there is rare, and, where it does exist, il
leads not only to common interests vis
a-vis third parties but, simultaneously,
to competition between the parties
within the group.
* * * * *
It is the same with the workers, who
are contrasted with the owners of the
means of production. The special interests of the separate workers' groups are
also not unitary. They have quite different interests according to the knowledge and skill of their members. It is
certainly not in virtue of its class position that the proletariat is that homo
geneous class the Socialist parties imagine it to be. Only adherence to the
Socialist ideology, which obliges every
individual and every group to give up
his or its special interests, brings it
about that it is so. The daily work of the
trade unions consists precisely in effecting compromises between these conflicts
.. . The community of class interests
does not exist independently of class
consciousness, and class consciousness
is not merely additional to a community
of special interests; il creates siic-h a
community. The proletarians are not a
special group within the framework ol
modern society, whose attitude is unequivocally determined by their class
position. Individuals are brought together for common political action by
the Socialist ideology; the unity of the
proletariat comes, not from its class
position, but from lhe ideology of the
class-war. As a class the proletariat does
not exist before socialism: the Socialist
idea first created it by combining certain individuals to attain a certain political end. There is nothing in socialism
which makes it especially appropriate
to forwarding the real interests of the
—Wide World ft*
"Capitalism is still very vigorous in the Western Hemisphere." Top photos, left to r'9
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Southern California: large caustic storage tanks of
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's chlorine plant in West Virginia. Lower, left to right, &
oral Electric's General Engineering Laboratory in Schenectady, N. Y., and the Esso PI0"
Bayway, N. J.
III principle, class ideology is no dif-
ferent from national ideology. In fact
there is no contrast between lhe interests
of particular nations and ran-. 11 i-
natioiial ideology which first creates the
belief in special interests and turns nations into special groups which fight
each other. Nationalist ideology divides
societj vertically; the Socialist ideology
divides society horizontally. In this
sense the two are mutually exclusive.
Sometimes the one has the upper hand,
sometimes the other. In Germany in
I'M I the nationalist ideology shouldered the Socialist ideology into the
background—and suddenly there was a
nationalist united front. In 1918 the Soc
ialist triumphed over the nationals!
In a free society no classes !
separated by irreconcilably contra
interests. Society is the solidarity
interests. The union of special gr<1
has always as its safe aim the detj
tion of this cohesion. Its aim is *j
social. The special community ol P
letarian interests extends onl) so I'1
they pursue one aim—to break ifl
ciety. It is the same with the Sfl
community of interests which i* I
posed in exist for a whole nation.
Because Marxian theory does J
define its notion of class more' cM
people have been able to use il I"1
expression of the most diverse
When they define the decisive co<^
as thai between owners and nono"'1*
or between urban and rural inter'
or between bourgeois, peasant, .
worker; when they speak of ihj;
terests of "armament capital-
"alcohol capital." of "finance cap'":
when al one moment they talk ah"".
Golden International and in lhe
breath explain that imperialism '"
to the conflicts of capital, il i- ''•'"
see that these are lhe merest catch11'
of the demagogue, devoid of any
sociological interest. Thus in it*
fundamental contentions, Marxis"1
never risen above the level of
for the soapbox orator.3
A cotton mill In Manchester, N. H.
-Wtd« World Photo
. . . the concepts Bourgeoisie, v
ing Class, Proletariat, are fiction*
cognitive value of which depc" j
the theory in the service of whi''1
of a cei
i ■ i
FACTS FORUM NEWS, February