nice guy "
sward for '
of too B*
wn by ju*J
lout by nail
uy" — as 1
ivhich can '
coin-el in'" .
hildren ol J
i be draH
laT "li e Performance of our most
s'c public responsibilities, even serv-
fm, "? ■ armed forces. It is the very
.oundation of good citizenship. Today it
lhe Plj'C,paI instrument in awakening
him f i'° cull»ral values, in preparing
. ' jor later professional training, and
piping him to adjust normally 'to his
mronnient. In these days, it is doubt-
' mat any child may reasonably be ex-
J net! to succeed in life if he is denied
opportunity of an education. Such
opportunity where the state has
*naken to provide it, is a right
' ■' must he made available to all on
>ente!ie- n"1'' t,u'" lo tlu' question pre-
Puhli U?cs,segregation of children in
I u,)l'c schools solely
race> even though lhe
galion as punishment, not for what ihey
do, but for what they are. They may
fail to get a correct image of human
relationships because they have been
given a distorted one in vital circumstances. The emotional conflict, usually-
repressed, can be understood only in its
social context: private discrimination
gets mixed up in the child's mind with
official discrimination bearing the ethical stamp of the authority of the state.
In decreeing school segregation, the
state identifies itself with its most
bigoted citizens. Segregation itself may
be anxiety-producing. And the emotional
Incillli of white children is by no means
unaffected. They are apt to have illusions of superiority, the superman complex.10
These are the psychiatric findings
, uraJ Neoro —Wide World Photo
that pn , ploy,' ° °"«l wl»»e fourth graders at Sf. Martin School in Washington, D. C, dash for the
le Constll'J ground at recess.
Ired years ^
in the,tf equal0,) .'la"g'ble' factors '»av be
is made.'j -n\ _j deprive the children of the minor-
of Amer.* :v group
ttf °/ ec,ual educational opportun-
e believe thai il does."
t that settf .
hildren *> ''"blic ed
the field of
ucation the doctrine of 'sepa-
ut equal' hi "
lto the w edUcat: °eual has no place. Separate
■obed in'°| eqUa] .,"nal facilities are inherently tin-
i _ r„r ^
Motional conflict results
3T!fan?n unavoidably leads to emo-
, school *J is houn'd 'hUt' wnatever form it takes, it
it expei""' health
are apt to interpret segre-
FORUM NEWS, February, 1955
which the court accepted and wrote into
its decision, saying: "The fact is that
such a practice [school segregation]
creates a mental health problem."0
Although Earl Warren did not consider the propaganda value of the school
segregation decision, the nation should.
The Supreme Court decision ending
segregation in schools could not fail to
ring throughout the world, even if we
had no Voice of America to carry it
to the ends of the earth."
When that decision was handed down,
the Communists lost one of their nastier
accusations against us; and our Negro
citizens gained full opportunity lo enter
into the life of their republic.
This is the greatest aid lhat the United
States has had in its campaign to convince the world that we stand for democracy. The Communists have been hitting
us at our weakest point, which is our
treatment of the Negroes and the practice of segregation. They have used that
all through India, all through Southeast
Asia and China, all through Africa. It
has been very hard to answer. Now we
have shining deeds to prove that we
are trying to live up to our principles
and to the Declaration of Independence."
BETTER EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
There is no doubt that the end of
segregation will really help Negro children get a better education. Wherever
there has been a vast disparity in school
equipment, in length of school terms, in
the quality and quantity of education,
the Negro child has grown into an adult
human being with at least one strike
against him. The abolition of segregation is going to mean that, to a greater
extent than ever before in the history
of the Negro in America, the Negro
will have the basic training necessary
to compete in an increasingly competitive world.
Desegregation will also mean more
and better educational opportunities for
Instead of the duplication and waste
involved in maintaining two systems of
public schools, the states can combine
and integrate the systems, providing
more and better buildings, more and
better books, more and better teachers
for all our children — and save money
while doing it.12
Segregation simply does not make
sense—constitutionally, legally, morally,
spiritually, or economically.
By administrative action and court
decision, our national government is
sweeping away the barriers and restraints which keep Negroes and whites
from joining hands as fellow Americans and moving forward toward the
real promise of America — equality for
That was one side of the question.
Now comes the opposite side —
arguments of some who DO NOT
think that the Supreme Court decision in the school segregation cases
was good for America.
pYJowhf.he in the federal Constitution.
1 ■ or in any of its amendments, is there
any delegation of power to the federal
government to operate in the field of
The Tenth Amendment to our Constitution says that powers not delegated to
the federal government are reserved to
the states, or to the people.13
Obviously, the power to set up and