elping him to adjust normally Lo his f1\"J;0 nmcnt. In these clays, it is doubt­u t at any child may reasonably be cx­~; ected to succeed in life if he i denied a:ie opportunity of an education. uch 1 opportunity, where the stale has uih~ ertaken to pro,ide it, is a right 11 irh must he made aYailahle to all on "qua! term .• "'W c come then to the queolion pre- 'P\'n Ite I'c l.· Doc s segregati.o n o f c h'1l cl ren 1.1 1 u 1 H' schools solely on the basis of race, e\en though the physical facilities gation as punishment, not for what they do, but for what they arc. They may fail Lo get a correct image of human relationships because they have been giYen a di torted one in Yitai circum­' tanccs. The emotional conflict, usually repressed, can be understood only in it ~ocial context: private discrimination rrels mixed up in the child's mind with ~fficial discrimination bearing the ethi­cal stamp of the authority of the state. In decreeing school segregation, the ,late identifies itself with its most hirroted citizens. egregalion itself may bc 0 ail.\iety-producing. And the emotional health of while children is b) no means unaffected. They are apt lo have illu­sions of superiority, the superman com­plex. 10 The e are the psychiatric findings [ J uslices I wn by jud• )Oul by narlf uy" as ndescendi~ rise abo1f and inte~ 1g, dynanii which can : ivilization nlury f ~r~ erican c1ll h cenluf)· and eqo concerned ;al implica 1er impall that segrl~ hilclren o .l facilitie; , be clra11·n rerrated 5 rn~ intesi 'LISMS in musty that phra· he Constit lred years in the fsf 1s made. 0£ Amert' , Earl \'i' n in the~ ~ l that ser :hildren 1 1to the C robed iiit• >le fo! ten. ,d: erhaps thf slate and r y school di ll expe•1 :monstralf tance of .ociety. lt -Wide World Photo PlayN9: 9ro and white fourth grade rs at St, Martin School in Washington , D. C .. dash for the ound at recess. anc] oth • · • · , equal u . tangible factoro may be ity , dcpr11 e thr children or the minor­itiesg; o~r of e.qual educational opporlun- . e lirlic1e lhat it dor,.9 * * pu~~Ye loncl~1de that in the field of rate 1f ec ucation the doctrine of 'sepa­cduc ;~l equal' has no place. eparalr equaj.':~nal facilities arc inherently un- [ MOTIONAL CONFLICT RESULTS egre t' . lion I ga 1?n ~navo1clably leads lo emo-rnaya t cknfli?l 111 chi! lren. The conflict child a e different forms in different is bore~; hut 1>hatc1er form it take , it hea1th 1 • 11 lo damage a child's emotional Ch1'I d rcn arc apt lo interpret segre- FACTs FORUM NEWS, February, 1955 11 hiC'h the court accepted and wrote into ils decision, saying: "The fact is that such a practice [school segregation I <'rralro a mental health problem.'" Although Earl Warren did not con­, ider the propaganda rnlue 0£ the school segregation decision, the nation >hould. The upremc Court deci:-ion ending •rgregalion in schools could not f?il lo rinrr throurrhoul the world, e1en 1( we had no V~ice 0£ America lo carry il lo the ends of the earth. 11 When that decision was handed do1' n. the Communists lost one of their nastier accusations against us; and our egro citizens gained full opportunity to enter into the !if of their republic. This is the greatest aid that the United Stales ha had in its campaign lo con­vince the world that we stand for democ­racy. The Communists have been hitting us at our weakest point, "!:ich is our treatment of the 1egroes and the prac­tice of segregation. They hme used that all through India, all through outheasl Asia and China, all through Africa. It has been very hard lo answer. 'ow we have shining deeds to prom that we are trying lo li1e up lo our principles and lo the Declaration of lndepen­dence. 11 BETTER EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES There io no doubt that the end of ocgregation will really help egro chil­dren get a better education. Wherever there has been a vast disparity in school equipment, in length of school terms, in the quality and quantity of education, the regro child has grown into an adult human being with at least one strike against him. The abolition of segrega­tion is going lo mean that, lo a greater e\lcnl than e\'er before in the history of the Negro in America, the Negro 11 ill ha1·c the basic training necessary lo compete in an increasingly compeli­ti1e world. Dc~egregation "ill al o mean more and heller educational opportunities for 11 bite children. I nslead of the duplication and waste i1J1ohed in maintaining two sy terns of public schools, the stales can combine and integrate the systems, providing more and heller buildings, more and heller books, more and better teacher for all our children - and save money 11 hilc doing it." Segregation simply does not make ,ensc-constilulionally, legally, morally, spiritually, or economically. By administrative action and court deci ion, our national government is s11 eeping away the barriers and re­strain ls which keep 1egroes and whites from joining hands as fellow Ameri­cans and moving forward toward the real promise of America - equality for all Americans. * * * That was one side of the question. Now comes the 011posite ide - arguments of some who DO NOT think that the upreme Court de­cision in the school segregation cases was good for America. * • • • Now1.1ERE in the federal Con tilution, or in any of its amendment , is there any delegation of power lo the federal gol'ernment lo operate in the field of education. The Tenth Amendment lo our Con li­lulion says that powers not delegated to the federal go1ernment arc resen·rd to the slates, or to the people.13 Obl'iously, the power to set up and Pare 21 regulate tax-supported schools is not delegated lo th~ federal go' ernment. Therefore, the federal go,ernment has no power "ha lever to interfere in any way with the operation of schools in the individual states. The Supreme Court's deC'ision in the school segregation cases is not a judicial interpretation of the Constitution. It is a political decision, grounded not in la". but in Earl Warren's notions about psychiatry and sociology.• Warren, in his opinion, says that the Fourteenth Amendment does not really apply to the problem of segregation in the public schools, because. in 1868. when the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted, there were mi public chools in the outh. The framers of the Four­teenth Amendment couldn't possibly haYe had public schools in mind.• Chief Justice Warren admits that he is reading into the Fourteenth Amend­ment something that is not there, but that he thinks should be.• If upreme Court Justice do nol like our Constitution as the present Just­ices obviously do not they, as citi­zens, ha,·e a right to recommend changes by proper constitutional means. As upreme Court Justices, howner. they are supposed lo interpret the Con-tilution as it is, and nol to arrogate lo themselves the illegal power or amendment by arbitrarily reversing all judicial precedent and changing the meaning of the Constitution lo suit their own whims. AUTOCRATIC AND UNCONSTITUTIONAL That's exactly what the upremc Court did in the school segregation cases; il amended the Con titulion hv autocratic. uncon lilulional means. , Earl Warren' segregation deci ion means: We of the uprcme Court know that the Fourteenth Amendment was not intended to apply to public schools, but we want it to apply; therefore, we declare that it does apply. After saying enough lo prove that the uprcme Court had no constitu­tional grounds for in\'ading slates' rights and telling the stales how they mu t run their public schools, Chief Justice War­ren dismisses the question of whether or not the i\egroes in the outh are proYided facilitie equal lo those of the whites. He tries to explain why a Negro in a school with other i\egroes cannot get as much education as if he were in a school with whites, even though the facilities and e\erything el e might be adequate and equal. Mr. Warren deals in "hat he calls intangibles. Ile finally comes to grips with the problem by citing a passage from a previous Court deci•ion whirb says. "Segregation ... Page 22 has a tendency lo retard the educational and mental de\elopmenl of Negro chil­dren, and to depri\e them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racialh integrated school system."0 If there is anybody in the t:nited States who ought lo resent that decision. cast in that language, it should be America's 'cgro citizens. What that sentence says is that Negroes are nol really equal to whites. and that if you don't mix up the \egro and white children so that the '\egroes will enjo) the uplifting benefit of a"ociating with the whites, the \egroes arc harmed. Acluall), no other group of people any" hen• on earth at any time in recorded history e'er made such rapid progress as America' southern 'egroes a pri\ ale bu~incss organization, terror a whole community and indulge in ~r less acts of arson. \'andalism, crirn1r a•;;ault. and nen murder; and none the liberals or organizations profes•1 lo be cledicalecl to freedom and L pre ervation of civil rights e\·er sa1 word about the innocent and helpl< 'ictims of all that violence and tyran" But let two white hoodlum in a sou <'rn stale beat up one colored man - even, as has happened many ti mes. one soul]l('rn l\egro invohed in heinous crime be subjected to the process of law and all the race ag tors in the nation want to pass fed< laws which would destroy the liberl not only of the southern whites but' of the southern Negroes, and of all ol Amcrican citizens in the nation." With their ;elf-gc into 1 the 111 Pra den f, raracrc hrut~J a corr TC'eons If tl ance i and 01 read ju: But C\idcr ~' The l'ame ( land ol 11orld Public 1 men ts politi.~a 'UC'h a I \0111 line car ancc co .:egroei I exa . I more ProfC'ssc Yers, nn lnisinC'ss 'ialC'g Cl NI \ !any a.re grav 11011 ha1 ~now If is no se Practical -Wide World In Baltimore, Md., two Negro mothers escort their children past pickets protestin9 gration at Elementary School No. 34. outh school~ more qt employe< rombinc1 Today legc stud lion in Proportic total Pop <·arth; ai 'ludent have made in the past ninety yt'a""'· Th" people "ho hrlped thent make that phenomenal prof!re" were not uprcmc Court p ychialrists. New Deal politi­cians, Socialist agitators. or uplifting busybodies. It 11 as the southrrn 11 hi ti's "ho understood the \egroes, treated them with kincl111'"- and lrnl them a helping hand.11 Communist propaganda about the brutalizing of '\cgroes in the South is a lie. ome poor laborer can be beaten lo death in Chicago by labor goons who are trying lo force him to join a union against his will, and no one 11 an ls lo call in the federal government on the grounds that lhr murdered man's civil rif!hls were 'iolated. \ union ran picket 'I ht• blood) rat•t• 1 ioh 11 hil'h '"ing agitator:, IHl\t' inspired i.11 l ' nilt·d Stal<'' most of them 111 · orth hm e caused more sull• and bill1·nn»s than all of the lynrr and mob 'iolt•nc·e in the outh­the Ci, ii War lo dale. The \1·woes, 11hen first brottP~ \merira by \cw England and B( slme lradrrs, 11crc
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