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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1956 - File 069. 1956-04. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 16, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1119/show/1118.

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Facts Forum. (1956-04). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1956 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1119/show/1118

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1956 - File 069, 1956-04, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 16, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1119/show/1118.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date April 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript Secretary of Agriculture May Day - The American Way The American i.lnswt·r to Communht c.:dc­lirations of '.\la> Day has !wen pro,idecl by \lrs. Albert Grandl', 91:1 S. Lincoln Awnul', Park Ridge, Illinois, who in HJ5·1 instigated the obsenance of \lay !st in Park Ridge as United States Loyalty D,iy. Other towns and <.:itics ha\e followed suit, and in \larch, 1955, President Eisenhower signed a hill which h,id bl'l'n passl'cl by I louse and Sen­ate prodairning \la) ht Loyalty Da; and a legal holiday. ~lrs. Grande has written us outlining the acti\·ities of Park Riclgt'. now known ;ts '"the City of Flags," in celebrating this patriotic occ;.tsion. Park Hidge now has HJ7 street Hags - the junior Chamher of Comnwrce has sponsor<·cl thl' sail' of thrl'e thousand home flags, turning proct·eds O\ er to the Retarded Children's Honw - fin· thousand lapel Aags wNe prcx.·ur<•cl and distributed to school childn•n l.ist \l,ty Day. "Buy Them - Fly Them" is thl' slog<tn to which local newspapers have gin·n the fullest publicity. This year Park Riclgl'\ Lo) alty Day cere­monies will centl'r around 11 flag-burning ceremony dt•picting thC' proper rndhod for retirement of tired and tatt<.'rt'cl Aml'rican fhtgs. The program is being plannl'cl to in­clude full<•st participation of sehool ehildren since, asks \lrs. Grand<', "who evl'r heard of a youngster (or ;tcl11ll) being dl'linqu<'nt, or turning to <.tnythin.l{ anti-Am<'rkan or uncon­stitutional if h<' fl'<'ls a clepth of patriolie de' ·ot ion?" Our hats ar<' off to \I rs. Grand<' and to Park Rici!(<'. th<' City of Flags, as well as to the other patriots whosC' uncl'asing c•fforts has·e resultl'd in making \lay I st a day for patriotic cdc·hr<ttion. Let's all "Bu) Tlwm and Fly Them" on '.\lay Day, U. S. Loyalty Day! • • Congressional Gold Mines \Ir. C.]. \lorriss<'y, :32 1 Str<'amsicle Drive, I h1n·ey, Illinois, asks that we· let our readers know that tlw Con·rnmcnt Printing Office has rcccntlv madl' availahl<' the nC'w Cunrn­latit: c lndcX to Publication\· of the Commit­tee mi ( 'u-Amcricmi Actidties, complett' through Januar) 20, 19.3.5 (I :1-11 p.tgl'S - priec, S:J . .50). lie also informs us that a sm;tll reprinting of thl' rpport of lh<' Joint Comn'littC'<' on Atomic Energy, 82nd Con­gress, lst St'ssion, elating from April, 1951, entitled Sotict .. \tomic Espimwgl', has hec•n ordered hy th{' Gon·rnnwnt Printing Office to det<·rminl' if lhl'n' is still a puhlie cl •mane! for this clournwnt. This n•port, which was out of print for a half-vt•ar, gi\'C•s information on the Fuchs case, th(. Crel'nglass case, the Cold cas<'. th<' Basil :\. \l.1y eas<', and tlw Pontl'c.·ono t<tS<', as well as minor tases such as Hiske) and '\('Ison. ( l'ri<'l' from Cowrn­ment Printing Offiel', 50e.) .\ later lettc•r from \Ir. \l orrissC'v n1C'n­tions that interl'St has n1ounted this vcar in the reprinting of tlw Di<'s Committ<'t' r«ports. Apf)l"lldix I ( 9fl7 pagt·') and . \1>f)c11- dix n: (O\<'r 16.30 paiws), and nrg«ntly rc­quC'sts th:1t rC'aclt•rs \\.Tit<' to tlwir n·pn•s<·nt,l­tin ·s in Congr('ss indicating wh;tt Dil'S Com­mittc ·e 'oltlllH'\ they m•<·cl to c·ompl<'t<• their libr.trv files. "lion. ~!artin Di«s himself stales that he has been unab){' to lou1k a cop}'· sintc his return to CongrC'ss," writ<.·s \Ir. \lorrisse). "'Your immediate' inkr<'St ;.tnd assistance ar<' need<'d in the drin• to gain additional sup­port for tlw rC'printing of tht·Sl' 'aluabl« doe­ument; uy C\p<>si•s of communism. lf nothing elsl', fight for the n·printm!( of A111>l'IUlix /\ of 19·1·1 on ommunist-front organizations." • • Americanism This column in Septc·mhcr offered phwclits to SC'\'C.'Tid n('wspap<'rs for their printing of tlw "Primt'r for A111ericans." This booklc-t is rich in tht' princi!Jl<'s of freedom whith built this country, anc c·ach of our re<1clers ma) wish to oht<1in a cop} or copic·s for thC'ir own 1wrsonal ust•. These may be obtained at lC'11 cents C'ach from Young & Huhitam, Int., 28.) \laclison An•nul', ''"' York 17, '\. Y. Lloyd and Ll'ila \\ hitn<»'s hookl<'l, " If You Can l\:c•c•p It," is also highly n·c·om­nwnclecl for all patriotic \ nwritans, and Illa\ be obtained by writing Th<' \\'hitncys, 827 \\'ilson An·mH'. Chicago lO, Ill inois, enclos­ing kn C{'nts to <.·on•r mailing costs. Sonw <.•\c·c•llent patriotic recordings han• l><'en prC'pan·d throu!(h the «fforts of \Ir. and \lrs. Whitney, among lh<'m "Th<' Fhtg of the Unitc•d StatC's of Amt'rica," an original r('ading of tlw \\'hitn<'ys whith appc•ar<'d in th« S«pl<'llll)('r, IH5.5, issul' of Facts Forum .\'crcs. Oth«r rC'eorclings include "The C«l­tyshurg A<ldn•ss." Titl<'s and prices art' a\·aih1hlc• on rrqut'St from the \\'hilrwys ( aclclr«ss shown a hos l'). • • Young Americans for the Republic In Sl'pt«mhl'f, 19.~.3. tlw Broad Hipple Post of tlw l\mcrican l.C'gion. \larirm County, Ind iana, h<.'lcl a S{'lllinar to which stucll'nt rppn·spnlatin·s from all high schools in tlw county ( 22) wcr{' indted. Aftc•r h<'aring such spcakt•rs as Senator J<'nrwr, D«an Clan•n«« \!anion, Dr. E. \l ('r­rill Root, \lrs. F'rttn<·<·s Lucas, national pr<'si­clml of lh« DAR, Hichard lhrC'n s, Karl ll;tar­slag and Charl<'s 0. HlaisclC'll, tlwsc• young people clt•eidccl to form the organiz;.ttion Young- Anwri<·ans for th<' Rc•p11hlic. Th<' aims of thio,; organizc1tion are stated in th<' Prea111hl<' to tlwir Constitution: \\'t'. lht• Yonn1t Amnic.m<; for th<' Rl'puhlic. nr{' proud of our hnit.n!t' .111d lu•li1·' 1· th.it our form of ~O\ nnmt·nt nff1·r. tlw i:t:n·.111•\l oppnrt11nity for incl1' idual fr<·<·dnm. dt•\ 1·lopm1·nt of ich·a\, and tht• pur.uit of h.1m>i111·.,.,, \\·1· <h·dic:at<• our.<'h<·" to thr 11ndt·r..,t.1ndini.t of tlw hi\toric.1! cl<><:umt•nt'i of tht· l'nikd St.1h'., of \nwric.1 "hic:h \\t"rt' pn·­p. ir1·d h\ our fon·f.ltht·r.,, "ho. "j.,hin1.t to imun• for th1·m\(·h4•., and .111 ruturr i:t:t·1wr.1tion\ t1w C.od-1.!iq·n ri1!hh or frt·c· nwn. 1.ta\(' U'i .l com­pldt ·I~ m·" form or ~n,1·rnm1•nt. \rtid1• I. H1·1.·ognil'ini.t \lmightv God n'i th<' ;\uthnr or all hull\,\11 richt\, \\I' p!t•ck:(' O\lf'•f'\\(•\ to op1ll~\t· .1thc•htic philn'iophic•., .ind m<1tf'ri,1li\tic id1·olnl.(11·1;, \rtich• 2. \\"1• p\1·d1.:1• 1111l"i1'1H'\ to uphold, pro­ll'd, and pn·\c·n4· our \nwrk.111 Iiid1·p1•1Hll'nc.·1•, nnr FlaL:, our Con\litntinn .me! Bill of Hight<; tht• rrh•dnm for \\hic.·h tlwv \l;111d. \rtid1• 1. HNlil'inl.! llut no jl("(lplc•<; ck<,irini.:; fn·1·clnm c.·,m he· lwlpNI hv .1 w1•akc·ninl.! of thC' s.!0\(•rlllll('lll or tht· l'nih·d ~!ah'\. \\'(' plc•dgc• 011r­" t·h ('\ to ddc•nd th1• full 11.1tinnal '\O\ C"rt'ii.tnty or our co1111trv. \rti_d1• l. \\'1• plt·di.!~' our;1·h l''i ~o uphold !ht' Co11~t1lutio11 of tht' 'otllls.! \nu·ru:.111\ for tht• l\1·puhlic." In ohst·rs,m<·<· of l'nit<-cl St.tt<'s D.ly, Octo­ber 2:3, HJ.35. th<' Young \nwrieans for th<· R<"p11blic pn·S<·ntl'd lo all of th<' c•ly, counl~ inm!.~"1-­ancl panx:hial high schools in \h1riol1 County, large• topies of the Dcdar~ltion cJ 4 I ndC'pt•nd<·n<.·c· to he hung in every histon and goq•rnnwnt classroom. ~ T \Ir. and \lrs. l'r«derick S. Ballweg, 2~'r. \\'ynnd all' Hoad, Indianapolis 8, lndiiln•~ who are among the paT{'llt sponsors o[ tht group, write: "You an• all busy p<'oph., hut 1 hop<' that, after you n•acl this, you will gi' sc•rio11s consid{'ration as to how this "s111a mndl«" lighll'd h<'r<' by thC'St' young pl'opl< <'<l'.l grow into a v('ry bright light all on·r 0 1 bo\\· tountry. \\'c• will ht' happy to answer qur' lions, to ha\'C' your sugg<'stions; we woul TO l Prcsu/1 Sen. A 1111d The Sc. hkl' your lwlp and appros al." • • Charity Begins at Home \I hil« \lrs. Birdil' Flanakin, 1105 1 larl" Poplar Bluff, \lissouri, has no fault to fii with U. S. plans to send greater :.unonnts 1 our surplus foods ahro;1cl, she asks, "Is it /J11j sihle for us to use some of tlwsl' foods to 1 1 our Indians those• likl' the ~a,·ajos es\ eiallv?" \irs. Flanakin entloscd reprml11dion of. lell<'r writt<·n at Christmas, IH.51, by I Enmwlt, 0.F.\I. Cap., St. Lahr<' Indian''' sion, Ashland, \lontana, thanking a ffll for cigars whkh hacl h<'<'ll sent him, hut .,t. ing that it would han• mtuh• him much h pi{'r if the donor h,1<1 s··nt some fooc.I dothing for his l)('lo,·ccl Indi ans. Fr. Emm('tl's letter <·ontinucd, "You sin1 eannot imagine th<.' hitter sufft'ring of~ Clwyemw 11ntil you lin• among thc1n. Sislt'rs found SOlll<' childrC'n on Christl1 night who didn't ha\'C' any clinnPr or Slit' on Christmas clay. Th<'Y wer<' ~tarvpcl." Asks \lrs. Flanakin, " Is our go\TrnJlll doing an\ thing to <·orn•c·t th<.'S<' C'onditi01 1f nol, why not? How can I help?'' • • " Nightmare in Red" Congratulations to both the '\1iti~ Broadtasting Comp<lll) and Arnist tr Circle TIH'i1lre for performance of H 1 p11hlie sc·niC'{' in tlwir t<.'IC•\ision pn'scnl•1 of th<" do<."urnentan: film, "\;"ight1n•1rc Heel," pn•s('nting an' 1111forg<'ttahk hi..,tPI" tlw growth of c·onum1nism in H.11ssi;.1 11P lhl' tim!' of Stalin's cl«alh. [ Congrat11lo1llnns al)()\"(' all to \Ir. l~l Salomon, who trt'atcd this gripping pr tion, T{'quiring the c·11reful, p;linst;.1ki1~μ'. t pilation of thousands of fed of mot 1 ~ffn tur<' film eoll t'C'h'd fro111 shly-fo11r ch t so11r<·<•s all O\"t'r tlw world ind11din~ n 11 hiclc•aways. priYah' eollt'dions, ancl fo!t .1rC'hi\'C'S, some of wh i<'h rnay not e,·cn lw rt'\!'alc·d. .. ..;; Sornp SC'dions of the foolal(<' of lrl m;tr<• in H<•d" had m·,·c·r h<'en S<'<'ll P11 ! ll<'forr; sm1w h,1cl not het'n ,·iewccl fo 1 !'adc·s. Th" "arlil'sl of th" rnal<'ri<tl chilr~tl to l8q,5; tlw lal<"Sl was m11cle as rcc~·Jl the c·onstn1dion of th<" Iron C11rt1\lt1 \\'oriel \\'ar I. r ll is to lw ho1wd that this will h<' ', again and again, until t•n•ryon<· in the try has had an opportunity to S<'<' it. "Our f'fllwtn/, right or 1tro11J! , IH ''/' our r«·mlcn' right to 1aift \\hat wo11ld \"OU lik<' to S('<' ii~ <·ol11n111!' Co11stn1<.".ti\'C' sugg<'stions for h c-.1tio11, n·c·<~g11ition of patriots. .~~Ji c·0111wct<·d with th<' news al l are \\ including ill11str1.1tin· photographs 1 ~;il shots. Pitt<'<' )OllT ordl'rS by ,,·ri fl H<.'ad1·rs lkport, Facts Forum \ 'l'rrs. 1 '""" n.s. \ . I'. Tia '· E:sco .\IJJC lDl" Ope rat Public lw('g, 229: 'l l ndi,1n s;>rs of thi ..>oplc, bu.t l Ill will gi' this " sn"'' 1ing peopli all on·r 01 1swer q11t" we woul I 05 Harn ault to 111 amounts 1 s, " Is it l)(.1 ; oods to ht l'·ajos c~l luetion o( )5 1, h) ,t Indian\ 1 ng il fri_li im, hut st· 1 Jllt1l'h h me food "You si1nr. •rinμ of~ , thclll· ;1 Chrisll1 er or ~uJll lf\'{'d. gon·rntlll conc1itic11 p?'' IN TH IS Volume 5 Number 4 April, 1956 Dii11·, TO E.\RT11 O'>' THE FAn" PnonLL\l President Uscnhotcer's Ni11c-Poi11t Farm Pla11 2 Sen. Allen ] Ellender, Chairman of the Senate Committee 011 Agric11/t11re and Forestry, Reports or1 Committee's Program . . . . . 3 The Soil Bank Plan . .. ls It J,cgaP llow 11 \l'orked First Time 1 . T1a·11ty Years Ago 7 \\Esco ... Cooo on B'D h1urF,cE? . 11 · BIG lm:, ... Pniuc Ilol'~1'G "D Unn." lh 'E\\.\L Operation l/ome Improveme11t 28 P11b/ic llo11sing - Pro and Co11 Co11g. Bruce .A.Lger 33 Sc11. John Sparkma11 34 i Tl1c Price n e Pay, Dr. P1111l f,. Poirot 35 \II\ T\ StT \\'lTll TllE F \('TS FORl'\( PL\' . . • . . . 39 ' 11 dtnsation of EotT \TIO' on ht>OCTnt,AnO,, ,\lary L. Alle11 40 )' •t Co\l\n·"s Prnn, U.S.A. A Ilmulbook for Amcric1111s . .. Pait II .)() k''t \\'u1n. lfm·si· Co,11 nL,CL o' Eot·c ,,,o, .).') ' 0 • 0 ''" T\ Sc 111-:Dt•Li-:s • 58 '.) Tt:ST l\t'LFS . . . • . . 62 B l\\1,c; lxrn.ns TO t HE Ennons 62 p l.Lp 'l lft.; ( \l'S[ 01 Fntc:i:JJO\I 6-1 ~l.t QtTsno's "0 POLL Qt•ESTJO' \\'1',EHS 6.3 >LL Hi:sn Ts . 6.3 -Oc.\\ lOR '1111-: \ (O,Tll 6.') Photo Cr<'dit: Pal(<' 17, \ \ alkr II . C LaH's, \\'idc World .......___---~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TO ORDER FACTS FORUM NEWS REPRINTS To c11co11r.1,1{e d1strihution of thought-pro,·oking articles appearing in Pach Fortun Setcs, we are makin,q reprints a\ ailabl(• wlwn it is war­r. 111t<"d h} th" inll'r<•st of our r<»1<krs. Tlw following artid<"s ha,·c h(·<·n rc·print<:d and may be ohtairn:d al prit('s slw\vn, delivered: ltt J' I.l'\\ tlun JOO I ti· . or \\'hos<" S.1~<·? ~ 8 •er 111/ia Pd.1 ( I'd>., I !J.56) lOc <'ach .1J' ·•<I and Circu'"' ,, .'-''iru/ B,.,. .It or,:cfi ( Fdi., J 956) IOcmdt r l~hit1011 of tlu U.S. ~)' '•'rPr ag" foldl'r) (Jan., J!J56) J.5(' ('il('h 21l:t 1<· I< · <·ontaining:: 1o r g"~ or kss Hkmch ' to 1 Pag,., lOc t•ach 8p,,R<"s 1()(- <'ilCh 10() .)00 J.()()() 1,000 or more !J.00 '; 1().00 $ i5.00 $:35.00 pn 1,000 9.00 10.CJO 75.00 :35.00 pl'r J ,000 11..50 i0.00 1:30.00 1.00 18.00 ~2 . 50 20.00 tl<'r 1,000 i .. 50 !5.00 (;().()() 2!5.00 1wr 1,000 'J.00 10.<Kl 75.00 :)5.00 j)N 1,000 J· .\CTS FOHU\f is nonprofit nnd nonparti\an, SUf)JXH"tlni.c no 1>0litic:.d candid1ltt' or p11rty. Fact J-'on11n's acth itit·s nre di..'\i.l(ned to prt·st·nt not jmt ont· 'H'" of .1 cc:mtro,l·rsial issut•, hut op1>osi111.t \it·\\"'· h(•lil'\ in.'t tlut it is the rii.tht nnd tht• ohli­jl. 1tion of tht• AmC'rican people the1mdHs to ll·.1rn nll lh<· filc:ls and corn<' to their own conclu~ions. SIC;,gJ) ART ICLES nppearini.t in FACTS FOHU\f :'\EWS do not m•cessarily n·pr<"H·nt the opinion of the editors. \f.\\:USCHIPTS suhmitted to FACTS FOHU\ t ~~1~~:~w~i'1~.1.~1,<l('1~1~·<·s~'<-'P:N;/i~i~~~·c1 ..... ~~m~~sa1~11~e~~s1~!~~~: sihilii.,,· for rNum of ur1.sol icitcd munuscripts. Sl'HSCHIPTIO~ HATES in th<' U.S. nnd U.S. uo,~c·,,1m1\, 2 rwr lt'nr, S-5 for th rt•t• ye.1rs. All other countrks, $.'3 per year. To subscribe, set• JhlJ:t• h i CJl.\'.\CI:- OF ADDRESS: Send old nd<lr<'H ( t·~.u:tly ,1, imprinted on mailini.t: label of your t·opy of tht· nrn~n7int•) nnd 1ww ncldr<'~S to FACTS l'OAl' \f :\EWS, Dqrnrtnwnt CA, J),1J1.1s l. Tt·xas. l'll'.l\t' allow thrt•(• \\et·ks for c:han).[('O\t'r. JT' e tell you about the n ext issue of f!fiactJ f!7o1tunt JfewJ "Dear Co11gresS1nan:" If )OU h:n e not u .;;ed the a bo'e '"aluta­tion rel" e ntl}, )Ou nuty l\Ond<'r l\h e the r lt'll <' rs to Congr<':,S arc "' o rth"hil('. P e r ­Imps )Ou arc one of the tna ny "'ho, aceord­ing to a recent s un<') , do not t' ' en kno" the ide nti1ie .;; o f th eir eongre ...... men ! The "'hite light o f clarit) "'ill be thro"' n on thi l'!I .,ubj<"el rt <' '\.l mOnth by a n arlide pro' ing tha t le tl e rs to Congre ... !'<. ARE' impo rtant - th a t m n ny "iingle IC'l - 1t·1·h lun e re~ uh ed in be ne fieial .nt·tion and le gis latio n. '\ ou' ll \\ant to sa, ·e th<' incle" of S<'na­tor"' ancl R e pr<'"'C' nlathC'.;;, slio"ing the ar('U.!'i rach r e present - al ... o the li sting o( Sen a t<' and llou-..e Commill<'<'., and th eir drnirme n , - a J><'r ... onal Co11g reuio11al l)ireclory in 1niniaLure ! Are " Right to Work" Laws Right? '\ ES . • • "'"' tho"" ~h o he li c ' f' th a t a ll .,.Jtoulrl h:.n e the right to jo in la b or union .. , but not he eom1>dled to do oi;:o , pointing to tll(' c igh1t~e n ~hllt•:-. "hich n ow ""' '-' Ui1d11 lo \\ ork L:i,.., Thc ceononn of nitun of thc•..,C' ..,t :.\l""'· the,_ l'laim, irn.., a £ha;1<'ed "lt(•adil, in mo ... t fi e lds th:.11 u o;;u u llJ indieatc gt•n· era I pros ve ritJ . NO ... • a~ the oppo n e n ts o f Hight to \\'ork La~ $, claiming thnt through th Pm bu:-;ine .... ., j..., hnm1>e rNI ratll('r than helped. Ul"h l a ~ ... , in lh eir 01li11- ion ... , re~u It in a rt.' ... tri l"ted eeonomJ , lo~ c r ~ages and le ... ..., pureha ... ing po~ e r for the eono;;um er . Response to RFE eries Eueh mail bring~ to Facts Forum more IC'1ter~ both c om1)li111 enting and eondt•mn­ing the puhlil'ation in our Janunr) 1hrough March i!!..,ues o f nr1iele1' deuling ~ith lladio Free Europe , mun, on ench ..,idC' bearing the umark of nuthoril)." In order that a full prc ... entation nm) be induderl, it j .., nece ...... ar,_ to po~tpone the publication of thl' .... e lclter.;;, The) ~ill UJllJt.•ur in our 1\tay i~ .. ue, rather than in thi ~ h· ... u<', a ... originallJ planned. DOWN TC EABT Any solution to the farm problem must, of necessity, consider not only farmers, but urban dwellers as well - taxpayers all. President Eisenhower advanced what he considered a fair and equitable plan in his message to Congress. The plan is outlined below. PRESIDE;\T Eisenhower's 'inc-Point Farm Plan most likely has been cuss:d and discussed by any number of informed and unmformed farm operators, as well as by legislators, housewives and business.men .. Doubtless it has also become a matter for much cliscuss1on to the staunch chew-and-spit crowd who congregate on street corners. Farmers, in all likelihood the greatest individualists in America, are always sensitive to a shift in the wind of governmental interference. A panacea offered for the agricultural barometric disturbance was Eisenhower's -ine-Point Farm Plan. Some farmers are no longer sure of their "ground," for the Hydra-headed farm plan presents problems peculiar to certain areas, and its many ramifica­tions are not always discernible per se. To some farmers it seems a veritable lifeline; to others it appears to be a strangle hold unequaled in modern times, markt•ting quotas notwithstanding. Additionally, the President is said by some to be assiduously wooing a rustic maid in order that he mav mam· the rural vote. Election campaign hoopla t~ the ~ontrar}, the truth of the matter is that the farmer, who generally operatt•s out of the limelight, has become, hyperbolically, the cyno­sure of all eyes. And now the farmer regards those eyes, perhaps '' ith some justification, as too often astigmatic and myopic. Undeniably, the farmer's difficulty is no Johnny-come­latelv thing; it is a problem of long standing. He is caught in a· squeeze play - squeezed between rising prices for the things he buys, and declining prices for the things he sells. Furthermore, it has long been a matter of record that as the agricultural economy goes, so goes our entire social order - economically speaking, that is. Two of our greatest farm problems are the utilization of pre-existing stock, and a sensible way to diminish out­put. If these two problems can be dealt with concurrently, Page 2 perhaps the farmer will no longer he getting there (to hank) "~atcst "~ith the lea~tcst:" . . . 1, · President Eisenhower, m his message on f.u m p1ol\ 1 sent to Congress on January 9, 1956, stated that. en farm problems needed prompt congressional action outlined the causes of these problems as follows: First - production and marl..<"t distortions, th~ n·sult ' wartime production inc:entiv<·s too long continued. . s~cond - CUITl'nt n•cord liVl'StOd. production and ll<':lf record crop harv~sts pill'd on top of previously accunn1l;ite<' carry-overs. Third - rising costs and high capital requirements. One of the greatest problems facing our nation ilt ever-growing surplus. These surpluses are the reSil1 wartime production incentives which were continue<, long after the war.. Disposal efforts have. bN'n indfcf By wa} of explanation, for rach hypothetical bushel. 0 1 given commodity sold, one and a half bushc•ls ha,c stockpiled to take its place. Onr is reminded of thr,1 climbing stairs in the dark he takes one step up and I down two. And, were it not for these mounting s1I1111 currently farmers would be getting more money fot commodities which they sell. l:ntil 1954 there was 90 per cent of parity prict' port, a practice still favorrd by a great man)' I tb II ow ever, the Agricultural Act of 1954, passed " 1 partisan support, was felt by many to be a step in thri direction. It brought price flexibility, which was de\, to keep commodity supplies in balance with market>- ttl than 60 diHerent survey groups and more than 500 f:d nent farm leaders participated in the study that wt develop the Agricultural Act. Agricultural co research institutions, mail from thousands of farrncr;·, farm organizations all contributed to this bipartis• 11 "r . stir turc. Essentially, it replaced the 90 per cent pncc ,JI! with "flexible" supports. These flexible supports f (Continued 011 , 1 F AC:IS FORliX[ ~ l\\S, ,\JI'' . Jl'DGJ'\ lo~'ed, m1ttee t<'nt of pa distress for l'nfortu to the ave 11· ho refuse htral philo. farm incom thing concr1 The St' die] not ad Parity pric ~rary, the 8 1ncluclt'd t Proportion I ll'as similarl c·rats voted I Why, tl1 111Pports shj The rea t.~1 111wlling ) billion si the third q 11 trner's do! 111 HJ.51 to lllatl'!y that l.ihor incom ri Spt•ctivel~ It was t 11nless imm 10torne, the !Jireac] into \\'e con intonw, .m P.\c1s l'onL c (to prohh ' t cril' ' ·tioil· s: (•suit ' cl n<·31' nul'1te<' ts. ion j; res11It ·nucil )('ffcC he! of ha,·e 1 f the' and ;I surpl1 ey for n ~he Farm Problem Senator Allen J. Ellender (D-La .), right, Chair­man of the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, presents for readers of Facts Forum News the basic provisions of the farm bill approved by the Committee, and in the following article tells why it differed from the President's farm plan. J UDGI'\G from the political sharpshooting that fol­lowed the rC'porting of the Sc•natt> Agriculture Com­mittee's 1956 farm bill, one would think that "90 per l'Pnt of parity" is an evil phrase, one that portends more di~tress for our sagging fann economy. Unforhmately, that is the impression being spoon-fed lo the average ,\merican citizen; it is fostered by those 1vho refuse to be realistic and who advocate an agricul­li1ral philosophy \\hich will lead to even more shrunken f;irm income. This, incidentally, is inevitable unless some­thing ('Oncrete is done now. The Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry die! not adopt a two-year extension of rigid 90 per cent of Parity price supports for political reasons. On the con­trary, the 8-7 vote which reinstated high price supports 1nd11dpd three H.epublicans and five Democrats. The Proportion of the membership voting against the proposal 11 as similarly divided: four H.epublicans and three Demo­l'rats voted "''fav." \Vhy, then, ~lid the Committee feel that rigid price s11Pports should be reinstated? The reason is a simple one, and at the same time, a l'~rn1wlling one. "'\ct farm income has dropped nearly ) billion since 1951 - from $14.8 hill ion to $10 billion in lit!' third <1uartcr of 1955. The farmer's share of the con­~ 11mc•r's dollar spent for food products fell from 48 cents in Hl5J to 39 cents in December of 19.5.5. During approxi­~ atl')y that same period, net corporate profits and total .thor income increased by $3.5 billion and $16.5 billion tespectivc•ly. It \\as the considered judgment of the committee that ~nJc.ss immediate stC'ps were taken to bolster falling farm income, the depressed state of American agriculture would Preacl into and infrct other segnwnts of our economy. 1 \ \' c considered a num her of ways to increase farm nl'onw, and increase it substantially and immediately. \Ve '\ FWS, ..-\pri/, 19.)6 found that as to the basic commodities onlv one - an immediate increase in price support levcls-w~ulcl achicYc the desired end, short of outright subsidy payments which neither the farmer nor the Congress desired. In the hope of holstering farm prices of non-basics, including Ji,·c­stock, we ha,·c rc•commended an appropriation of one­quartcr billion dollars to supplement Section 32 funds. (These funds arc used to purchase surplus perishable commodities for use in the school lunch and similar programs.) The question has frequently been raised, "\Vhy did not the committee confine its bill to recommendations in the Presidmt's farm message? The soil bank, the Great Plains program, the rural re­dc•, ·elopment program - all suggested to the Congress by President Eisenhower - will bring some good over a long-term period. By permitting acres to remain idle, they will doubtless result in reducing our carry-owr in most crops nO\\ in surplus, and thereby cause market prices to rise, if enough time elapses. But our farmers cannot wait two years or fi,·e years for relief; they need help now, and immediate assistance is what the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry ,·oted to C\tcnd to them. It should he noted that the immediate increase in price support fr, els does not stand alone in the suggested farm program; included also ,,·ere the long-range pro­grams recommended hy the President - and they were included for good reason . It should also be noted that the inclusion of manda­tory 90 per cent of parity price supports for five of the si' basic commodities is limited to a two-year period. It is our hope that at the e\piration of this period, the decline in farm income will haYC been ellectivch· halted, that the long-range programs outlined by the President and in­cluded in the Committee's bill ''ill ha,·c taken hold, and (Continued ori Page 5) Page 3 continued . .. Nine-Point Farm Plan from 75 to 90 per cent of parity on com, wheat, cotton, rice and peanuts. However, the Act has not had a chance to be effective; it is over-burdened with surpluses already on hand. Government granaries are bulging, and these stockpiles cannot be kept fore,·er. There arc only two disposition routes open - discounting the fact that they could he destroyed, which would, most agree, be an asinine thing to do - these stockpiles of food must be used either in this country or disposed of abroad. If used in this countr>, these surpluses would compete with crops which farmers are currently selling. :\lorcovcr, if the surpluses were mo,·cd abroad in large amounts, they would, in the words of :\Ir. Eisenhower, " ... shatter world prices and trade, injure our friends and undermine domestic prices as wC'll." It is possible, of course, to dispose of some of the sur­plus, both abroad and at home. However, these available outlets would be of such a minute nature as to absorb little of the mountainous surplus. Surpluses, whether tlw taxpayer knows it or not, are costing us one million dollars dail~· in storage charges. :\nd, when the government starts tapping John Q. Taxpayer on the hip, it hits J. Q. T. in the vital area where he lives. It is claimed that under Eisenhower's plan there would he no need for large appropriations of money to finance the agricultural program, because it would pay its own wav. And, as a matter of record, both Eisenhower and Se~retary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson want the plan to be on a voluntary basis. Indeed, :\Ir. Benson, in a speech before the Vegetable Growers Association, December 8, 19.55. Sheraton Park Hotel, Washington, D. C., made the following statement: There arc now a few people in this country who appar­ently think it 1s smart politics to capitalize on agriculttm·'s troubles. These arc the s.um• people who pr!'\iously shacklt·d farmers '"·ith price <:ontrols and n·girrn:ntation - and who tried to ram down the throat of agriculture a Brannan Plan that would have m~tdc farmers' incorne dC'pc:nd on govern­ment checks. They arc now popping up all over the pbct• with quack remedies and discarded nostrums. ... \\'c cannot aet·t•pt cconrnnic aspirin tabkts that do not get at the roots of our agricultural ills. \Ve must build soundly - with programs that assist farnu·rs to 11w<'l tlw problems of today and also to face the future with confid«nt'<'. Secretary Benson, in the same speech, made reference to the six-point farm program which he and PrC'sident Eisenhower had announced in Denver a few weeks earlier. This program had as its goal the helping of farmers to gain a fairer share of the nation's prosperity. The six points mentioned were as follows: I. A stepped-up program of surplus disposal and c'pansion of exports. 2. :\. vigorous purchast.• prog:r~un to remove markc·t ~luts, whercvt:r the}' octur, and to assist fanners to adjust to maxket dem,inds. :3. An cnlaxged program of soil consl'rvation and inccnti\'(' p;iyments to diwrt cropland into grass and trees, p,irtku­hirly in drought areas. .1. Expansion of the Hural Dt•\elop11ll'nt Program for low­inconu .. • fann families . . ? .. .\ stepped-up program of rcst·arch, emphasizing lower costs of production, Jll'\\' us<·s for farm products, new crops, and exp<rnsion of mark('tS. Page 4 DOWN TO EARTH ON 6. A speed-up of the Cn•at Plains Protzmm in cooperation with the ten states involv(.'d. This is a program din·ckc.I toward better land use and hetlt'r farming practices in t1w dry-land of the \ \'est whl'rt' drought and soil-blowing an• a constant threat. The above-mentioned six points were <"-;plained more fully and augmented with thn•c rnon• points by Eisen­hower in his messag<' to Congress. Bri<'Ay, in outline fonn, Eisenhower's Kine-Point Program is as follows: I. The Soil Bank A. Acreage-Rc·st•rn• Program B. Conservation-Rl's<:rvc Program 2. Surplus Disposal :J. Strengthening Commodil>' Prot(nuns -t. Dollar limit on price supports .5. Rural development program 6. The Great-Plains Program 7. Rl'S<'arch 8. Cn·dit 9. Gasoline Tax. As point o. 1, the Soil Bank plan has as its purpose the working-off of surpluses in order to gear production to possible markets. :\ccording to Eis<·nhow<'r, an intelli­gent attack is needed as follows: First, futun• produdion of crops in grl'ah'st surplus m11~t Ill' adjustl'd both to th<' ;1<·<·um11lat•·d stocks and to the poten­tial markets. s .. cond, producers of otlwr <·rops and of I;,·estoek must he reli<·v('d of c·xc:c~siv(' prod11dion from acn•agc divertC'd from surplus crops. Third, lands poorly s11it"d to tillagl', now producing un­lll'l'ded crops and suhj('Ct to C''\{'(•ssin• \vind and water erosion, must be retired from cultivation. (Continued on Page 61 T contir that, today ,\~ and 1- thl• (. •ht Cl P\lTe< of the It \Vas r· firC'd l h('e;an Th raiSl•d n1isu11c tontai1 to he falling raised soil ha Thi1 remain Portl'd ·t inatti lies in to hc·a1 farnwrs Should Secretary Be of Agriculf llson NQ ... was the reaction of Senator E~' M. Dirksen (R-111.) to the above que on a recent Facts Forum radio prog' 4 ccoRDI'-"C to Senator Dirks('n, it seems to be the f•1 ' .fl. political sport these days to pan Ezra Benson. pir made the following stat<'ment, " ... It is not surP1 that there are some who shout for Benson's blood.~ what I can se<' and make out of this whole case, the reason I know they can assign for wanting to get r1 ' Secretary Benson is that he has resolutely refused to sue a course which he lwliev<'s to he unsound, or refused to fo lio" a program that he deems to be 11~ for the country as a whole. " ... It takes consummate moral courage of ~ like Ezra Benson to wr<'stle with the farm problc111 ; we have now, and incidentalh which he did not ' and which this administration i~herited. And it takes moral courage to wrestle with them and not keep •10 const.a ntlv. on the ballot box ..." ~ Smee B<·nson became S<'Cr<'tary of Agricu lture, traveled over a quarter of a million miles to attend .. ings and to confer wi th p(•oplP everywhere. Dirksr11 ; eluding remark was as follows, " ... America and .~ can agriculture will look a long time before thl'' another Ezra Benson. That's why I say we'd better on to him while we've got him." > N ion .l'd Jw JTC more' ~isen­form, trpOS<' uction ntl'lli-mst ,en-iust t<.'d 1111- ion, Page 6) THE FARM PROBLEM continued . . • Committee's Farm Bill that our farmers will not he• in the din• straits thev arc toda\. • ,\, cl .... rman of the Sl'nate Committl'<' on Agriculture and F• r- 11 \, I worked close Iv with the otlwr members of !ht ( "mm1tte<' in an effort to. keep partisan politics out of •l1t consideration of the new program. I think \\C did l'\Cl'edingl) well, as is shown b) tlw political comple•xion of the nite on the various items, to which I n•frnnl abo\'e'. It \'<ls not until the hill canw out of committee and \~·as reported to the Senate that the partisan pol-shots fire·d hv the followers of Secretarv of Agriculture Benson h<'gan io Rv. · The 'a~t majorit} of the pct!} political objections raised to our hill dcmonstrat<' that the diss<'nters e ither n1isunderstand the hill, misunderstand the program therein Contained, or jmt plain want th<' \ nwrican small farmer to he· crushed out of e\iste•ncc l>C'neath an avalanche of fa~lini.: prices. For example\ one objection frequently raised ''as that 90 per cent of paritv would nu llifv the 'Oil hank. · · This is popp) cock. The SecTetary of Agriculture would re·main empowered to control acre•age•s planted to sup­POrtt• d commodities, and to impose marketing quotas. As •l lllattt•r of fact, all production of the six basic commodi­tie ·s in 19.')() ''ill he so controllc•el. Violators arc• su hjccted to lwa\ y pmalti<'s, with the single exception of those f.trnwrs \\ho grow corn. The corn program is on a quasi- Yoluntar) basis as far as participation and compliance arc concerned. The fact to he rememherC'd is that whether price sup­ports are flexible or /heel, wlwtlwr thP) ar(' at 75 per C<'nt of parit) or 90 per cent of parity, acrC'age alloh11ents and marketing quotas of the same magnitude are involn•d. Tlw only thing the Committee bill seeks to do is increase the income a farnwr can exp<'ct from these acreages; it ,,·ould not increase acreage allotments, nor would it unduly stimulate production on the <ICrc'age alread~ allo­cated to farmers who have rnted in local referendums to participate in the gO\ ernment price support program and to accept acreage controls. The same amounts of acreage will be allotted to the basic crops, and will be p lanted to these crops in 1956, either with or without the 90 per cent parity support feature of the Committee bill. ;\or will 90 per cent parity supports bring about increased yields per acre in 1956. On the contran, the his ton of our farm program has sho,,n that dt;ring periods of depressed returns, farmers tn harder to increase their production in order to compe~satc for the lower per-unit market value of their crops. As to the specific mathematics of the charge that high price supports will nullify the soil bank, let us take .1 concrete example. 8 icull el'lson Be Replaced?======~ Farmer "A" owns a 500-acre \\'heat farm. His acreage allotment for wheat during the 1956 crop year is, sa~, 100 acres. L-nder tlw flexible price support program his production on this 100 acres \\Ould he supported at about 76 per cent of parity. Under the Senate Agricu lture Com­mittee's bill this production would be supported at 90 pl'r cent of parity. There would he no incrc•asc in the amount of acrc•age that Farmer "A" could plant. The only increasl· \\Ould be the immediate 14 pe•r cent increase in the amount of income Farmer ".-\." \\'Ould realize from pro­duction gro\\n on his acreage allotment. 1tor E~ YES ... in the opinion of Senator Olin D. ve q&JB Johnston (D-S .C.) who also appeared on lo prog' this program. the f•1' on. Di: t surf'f >lood. SC, thC ~ get J'1 1sed to md, or >be tli e of n oblc11" l not' t take' keep '16 l. ii~Ton ]011:-.sTo:-; was most emphatic in stating that he ought Secretarv Benson should hl' replace•d ll\ som<'­ ·~/00re sympathl'tic to the prohll'ms facing tlw farmers. n ;e Was no mincing of words whrn h<' said, " \I r. Bl'n-n. l,ts het•n a hot and cold Sccrctan of \ gri"il lurC' <'V<'r te h I . . s. e• las bl'en 111 office'. Jfr has h<'en hot on idle prom- , ;t~c] cold on political problems." ns is th<' opinion of Senator Johnston that the HC'puhli­ri r"t-rP romised the farmers in 1952 the•·\ wou ld continue' Ir. Ile cent price• supports on basic commoditi<'s, and that tis _ nson s first .tct was to tear down 90 per cent sup- 1' 1n Yiolation of this promise. Ii f(•] 1· I ll<i . I a ion to t ie soil hank proposal and thC' plan for •r ~;r 01 surplt.1s cro1?s, Senator Johnston sta tC'd. "Last l•v · Bt•11son s AgnculturC' Depa rtmC'nt twicP ,, ro le CJr<1blp n•ports 011 proposa ls for soil hank programs. 'lli \car, election year, he's hot for the soil hank p ro­~ c•r:~'Cause the HC'p~1blican high command nC'eds the Ile 'oh•s and they vc• got to promisl' wmething. fl->ttf can't blame the farmers, the Democrats or anyone ~ a icu];1r for his flippy-flop fa rm policies. U11 til a short '<trgo lw \\as condemning surplus<'s as a root of all lllers' troubles." A part of the remaining 400 acres of Fanner "A's" land could be placed in the conseffation resen·e program of the soil bank; that is, Farmer "A" could agree to put this land mto grass or trc<'s, and contract not to graze it, and lw would recei\ e annual gO\·ernment payments for so doing. As a matt<•r of Jaet, it '' ould seem to me' that under the program of high price supports voted hv the Commit­tee, a farmer would Jul\ c additional ince;1tive to p lace soml' of his cultivable land in the soil hank than he \\'Ou ld otlwrwise. In the first place, he would reeeh e more income than under the sliding scale program; he would therefore feel less n<'cd for planting his remaining acres lo fred . grams or some secondary crop in order to supplc­m~ nt lus_ mcome and "·ould therefore be inclined to par­t1c1pate 111 the conservation resen e plan. I belie\ e, too, that with 90 per cent of parity price supports farmers would have more incenti,·e not to p lant their fu ll acreage a llotment, but instead to place some of their allotted acrc•s in to the acreage resen e program ot the soil bank. Here is whv: Payments to stimulat; participation in the acreage rC'sC'ne \ \ill undoubted ly be based on a fixed percentage of the parit} value of the existing support le\(~I. It ,,·ould fo llow, then, that a higher support level would bring a higher incenti\·c pa) ment and, with it, a higher participa- (Co11ti11ucd 011 Page 71 continued . .. Nine-Point Farm Plan The foregoing "adjustmC'nts," according to EisenhowC'r, could be brought about by a Soil Bank Program. This would consist of two parts - the Acreage-Reserve Pro­gram, and the Conservation-Reserve Program. The Acreage-Reserve Program has as its purpose a deferred-production plan. If the term appears ambiguous, it means simply that the farmer would reduce voluntarily his acreage planted to surplus crops; namely, wheat, cot­ton, corn and rice. The farmer, being rewarded for his participation in the program, would be allocated certifi­cates for commodities, the value of these certificates being in line with the average expected yields from his acreage withheld from tillage. These certificates would be nego­tiable, and could be converted into cash - all payable at normal crop harvesting time. There would be the stipula­tion that the farmer not graze or harvest any crop from the "fallow" acreage in reserve. Additionally, his acreage allotment for marketing quota purposes would not be affected. The plan is to finance this Acreage-Re erve Program with commodities owned presently by the government. Their argument is that time, shrinkage, storage and vari­ous costs are nibbling away at the values of these com­modity stockpiles. Thus, the net cost in the final scheme of things would be less than if the government kept and added to the stockpiles. For, if no more surpluses arc added, the stockpiles could be utilized and done away with. Virtues of the plan, according to Eisenhower, arc as follows: It will help remove the crushing burden of surpluses, the essential precondition for the suc:l·cssful operation of a sound form pro~ram. It \vill n·dut·e the nMssi\e and unproduc:ti\'C storage costs on gO\'t:rnmt·nt holdini.rs - costs that arc running about a million doll.irs a dar. Secretory of Agri­culture E:z:ro Benson examines "transient real estate" on a farm fifteen miles east of Denver, Colorado. The Conservation-Reserve Program, as the second port of Eisenhower's Soil Bonk Pion, would be of greot help to farmers in this drought­bottered area \\ U>C WORLD PllOTO DOWN TO EARTH ON It will provide an cil-m<.'nt of insuranct•, since farmers an• assured income from the r<:sern.• acres cn•n in a year of: C'rop failure. It will case apprehension among our fri<'nds abroad over our surpluo;-disposal program. It will harmoniz<· agritultural production wilh pcac<·tirm• markets. The Conservation-Rcsene Program, being the second part of the Soil Bank Plan, has as its purpose the restora­tion to pasture and forC'st some of the acreage now devoted to surplus crops. This would, because of previous wastage of soil and water resources, restore to pasture some of the land now being tilled, which would, in certain areas, elim­inate or substantially decrC'asc dust storms. The Conservation-Reserve Program, according to Eisen­hower, would bring the following awards: It will result in improved use of soil and water resources for the benefit of this and future g('nerations. It will increase our suppl}· of much-neech.•d farm-grown forest products. It will help hold rain and snow where they fall and make possible more ponds and rt·st•rvoirs on the farm. It will reduce the undue stimulus to linsto<:k production and <:onsequcnt low liwsto<:k prices, induced hy feed-grain production on diverted acres. It will similarly provid<• protection for producers of the many small-acreage crops whos<• markets arc thrcatrm•d by even a few diverted acres. In combination with the acreage-reserve prowam for crops in surplus, the c.-onser"·ation-n•s(•r\'c pro~ram will help during the next several years to r<"duce tlw total volume of farm production and improve the balance among different farm commodities, both of which arc important to a general im­provcmc: nt in fann prices. Also, and equally attractive to both rural and urban people alike, is the fact that the plan, according to ',fr. Eisenhower, would not cost thC' ta,paycr additiom1l money, for it would he paid for by the use of the surph1s products now on hand. ThC' big Haw in the plan is that many formers \\'Ould doubtless want their pay in cash (Co11ti1111cd on Pugc b THE ontinued • "on in the he amount 'onversely, tually imi an assist i \Ve ha\'e n in the s Jc•,n ing it This par n. Our far whether d beC'n fa 11l farmers 11r Commit ly legalh nclition ~n ut ht•c•n \'Ot1 erc'ndums, rcagc' h\ a 'PC'r ec~t. 1J OWC'\'Cr, \ to hoist lie, e ju still 'tnittc'cl to ~nclrecls mor 1iness; the accompan• "nclant cla; ~)(erous, we hit lower<' entire' c•co Typicol 1 offected bi '" prices of com mo wheot for west Senotor El the rea price sup farm income neorly $5 b 1951 - t •hare of the dollar spe Products fe cents in cents in )N an• rop 1vcr imc econd ~stora­' voted astagc of the , elim- Eisen-recs own 1tion T;lin the I by rops ring fam1 farm im-urha11 to \fr. litionnl urplus is thn1 n cash Page 5 THE FARM PROBLEM ~ontinued ..• Committee's Farm Bill 'on in the acreag(' reserve and a cons('C]U('nt lowering of (' amount of acreage actually plant('d to the basic crops. onwrs('ly, it \\'Ould se('m that lower farm prices would ctually imperil the President's soil hank program rather an assist it. \\'(' h<ne also been criticized for not making participa­n in the so-called "acreage reserve" mandatory, instead hn·ing it on a \'Oluntary basis. This participation was mad(' ,oJuntar~ for good rea­l!. Our farm producers had already voted on the issue whctll('r they wanted acreage allotnwnts. Their vote d been favorable, and it was predicat('d on participat­~ farnwrs planting all of the acreage allotted to them. 11r Committee felt it would be morally as W('ll as prob­!} legally wrong for the Congress to impose a further ndition on the planting of these acres one \\'hich had t bl'l'll rntt•d on by the farmers at th(• time of tlw erop fc•rt•Jl()ums, and one which \\·ould reduce tlwir allotted reagc by a substantial amount - perhaps as much as per cent. !Jo\\'e\cr, the overriding objective of the Committee l1 to bobter farm income immediateh. \\'t• frlt, and I lb(' justifiably, that if the present p~iee d(•din(• \\'Cre rrnitt(•d to continue for any appreciable timl'. many ndreds mon• of small farmers would be sque('Zl'd out of 1>iness; thl' tr('ll() toward "bigness" in agriculture, with accompanying quasi-monopolistic charaet(•ristil's and ''ndant dangers, \\'Ould bl' acceleratl'd. En·n morl' q~erous, \\'C felt that a depressl'd agriculture, bringing 1h it lo\\'ered farm purchasing pO\\'('r, \\'Otdd soon affl'ct entire economic strncturc of our nation. E-.:o T ypicol of the forms affected by the decline in prices of agricultural commodities is this wheat form in South­western Kansas. Senator Ellender cites the reason for rigid price supports: "Net form income hos dropped nearly $5 billion since 1951 - the farmer's shore of the consumer's dollar spent for food products fell from 48 cents in 1951 to 39 cents in December of 1955." ~II l'llOJ'fO The Soil Bank Plan • Is It Legal? • How It Worked First Time Twenty Years Ago Dr. 1\furrn) R. Bt"necli<"t, Profesi;:or of Agricultural E<'onomies in lhe Giannini Foundation at the LniH•r­~ it} of California in Berkele,-, nrncle some in 1eres1in" compari~om; in the prt'..,ent propo'<ed soil bank Jllnn and a "iimilar ~oil pre ... <'nation plan that l\3S in opera. lion ~Om<' l l\ellt) }Cars ago. Jlb; obser,ations \\ere puhlish<'tl in nn article by llnmihon L. Hintz in the Sacrame11to Bre o( Januar} 21, 1956: HOW ABOUT the soil bank plan ... as a part of a program to soh(• the problems of the farmers? ls it ne\\'? Trow \\ill it \\'Ork? \\'hat are its chances of success? Can its frarn(•rs hurdle an apparently formidable ll'gal barrier? These are qul'stions \\'hich come to thl' minds of peop)(• connected \\'ith agricultur(', and to those who ha,·e the \\'Clfare of tlw farnwrs and the counh·) at heart. ... TRIED FIRST IN 1933 "A program some\\hat similar to the soil bank plan was trit'd in thl' middl(• l9:30's," said Dr. Bcnt'dict. "Under authorit) of tll(' ,\gricultural Adjustment Act of 19:3:3 tht' gO\ crnnwnt t•ntcred into contracts with the grow(•rs of cotton. "heat, corn, and tobacco to pay rl'ntal on acreage "ithlwld from production. "A separate program was institut(•d for hogs \\'ith the aim of pre' en ting depressing surpluses .c:oing to market." (Co11li11ucd on Puge 9) continued . .. Nine-Point Farm Plan rather than in wheat, cotton, or whatever. However, this type of payment could he made more attractive to them hv the addition of bonus bushels of wheat, halC's of cot­ton, etc., if they would take their payment in kind. The Surplus Disposal, as point ">:o. 2, would he accom­plished by bartering perishable agricultural products for nonperishable strategic materials. And it is lik<'ly that donations to the ne<'dy, both at home and abroad, would he utilized, as well as cut-rate sales. Strengthening Commodity Programs, as point No. 3, \\·01ild mean simply a program of raised price support for some crops. Eisenhower, in his message to Congress, made the statement that the Administration: (a) \\'lwn('wr possibl" will continue to ease or eliminate l·ontrols on·r farnwrs; and ( h) For commodities on whi<.:h price supports ar(' disl·n·­tionary, will tontinm• to support th('S(' pric:es at tlw higlwst kn·ls possible without act·umuL.ttin~ nt:\V pric:<.·-<lC'prt·ssim~ "IUTplust:S. Another provision of point '\o. 3 is that when the live­stock market becomes glutted and prices disrupted, the government would, if necessary, purchase lin•stoek and holster prices. Too, there would be stepped-up school lunch use, as well as use by the armed services. A Dollar Limit on Price Supports, as point 10. 4, would provide a maximum price-support loan to any one particular farm or individual. According to Eisenhower, " ... The limit should he sufficiently high to give full protection to dficiently operated farms." A H.ural Development Program, as point '\o. 5, has as DOWN TO EARTH its purpose the aiding of smallPr farms and the low-incoJll farm families. IT cretofore, those "'ho benefited most fro1 farm programs have heen the larger farms, with thc1 higher production. Assisting in this development progra would be the departments of Commerce, Health, Educ tion and \Vclfarc, and Agriculturt'. The Great Plains Program, as point o. 6, would pr vicle special hPlp against th<' hazards of this particul. area, such help consisting of government money, tech1 c:ians and crPclit. This would h<' a program directed to\\'•l better land use and hPtter farming practices in tlw d lands of the \Vest, where drought and soil-hlowing are constant threat. According to Eisenhower, some desiralt -T H- E farmers ,,. true partic :tarted fa The Adn ;dequate ! •rrners at It is a farmers h, b rates hala1 ten high Q\·er-al! po has <:omp I Sonw 0 Postwar 'l( Ve· 1. Provision for long-tinw cost-sharing cornmilments · hlts. Till~ under the ag:riculturn.1-tonservation program, and \\· 0 Urt' \Vi modifications of existing legislation include: 2. Relaxation of plant in~ requin.•ments to maint..lin base qt· lso are th~ acrl'a!(l' for wheat allotnwnts. Q ni.1ke it H.esearch, as point ">:o. 7, would seek new technique! lllany othpr products, markets and uses of agricultural produr~ enough Ian HesParch could help utili/.e our present abundance l ~d result finding new uses for agric:ultural products. A refined nv . r of farm keting mechanism, plus refrig<•ration and new processll 1 _ 1 ze forms. tl'chniques, could accomplish much. To quote from Eisf treasin!( in bower's speech: exl'The Cai \larleti~g margins have t<~n~imu·d to increase, ~ven while i)t 01pt ~ro1 fam1 pnccs have hcl'n dl'clmmg. Thus the farmers share ,,f 0 11S<·cl m I the retail food dollar has shrunk appn·ciahly. Ret,1il prit·~·s f ne·ha}f of have changed little, t!l('r<'hy im1wding cl<'sircd incrc•asl'S 1~ •tni, an I eonsumpt1on. \Ve must find ways to lowl'r eosts of food distrt· l'ntitli• I C hut1on. Rcscareh is an "fleet"" \V<lY to hdp attain th:tl F' < to l important goal. r~ arrn(•rs 1 ,sand l11'gl Credit, as point l\'o. S, \\Ould !.(ivl' tlw kind of ait •< Bales Awaiting Rails. This cotton compress near Shiner, Texas, is filled ta capacity, and overflow bales of cotton ore piled in on adjoining field while awaiting shipment. These boles occupy mo'c than a quarter-mile from the compress to the highway. \\ 1111 WOIU n J'llOTO ,,,:nsus of ·11 l·1·i-ot kt' ng thp' lli re lpc•cifl Ot<• cquita There ·. l<:t11 IS ~r lllulatio 01PCrit\' f i~ncd t · 1 lo o >r bv P11t into · \fr E 'fl · ise• u,:: Propc n farnlt·r "'ll <1 .. ,l'~ ;~ric11lt11n· ''r 011r c·to tli\fyin~ e - w-incorn 1ost fro1 1ith the progra 1, Educ ould pr• particul. y, tcch1 •cJ toW<l 1 the d ·ing are dcsirnb it1nC'nts lin bnse :chniqttt" procJuc~ dance ~ ined nv )rocessi1 om Eis' 11 while share of ii prices iC'ases ill 1d clistri· nin tlu•1 of nid ils. ress '· ·y, aod ' .. ile y more le s to TH E FARM PROBLEM larn1rrs which cannot he Found rlscwhrrr. This would he true particular!) for young farmrrs, or for thosr who have startrd farming rrcently. Jn the words of Eisenhower, "The Administration is drtcrmined to sec to it that an adequate supply of credit remains readily available to our farmers at all times." It is a matter of record that the poor lot of many farmers has forced them off farms and into cities. Birth rates balanced against death rates in cities have never been high enough to justify the phenomenal growth in hs·er-alJ population during the past few years. Such growth as eom<.' largely from farms. Sonic of the older farmers who made mom•y during the Postwar '10's h;wc been able to ride out the stormy recent Years. Th<· voung farmers who started from scratch and ~ho arc without reserves have been harder hit. Harder hit also arc tlw middle-size farmers who have too much farm to make it possible for them to work part-time in town, as lllany others haV<' done and arc doing, and yet arc without enollgh land to allow them big-operation efficiencies. The ~d result of all this is that, even though the total num-r of farms has decreased, the decrease is in the middle­ll. e farms. Largp farms and small ones arc achially in­creasing in numbers. e The Gasoline Tax, as point No. 9, would make farmers !~.empt from paying federal tax on gasoline which is to 0ic llsec] in farm <·quipmcnt and machinery. Approximately f:e-Jia]f of the gasoline used by them is utilized Oil th.c t tin, and tht• Administration frels that the farmer is '%tlt•d to some relief in this respect. IJ.i Parrn<•rs arc a kind of buffer group, standing h<'lwccn te anc] higher lh ing costs. It seems, then, to he the con­ll}~ lls of all the John Q. Taxpayers that it is tim<' to stop 'llo 1 ng the farmer often a bridesmaid hut never a bride - .,, re sp<'cificall\' that it is time to help the farmer gain a ·•or'<f· n~ q111• taI) Ic . s'1 1arp o f t lw nati. on's prospen.t y. ~, here is no EASY way to unload the government's ~1~1111Julations of farm products and bring about a greater ,~0 sPerity for the farmer. The nine-point plan was dc­to lled to bring production in line with consumption, and b1 \ 11 t into practical operation the philosophy expressed · l' Ir. E:isenhmw·r that: ti he Prop<·r role of !(O\(•rnnwnt ... is that of partn<'r with 11 11 ' furnh·r - nt•\ er his master. By t.•n•ry poss1hlt.' nwans W(' i'"'t <kvdop and promote that partnl'rship to tlw <'nd that f,~rit'ultur<• may eontirn1<.' to be a sound, l'nd11rin~ foundation r0 11r ('('0110111} and that farm Ji,·ing may h(• a profitah1C' and 1 J\.,fYin.1! t'\J>t·rk·ntT. E'\D Jf·e should talk rcith those wi//1 1vhom ace ,/isal{reP ; • • T '1ere'1 a ltfJays a ch ance, r fl ther rem ote, tlwt h:71 f' J>arka millh t come to li~ht n ca11dle 1ch ich •could P " ' all. - Srn A1'TllON\ EDEN 1 I got·ernment for the JJPOple must ,/e p e 11 tl f or il8 Q"r1ce,, ou the i 11te llige11ce, the morll li ty, the ju stice, ' 1 < the i 11terest of the p eople tlu'mllt'l vPs. - G JtOVEH CLEVELAND tti lfeatr fr tiou of free th o ught tuu/ free sp eech is tlte 4 °'1 fiaugerous o f ll ll subversious. It is the o ne ll ll · ltter;c,,,, O<'I thot co11/1I m ost e asily tie/ eat u . - ' u •11r '1 E Col RT J tJbTICE "'"''A" O. D ouGL.Ab :\rn·s, April, 1956 continued , .. The Soil Bank Plan ELEMENTS OF SIMILARITY He pointed out the present soil hank proposal and tlw 19.33 plan are similar in that farmers would lw paid for taking land out of production in surplus crops, and the go\'l'rnmcnt would make soil consen ation payments for soil-building practices. Another point of similarity is that the new plan, lik<• the old one, would proYide the option of the farmer taking surplus crops from the go\'ernment in lieu of cash pay­ments. PROVED SPECULATIVE "Farmers taking surplus cotton for payment was tried in the ('arh 19.30's," said Dr. Benedict. "The record shows that some· farml'rs made mone\' bv a rise in price aft<'r ther took payment in crops. Pr~su~1ably the architects of the new ll'gislation would pro\ ide suitable curbs for spec­ulatin• us<' of surplus crops." Tlw economist pointed out three areas of dissimilarit), saying: ''The ne\' proposal is unlike the old program in that it proYides for agreements between thl' governmpnt and the growl'rs for periods of £\·e to ten years, whereas the earlier deal most!) \\'as on a year-to-year contractual basis. "Also under the new proposal lands di\'('rted from sur­plus crops could not he used in the production of other crops which would create new surpluses elsewhpre. TREASURY PAYMENTS "Another change is that under the system of tlw thirties th<' mone\ for J)('nefit payments to growers was derived from a iJrocessing tax whereas the ne\\' plan \\ oulcl make the payments directly out of the federal treasury." Dr.-B<•nedict t<'rmed the soil hank plan of the thirties as not entireh successful although being of some lwlp in n•ducing acr~agc and surpluses in \\heat, corn, tobacco and cotton. The greatest factor in k•\ eling off the situation was the droughts of 19:3.3 and 193-l which wiped out the for­midable whl'at and cotton surpluses of the 1931-32 period, and had the t..: nited States on a \\heat importin~ has is by the end of 19.34. LEGAL BARRIER? The legal fate of the 1933 soil bank plan poses a ques­tion in the consideration of a red\·al of the idea. "After operating for three years," points out Dr. Benedict, "the Suprl'mc Court in 1936 declared the crop adjustment plan unconstitutional on the grounds the government could not tax the processors and eould not enter in to contracts with individual farmers in connection with the land rental feature. "The present soil hank proposal has indiddual con­tractual pro\·isions similar to the contracts ruled uncon­stitutional in 1936. Possiblv, howe\ er, the framers of the new legislation can keep it within the hounds of th~ 19~6 decision, or hope for a more f;n orable interpretation m the light of present-day conditions." E:\D J. Addington Wogner, Nationol Commander of The American Legion, shokes hands with George Meony, new president of the AFL-CIO, on the occasion of the recef1t merger of the lobor orgonizations. The American Legion is unalterably opposed to present policies of UNESCO. American labor endorses ond praises its accomplishments. hands recent ised to hments· ~· 011o"ing ur(• t•,rerpb from th e• b ooklet, "- f>&tious mu/ luswers about { VESCO . ~llbli1i1h pd h" the . S. National Commit.o1- ;\011 for l ~ESCO, De partn1 ent of S ta te, • hing ton 25, D. C.J What Is UNESCO? S The United Nations Educational, : cientific and Cultural Organization is one of tl'n specialized internationa l \gcncies alllliatcd with the UnitC'd c •1 ti~ns. !ts purpose, stated in its 02stitution, is: : · · to tontrihutc to p<.'at'(' and S{'('tl­~; ty by promoting collaboration among It· n.ltions through ('ducation, science ~,~cl tu1turc ~n o.rcler to furtlwr 11nin•rsal 'j"Tt for JU'l""" for tlw rull' of law :"( for tlw humtln rights and funda­tl'" nt.il fru·dom' "hich art• affirmed for ti~ P«opks of the world, without dis­gio( ·lfou of ratt', Se\, L..m guagt• or r('h­\ n.' by tlw Charter of the Unit<·d t.;'1\t;~ns." (Article I, Constitution of C:SCO) lfow Oid UNESCO Get Started? l\]pn<' of thP problems facing thP ~·led leaders during World \Var 11 an~ that of restoring the educational ('Q1 c~iltural heritage of war-torn be~ntrics. Schools and libraries had ~h 7 destroyed . :\lore important, 11-, 0 e generations of minds hacl lwcn b. red -with what then seemed to S ri~htc•ning efficiency. ~rs l.a t( 'Smcn, educators, cultural lcad- U1,t1n many countries were convinecd h01 l t'1 international organization o11 t 1 .' . he sl't up to pool Allied re­in~ ~r and skills for the job of ll1C'nd­Otolll le havoc of the war and to 1~1n 1°tc b<'tter intt'rnat1onal under-I c 1n1,.1, . ltit·~ 1?·1.5 rt•prcscnt<ltil cs of 43 coun­drt. 1;. 1nducling . tlw l ' nilC'cl State~, '..itio 11P a eonshtut1on for tl11s orgam n. Delc•gatc•s from the Lnitt'd ~· . ~(1); What do you know about the specialized agency of the United Nations known as UNESCO? Some think it is doing a great job. Others think some changes need to be made. Still others rad ically disagree with the whole idea. Here and on the following pages are some statements representative of va rious points of view. State's played a substantial role in drafting the document and especial]) in widening the concept of the organi­zation to a broad people-to-people type of collaboration. Why Was the United States So Interested? Leaders in both tlw c"\ecutive branch and in the Congress, and pri- 1·atc organ izations as well, sm1 this organization as a necessary part of the foundations for las ting peace. To the prin1tc organizations, a t least, it was no new idea. Since the founding of this country private citizens hav(' taken part in international coopc1-.1- tion in intellectual and cultural fields. Sueh organizations as the Interna­tional L' nion of Peace Associations in tlw International Cooperative Alliance• had been formed before \ Vorld \Var I. During the intcrwar period such groups as the l ntcrnationa l Council of Scientific nions, the International L:nion of Academies, the International Federation of University \\'omen, ancl Holan I nternational had affi liate or­. ganizZ1tions in this counh·). i\nd, although the LT. S. government did not participate in the League of \:a ­tions' lntC'rnational lnstitntl' of lntel­ll'ctual Cooperation, a ational Com­miltC't' of J ntcrnationa l lntellc•dual Cooperation had bN'n sl't up in this country. Thus, these and many otlwrs. in­elucling rt•ligious and philanthropic groups whose work had long ago taken tht'm into intt'rnationa l l'duca­tional ancl cu ltural matters, gan• their support to the proposC'd organization. \ ccordingly, rC'solu tions wC'r<' intro­cluc!' d in the House of Rc•prt'SC'ntatil c•s '"urging"' the' . S. govt'rnnwnt to par­ticipate in tlw ercation of a pl'rmanl'nt international organization for educa­tional and cu ltural eooprration h) lh•prescntative ( no1v enator) Karl :\Jundt of South Dakota, and in the Senate h1 Senators \Villiam Fulbright of Arkansas and Robert Taft of Ohio. They passed with ovcrnhclming ma­jorities. Later our participation in l 'I\'ESCO was ratified hr a rntc of 26-1 to 41 in the House t1nd without dissent in the Senate. Who Belongs to UNESCO? There arc now 74 member states. The) arc as follows: ,\fghanistan ,\ rgt•ntina . \ ustralia \ustria Belgium Bolivia Brazil Burma lhdorussian S.S.R. Cambodia Canada Ct•\ Ion Chile China Colombia Co;la Rica Cuba Czt'choslovakia Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Sahador Ethiopia France CPrmam, Federal RPpublic of Crc•(•cc Cuatem.1la llaiti llonduras ll 11ngar1 India Indonesia Iran Iraq I sracl Italy Japan jord,tn Kor('a, Republic of Laos Ll'banon Liberia Libya Lu\embourg \!e,ico \lonaco :\epal ;\ Nlwrlands \:c\\ Zl'aland :\iearagua '\orway Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippint•s Poland S.tudi Arabia Spain S1\('d<'n Switzerfand s, ria Thai hind Turk(•y Vkranian S.S.R. Union of outh Africa L'.S.S.H. l:nited Kingdom l'nit('cl St•tl<•s l'rugu.n \ en<' ztt('la \ j(•t-'\ illll Yugosla1·j,1 fs Who Decides What UNESCO Does? The member states. Delegates from these states meet in general confer­ence at least oncc c\·ery two years. Thev determin(' C:\ESCO's policies. cha;t the main !inc of its work, review and. if necessary, change the proposed budget for the coming period, and elect a 22-mcmbcr Executive Board to make interim decisions. Each state has one vote and a majority carries. Who Does It? U:'\ESCO's affairs are managed by a Director-General. His headquarters arc in Paris. Luther Evans, former Librarian of the United States Librarv of Congress, is the present Dirccto;­General. He is C~ESCO's third Director-General and the first Ameri­can to hold the post. Of his Secretariat - about S.50 employccs - some 10 per cent are Americans. Do Delegates at the General Conferences and on the Executive Soard Act as Representatives of Their Governments? Yes. UNESCO is an intergocern­mental organization. United States delegates receive their instructions from the Department of State. These instructions arc bascd partly upon thc advice provided by thc U. S. ational Commission for UNESCO. In What Other Way Does the American Government Control American Participation in UNESCO Activities? Each ycar appropriations to meet the United States' share of UNESCO budgets are prc•pared by the State Department and rcvicwcd by the Ex­ecutive Office of the Prcsidcnt, Bureau of the Budget, before being presented to the Congress. That body, in tum. scrutinizes these rcquests in the same manner that it studies any other pro­posed expenditure. What Does UNESCO Cost? U:\ESCO's regular budget is about ten million dollars a year. It also re­ceives varying sums from the United :\ations Technical Assistance Program for special work in underdeveloped areas. These arc volunt, ry contribu­tions. The United States pays 30 per cent of the rcgular budget. This ,1mo1u1t - three million dollars - rep­resents a per capita cost to Americans of slightly less than two cents a year. Page 12 (Continued) UNESCO - GOOD ~ren't The l0o Ambit l~trictly of Esco .I ff the aspu t Orts of ; illankind. l :any difft \orking to ; 0te the " .\! t1.1 d}'' " " pi sullSTJTUT ~Cfro~. It i• •tor, catal· LNEscd l'Ornp1· h Of tJi IS th on c worl1 e of the t IS Pe c1' f•• ca/ly ,~ternation o Wipe 0 1 pl,There are WIOF WOftf,ll ~ ~t \Vho car New headquarters for UNESCO or_e being con~tructed on the Plo·ce· de Fontenoy in Pori~, •'~ >1:h the \ sight of the Military School of Paris on~ the Eiffel Tower. The bu1l.d1ng will be seven stones ~ Iha Ools. It v with a housing capacity for 1500, a parking lot for 150 cars, on odd1toonol underground garage,¢ r. t the el'I 0 conference room for 1500. It is expected to be completed within the first six months of 1 D' 1er the WO o· p~ lens of g What Does UNESCO Do? Through its program UNESCO strives to surmount certain significant handicaps to international peace. These arc: the lack of education and the op­portunity for education, the lack of understanding and coop­eration among peoples of differ­ent nations, religions, and cul­tures, the obstacles to the free flow of information, ideas, and of people between nations, and the lack of scientific knowledge ancl how to use such knowledge for the improvement of living condi­tions. UNESCO, therefore, is helping un­derdeveloped countries to create pri­mary and secondary school systems, while at the same time helping them to teach their adult illiterates the fun­damental knowledge ancl skills which they need in their daily lives to help improve their standard of living and to become responsible citizens. It giH·s and has given technical advice to nations to help build press and radio systems adapted to the prac­tical needs of thl'ir p(•oplc. It encourages all nations to use their press, radio, and tcle\'ision facilities to foster better international under­standing. It has published catalogs of the best available color reproductions of world's masterpieces. . It has made available translnt11 from Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, J•1 ncsc, Italian, Spanish, and Portugt'' to make the literary genius of the I ferent peoples available in man) guagcs. theVate vohu ''"'Job _ l R"ultn rUr 1· t 1o ng 'n<l · ESC leio essentiu nd~lllcnt o ~% 1n the h. lJ.i art' bui ESCO calls the attentio11 \s educa 1, mcmb(•r states to barriers to thr flow of persons, ideas, and knowl~, ~h01 between nations, suggesting whcr1 ~~cl ~s Fu~ possible practical actions to reJ11' lo 0 hat £ them. . 11 With U ESCO assists member state~ I the establishment of their librar>' • If ~}946 U museum serviccs and helps tn11J1 11' 'l\ini~crts tc sonncl for these institutions. :'.~dea um f U ESCO encourages and coO 111 ~n _by a nates scientific research for thr f Ute t· Vironm provcmcnt of living conditions· 1-ll~'l:t~~~ of c the past four vcars 1t has pO' ~s• fc syst1 n•search on aricl zone probk111~ q I~ 0 livini setting up an International ,\(Jlh ~'l\l~1~11ll~nt Commit!('(' on Arid Zone H.cscarl 'll\ . ll-1n addition to the collection anc 'JQ~an be E chan«c of information U ESCO rJl'" re arc n con.d,.u., cted internatio.na• l mceti·n ",';t ' l~it' ~j-,~,cetn. a ~nt vanous aspects of and zone resr ;Q1 ip ~ Jn c bringing together experts fro11.~ ~\1e ~'Iles, ovcr thc world to combine thC1 : g ;t or e\a1 sources and talents in the fight a~· ~\ ~s~ su~)OJ the desert. , ~d ;i · e_ntial Finallr, U"\ESCO provides a . ho r gricultu clt•aringhousc of information °1 ;,, ~'l\·ir fgional latest methods, techniques, and 1 , ~ tc~h1 n.ctio1 opmcnts in education, science. "II. ~ n1qu culture. ~ · ational -It-rs F' F AC'T~ FORU\! onu, INFLUENCE? i'en't These UNESCO Programs Oo Ambitious? C Strictly speaking, these arc not 1~Esco programs but the reflection ~fl the aspirations and the determined lll,0rt~ of a considerable portion of lllank111d. (.;'\'ESCO is but one of the "'an~ different agencies which is \ 0rk111g to bring them to fruition. ;1~te the words "help," "encourage," \ Udy," "provide." NESCO 1s 1'0T ..,."""''"°'".11,1 '1 SlillST!TUTE FOR "iATIO"AL A"iD LOC.AL 1~10\;, It is a service agency, an acti­tcntio! l to thr fi kno"·le' g where' to re111' or,. catalyst, coordinator. C'oJ L ,\~SCO, therefore, will not ac­'• f ~Ph sh these programs. The peoples on t le world will - and UNESCO is e of the tools they arc using. SPe ·1· 1 t1 •cal/y Why Should t'ernational Action Be Necessary 0 Wipe Out Illiteracy? ~1,l'here are more than a billion peo­~~ Who cannot read, and more than 1th the world's children have no tha~ols. It would he absurd to assert ''Ve the eradication of illiteracy all l)Q; the world is a "U ESCO goal." i'tivens of governn1l'nts and scores of the •tte voluntary agencies are tackling 'iv"'r nJgo 'ht I - and many of them were But ul ong hPfore u ESCO C'Xisted. '~<l .. ESCO is making a significant 1~1,, ess<'ntial contribution in its de­~ lrnent of fundamental education 'hot~ the help it can offer to nations ai arc building tlwir first system of s education. li{hClt 4~d Is Fundamental Education 10 O What Does UNESCO Have Cl With It? r state; I Jibnu1 ~ :1r ~/946 ESCO put a smal! group ; tnull r 'lin· Perts to work to determrne the s. ~ ''"eJ~urn fundamental education ml coO ;n. e~ .hy a man to cope with life in or thr f 'i. Vrronment. They set themselves itionS· ·~l!t~~sk of developing a simple and ias pO' a·s· 1\'e systpm of teaching the thrcl' obkll1; ~ fu ~! living. The result is described ti Ath1' 'lie nu,tmental education - an emer­csc< lfr)l '"rii?'c. fill-in until formal school sys-n alld th an be established. rnscO lliJep~e arc now more than a hundred 1eetill~;~ ~''i•·e~d~nt fundamental education te rese· 1 If 'ilip . Ill countries like India, the . froll1 '"le Pines, P 'ru, and igeria. In :e thci;, 11~ Ut for example, reading and spell­ght ~~· I(' esc su~)Ordinatcd to schooling in ~ a se.ntials of hygiene, nutrition, ~~ t~~culture. There are, further, ~it 1gron~I demonstration centers. Ii.: teehrn.ctron is to train teachers in "11, ~· n.rques of fundamental educa­~ <thonal fundamental education ~·. s f'onu\r 'uvs, April, 19.56 projects are associated with UNESCO and with each other through a U ESCO clearing-house which helj1s them exchange information, matcria s, and consultation services. This ex­change is especially important in a field which is barely out of the C\pcri­mcntal stage and in which novel applications of some of the oldest prin­ciples of education are being tried. Finally, UNESCO conducts "opera­tional" activities which include survev and advisory missions, the de,·elop­mcnt of new materials, and pilot projects. What Is UNESCO's Role in Primary And Secondary School Development? Admittedly, fundamental education is a "hard way" expedient to make up for the lack of schools yesterday. What about tomorrow? 1ESCO is helping some 40 nations build Ill''' school systems or reorganize and strengthen outmoded ones. Here again, I; 'ESCO could not undertake to build the hundreds of thousands of schools which will be built; nor "ill these schools be built because• U 1ESCO said they should; nor will there be uniform "UNESCO school svstems." There is no such system. 1'1H' job is being done, and \~ill he finislwd , by Bolivians for Bolivians, hv Cambodians fm Cambodians, bv P;1kistanis for Pakistanis, ancl so ori. lkcausc these nations requested help, U'\1ESCO is supplying certain technieal skills. I ts teams, however. may supply something of the spirit '' hich will make these schools suc­cessful. Its experts are saving these nations time and costly mistakes. Om• thing is certain - not one of these nations, working alone, could have marshaled the variety and quality of technical advice which the U ESCO pool can supply. Does the Emphasis on Helping the Underdeveloped Countries with Their National Development Problems Mean That One of UNESCO's Original Purposes - To Foster Mutual International Understanding - Is Being Neglected? ro. It means that first things come first. The level of education in each nation helps to determine the plateau for common understanding among all nations. And formidable though the job may seem, we cannot expect any­thing like broad people-to-people un­dt• rstanding until the undcrdc,,cJoped t\\·o-thirds of the world succeeds in raising its educational - and, with it, its economic and social - level. Are There Accomplishments In Other Fields? \ Ul\'ESCO Achisorv Committee on Ariel Zone Research now links practi­call) all the important studies being made on the use of barren desert lands. This is a matter of primar) importance to the United States. Re­search centers in many countries, including this one, are exchanging research data and holding joint study conferences. The latest of these was held in Albuquerque, ew .\lexico, in April, 1955. At the instigation of U ESCO. twch,e European countries arc pool­inq research facilities to explore peace­ful uses of atomic energy. They have formed the Council for European Co­o pera ti on in N'uclear H.eseareh ( CEH.'\') and arc establishing a large laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. C'liESCO-aided international organ­izations in the fields of literature, the theater, music, museums, history , philosophy, modern languages, etc., link cultural leaders throughout the world. A UNESCO-drafted Universal Copyright Convc•ntion insures for authors the same protection and treat­ment in a foreign land that the coun­trv accords its nati\'e writers. It has b(•en signed bv 40 counh·it•s and came into effect in September, 19.5.5. l'\ESCO's international coupon system, which allows people in soft cu1Tc'ncy countries to buy books, sci­c• ntific equipment, and audiovisual matC'rials from hard currency coun­tric ·~. has resulted in the cxcliangc of more than sixtl'-fil'e million dollars \\'Orth of Such ec]ucationaJ necessities. Education, Science, and Culture Are Powerful Forces. What Are UNESCO's Premises? The parties to the U\IESCO Con­stitution ha\'e stated in that document that thev believe in: - ful( and equal opportunities for education for all, - the unrestricted pursuit of ohjee­til'e truth, the free exchange of ideas and knowledge. They further ha\'e stated that the) are "agreed and determined" to de­, ·elop and increase the means of com­munication between their peoples and to use these means for the purposes of muti1al understanding and a truer knowledge of each other's Ji,,es. (Continved) UNESCO - GOOD 0 BAD ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_,.. ----- Do Russia and Its Satellites Accept These Premises? In the light of So,·iet actions since World War 11, the USSlfs accept­ance of C'\ESCO and its principles can be viewed with considerable skep­ticism. Cntil she signed the C'-ESCO Constitution in April, W.5-1, Russia had boycotted it and L:\ESCO had been a consistcnf target of the Communist­controllcd press. As a member of the Lnitcd '\ations, Russia needed on h· to sign the Ll\ESCO Constitution to become a member. What Is the U. S. Attitude Toward Russia's Membership? The United tatcs will welcome a Soviet decision to take part in U'\ESCO's work with real sincerity of purpose, but the burden of proof rests upon it. If the LSSH is not sincere, the world will he given another oppor­tunity to contrast SoYiet promises with So' iet performance. One thing is sure. Hussia would not have joined if she had not felt that UNESCO was an important force in world affairs. Her presence makes it more important than ever that the United States c:ontinue to provide effective leadership in UNESCO. Is the Participation of the American People Important to This Intergovernmental Organization? Although U'\ESCO is necessarily an intergovernmental organization, its success is measured by the degree to which it activates people-to-people relationships. To do this, tlw U:\ESCO Constitu­tion invited each member state to form a :\ational Commission, hroadlv representative of the gon·rnment anCI of the principal groups in each coun­try intcrcst(•d in <•ducational, scien­tific, and cultural matters. What Is the U. S. National Commission for UNESCO? It is a group of American citizens appointed by the Secretary of State to: ( 1) (2.) a<h ise tlw Department of State on U 'ESCO matters; serve as the connecting link with organizations, institutions, and individuals interested in l"XESCO and matters relating to L_ 'E CO, and Page 14 (3) promote an understanding of the general objectives of Ul\ESCO on the part of the people of the L" nited States. How Does It Advise The Government? It acts in a consultative capacity, helping to select candidates for ap­pointment to United States delega­tions to the General Conference. Through a system of panels and subcommittees, it makes a thorough sh1cl> of Ll\ESCO's program and ad­vises the U. S. gon•rnmcnt on the specific positions its delegations should take at the General Confer­ence. How Does the U. S. National Commission Serve as a Link Between UNESCO and the Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Community of America? Each month hundreds of requests for information, mam of them on highly technical subjects, from people doing practical ancl valuable work all over the world - scientists, educators, missionaries, etc. - come into the U'\ESCO headquarters in Paris. \Ian} of the answers arc here in the United States - hut where? These inquiries arc referred to tlw L'. S. '\'ational Commission. Through its manv con­tacts, the L'. S. '\'ational Com1i1ission obtains the information request('(! or. if appropriate, puts the United States sourCl' of tlw information in direct contact with L '\'ESCO. Each year the L' nitcd States is in-lating int these mecl our own 1 lllust kno\ to arrive a enjoy cont \~Uring · ational C ~Ian for 101 tions." Th( vited to participate in dozens of int national advisor), consultative, technical groups. This nation much to offer the world at these 1 sions, hut it also has much to g \Ve sometimes forget what other tions have contributed to our cdt tional, scientific, and cultural WC·• Wl' cannot afford to fail to particiJ in these meetings if we arc to tinu<' to develop as a produc' societ\. Perhaps James Madison r ized this "hen in 1826 he wrote, '"C countn, if it does justice to itsl'lf, The J. he th<'. workshop of liberty .... " It the task of the U.S. ational Co111i sion to find the most qualified An1 cans to represent this nation. How Does the U. S. National C ERTA Commission Go About Promoti~! arc> l'I Greater Understanding of b rate 1 Y The Am UNESCO Ob1'ectives Within on U' The United States? ''n ,,ESC l'explanat The Commission issues info 11-h·here ar tiona I pu I> I i cations a I> out UN' ESC·( ·I n Si\c h musl its work. <n ~er final By law it is required to C•" titi-'°creasii :\ational Conference at least e• ;ens con two years at which hundreds of I• la1 he first f I s t.ge]y unn ers rom vo untary organization·.. 111st0 . institutions of higher learning d1;• of Thea) pl and report on important intcrnntl' the f e Am problems. They have addressed t~ l\E ounda seh es to such questions as "J1011 •nct .sco a1 \Ve Increase L'nited States Elk r rh~temat m·ss in Working With Other dist seco pies?," "\\'hat Does the Balance .c r.,g0 rted VE of the United ;\'ations Show?," 'J: tl1 ion's car gees and Surplus Population I( in\ vedn tion ·, k•ms," and "Haising the \Vorld . l"he11 the I. cational Level." In addition to sli "n01 Ahrnerici thg . reas ~tact~ mt(•n it<J •ca] on ~es, and a \~nks of l:i~J at are I ~on~s tmder '!Ve~ ~1Ppro, lie? ther r 'lli" Gi.e 1 ey can ~ Vorcls: \ I~ litin . sorn<' r ~t!ldered o . t~ni\s far 1 !•s ~7ned, i'<lllJc a icl ai '"'lli nt as it Our h':' Und a, istory .. Ii.·. ~~d d,,. s 1 ti.'"lti \ )}" ~I Vagncr b.;•llli'"11t of lri'a~1 llotrl ~ ' Q.).5 ~Sf' "Ont''. 0 BAD INFLUENCE? ____...i ens of int ta tin>, nation tt these ch to g it other our cdu .1ral \\'C'1 particijl are to c produc' adison .~ wrote. o itself. >· ... " 11 ml Coni1 iEicd 111 ion. ional romoti~! of hin s info~ UNESCl I to c•" least t" ·eds of I izations · ning di~' ntcrnnll' -cssccl t~ lS " f! 01\ es EffrC: Other 1 tlanee r. ') .. .. ,, ~w., I' ation f \Vo rid on to st lating interest in these problems, these meetings have been valuable to 0ur own national policymakers, who ~Ust know the mind of the nation 0 arrive at sound policies which will enjoy continuing public support. \ n.uring the past two years the • 1 ational Commission has launched a ~an for locally led "Citizen Consulta-ons." These are getting the "grass-roots" leadership of America to stud} and make recommendations both to the federal government and to their own communities on such problems as "The National Interest and Foreign Languages," "The American Citizen's Stake in the Progress of Less Devel­oped Areas of the \Vorld," and "The American as International Traveler and Host." The American Legion and UNESCO* Opposition of The American Legion toward UNESCO is representative of much of the current criticism CERTAI'-'LY the American people arc entitled to an honest, ac~u­by T rate and complete explanation in h? American Legion of its views an DNESCO. I hope to furnish such explanation .... .,,~here arc three principal objectives ans ch must be reached if we are to tn ~er flnally the earnest questions of tit' increasing number of our fellow fens concerning U ESCO. Lir he flrst is to explain briefly the his?ely unreported, fundamental and 'Jf Thea) philosophies and principles the f e American Legion which are r\ oundation of our position on ~~tl~SCO and on every other national T 1nternationa.l issue. . dist he second 1s to eorrect certam ~ 0rted versions of The American tq~10n's carrfully considen'd national :\Vention action on UNESCO. 'llie nd the last is to make it clear that ·'IQ American Legion has more than ~ ;hgh. reason to consider U ESCO ~tac e 1ntcmational sanctuary of im­i~ ls tica] on<>-world<>rs, r<>d-ting<>d rad­tlie ; and appar<>ntly d<>s<>rtcrs from \vhnks of loyal Americans. tipic at arr th<> philosophies and prin­l( iqn·~ Undrrlying Tll<' American Le­~ e approach to U ESCO and to i!s~1;/; 0 ther national and international 'lb' Sve 1~Y can he summed up in th<>se I{\ orcls: \V11.H Is BEST Fon AMEil- ] ~n~i some quarters, this concept is '.l<te ~red old-fashioned and out-of- 11 t~ • s far as The \mcrican Legion as ncer.n cl, however, this principle ~"1cVal~d and esst'ntial at th_is t:err.t ''lltii llt as 1t was when our nation was ~th-;- and as it has been throughout 1Story .... If doing what is best for America is synonymous with nationalism, then it is an enlightened and constructive form of nationalism. For it inspired The Anwrican Legion to be flrst among the nation's great veteran, pab"iotic, civic, fraternal and business organizations to support the .\larshall Plan; to fight for the <>stahlishment of NATO; to endorse former President Truman's action in committing Ameri­ean forc<>s to th<' def ensc of the Bepuhlic of Kor<>a; to call for a secu­rity fore<' in the Pacific similar to ATO; to support Presidrnt Eisen­hower's d<>cision to drfcnd Formosa. These actions arc j)art of the record a record which c early shows The \merican L<>gion's awareness that col­lective Sl'Curity agr<>cmcnts, economic and militarv aid to our allies, and con­tinued ni'ted Statrs participation in the Unit<>d ations arc in America's best interest. To some, The American Legion's convention approval of continued U. S. participation in the United Nations is in dir<>ct contradiction to our action on NESCO. It is not, of course. It is, inst<>ad, hut anoth<>r e\amplr of The American Legion's f)olicy of supporting organizations, po icies and programs which contribute to our nation's best interest, and of opposing those which do not. You understand this, just as you apprt'ciat<' that Th<> American Le­gion's convention action on ESCO c.:limaxed the most cxt<>nsive studv, debate and discussion ever giV<'n to any subject by Legionnaires. lJnfortunatcly, somt' segments of prc•ss crc•ated the impn•ssion that the L '\ESCO resolution was passed with­out sufficient sh1dy and discussion. :\'othing could h<' further from the truth. Asid<' from tlw two days of dis­cussion and debate given the subject h) the mc•mh<>rs of tlw joint Foreign Relations-Americanism com·cntion committee and by witnesses who appeared before it, U:\'ESCO was considered by delegates to many of our Department Conventions this year. As a matter of fact, ten Depart­ment Conventions adopted resolutions on the subject. All ten supported exist­ing American Legion policy in opposi­tion to UNESCO. It's a matter of record, of course, that this subject has also been thor­oughly studied and discussed by the 'ational Executive Committee of The American Legion. On every hand is e1·id<>ncc refuting completely the charge that we act<>d hastily and without sufficient study on 'ESCO .... Aft<>r reaffirming the action of the '\ational Exccuti1·e Committee in .\!av, 195.'3, the 31th convention then resolved, and I quote: "That The American Legion will not nam<> a delegate to the United States :\'ational Commission for L 'ESCO. "That The American Legion urges Congr<>ss to rep<>al the laws creating the United States l'\ational Commis­sion for :\'ESCO and its Secretariat; and that Congress deliver mandates to all Administrative Departments of the Unit<>d States go1ernment to de­sist from further dissemination of L' 'ESCO and Cnited States l'\ational Commission for L''\ESCO materials, reports and pro.grams within the terri­torial jurisdiction of the United States. LEGION URGES CONGRESS TO INVESTIGATE UNESCO "That Congress be urged to make a complete current im·estigation of the operations of L:\'ESCO to determine 11 hether or not that agency has com­plied and is complying 11ith the terms ancl conditions of Hesolution 215 of the House of Hcpresentatives and lksolution 122 of the L~ nitcd States Senate, 79th Congress; said resolu­tions being the basis of the United States parti ipation in C'\ESCO; pro- 1idrd, further, that im·<>stigation be especially made to aset•rtain 'explicitly whether there has been 1iolation of the provision' of the flnal portion ( 11hich rcacls): 'provided, however, that such agenc) shall not intcrforc 11ith educational svst<>ms or programs within the seven11 nations, or th<>ir administrations.'" Continuing to quote the c~m·en~ion rC'solution: "\nd if. upon mn'stiga­tion, it is determined that U. ESCO has 1 iolat<>d am of the conditions as sC't forth in the· r<>solutions, that Con­gress be urged to take appropriate fs ing e (Continued) U NESCO-GO O D 0 -BA-D ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- action to enforce compliance there­with." I fail to find in any of this language any suggestion whatsoe,·cr, as has been charged, that The American Legion urges Lnitcd States with­drawal from u'.\ESCO. We uri~e only that Congress repeal the laws creating the u. . Commission for UNESCO. In effect, we ask only that the chan­nel for the distribution of UNESCO world government propaganda in the United States be abolished. To those who may think that this request amounts to the same thing as urging that the United States pull out of U:'\ESCO, let me say this: If The American Legion intended the result which UNESCO apologists misrepresent as having occurred, we would have asked that the Congress appropriatt• no furtlwr funds as the U. S. contribution to U 'ESCO. Not only would this pull the United States out of U 'ESCO, it would pull the foundation out from under UNESCO itself. Uncle Sam each year foots one-third of U:\'ESCO's eight- to nine-million­dollar annual bill. We do so despite the fact that onlv a fraction more than one per cent of the total number of t:NESCO's represcntati\·es are Amer­ican citizens. The American Legion doesn't object to this contribution, hut we do object to the fact that, despite this contribu­tion, the United States government has no control over U 'ESCO's hiring or firing of American employees. Any disloyal Americans employed by U:\'ESCO could Aaunt the authoritv of the United States government, ancl there's nothing we can do about it. This isn't just an opinion. It's an undeniable fact, deplored by Amer­ica's highest reprcscntatirn to the L'nited '\ations, Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Senator John J. Sparkman !left) is welcomed to mem­bership on the U. S. Notional Commis­sion for UNESCO by the Chairman of the Commission, Willard E. Givens. Senator Sparkman was nom inoted by Vice President Nixon and appointed by Secretory of State Dulles as a rep­resentative of the federal government on the Commission. JIFPART\1F ... T 01" TAT• PHOTO In a statement on the loyalty prob­lem among United States employees of -NESCO, released a little more than a year ago on October 16, 1954, Ambassador Lodge stated, and I quote: "It is now clear that eight United States citizens employed by U E CO have had adverse loyalty reports from the United States International Organ­izations Employees Loyalty Board. Concerning these eight persons the Board found reasonable doubt as to their loyaltv to the United States. Onlv one of these eight persons con­descended to accept the Board's invi­tation merely to meet with it when it was in Paris last summer. The seven others were in such contempt of the whole procedure that they did not bother to appear at the Board's meeting. "Although Dr. Luther Evans, the Director-General of U 1ESCO, after a long period of consideration, has stated he will not renew the contracts of four of these persons when their contracts eventually expire, he has taken no action to separate these eight United States citizens now. The failure of Dr. Evans to act on these cases actuallv frustrates the efforts of the United States, conducted in close collaboration with the heads of the other international organizations, to ensure the highest standards of integ­rity on the part of those United States citizens who arc members of the staff of these organizations. " ... Although UNESCO is a spe­cialized agency and is, therefore, out­side of my jurisdiction, I have a responsibility as U nitcd States Repre­sentative to the United Nations to sec that fair play C\ists. lt should, there­fore, be crystal clear that there havl' been no such problems in the United Nations itself. " ... The other international organi-d l\ You kn zations, particularly the Unite Alllerican tions (with which I have perso UNESCO familiarity) have dealt with tl10 pro the facts I lem in a fine way. In all fairnc l'Onclusive therefore, public opinion should c! \ 1 . Ye art tinguish between the policies w U' L\Esco are being followed by the Dircc!t. in th.is COUI General of NESCO and the poli Th which are being fol Io wed I)Y. d·i ts inecre cot Uni.tcd ation.s a~d t!,ie otl1er 111!< 1dentifiej ~ national orgamzations. i; etnllle t A I need not remind you that that Un,· Luther Evans, the Dire.ctor-~e.nen1l ~lobaJ-N~ U ESCO, is an American c1t1zell· i(roup i:nm; The record on this problem of le Petst m alty among United States emplo)' l<'ho~Idh\ of UNESCO, and the very recent ft' Th c 1 < ore! at that, reveals another ga!li they hy are fact. ity an ave 11 On October 29, 1955, two "' ltue d cl exr. after The American Legion con1' Th angc1 tion, the highest tribunal of the (; ~ana:sfr w eel ations ordered U ESCO to the a t Ori instate four U. . citizen emplo~· Partj~ of.< of U ESCO who had been lJiecifl~aho charged for failure to cooperate ~1 t~rfer all} a United States Loyalty Board. \\ Yste~nce ESCO finally felt compelled to It i. · fuse to reinstate these employees,, Ctilllp~;o~. I tribunal ordered U ESCO to ~ l'i~n 1 c '1' each of them two years' salary l:\Es~o C: legal costs. These indemnities arn°1 ' bo0 e f 1 s ed to more than $30,000. Childrn it cc Thus we have the situatio~ ,vii< .\~e" ~n , u the United States, based on its ~ hrcath h~ t third contribution to UNESCO, 1 ill ees t 1E the questionable privilege of Pj' l~n' p ddcat $10,000 to American citizens fire tesiiltsr,? uci cause they refused to cooperate 11 , This. , a nited States Loyalty Board. hat "e s1amc t < ucat DISLOYAL EMPLOYEES FIRED aPtesent < '" e the sc And this is no isolated inst• tta· I 1 Last April the same tribunal a11 ·• cd three American employcde; U ESCO $43,000 after they ha C dismissed for refusal to face the r Loyalty Board. The American W~ crs' share of this award w;1s fl $15,000. ti The moral to be drawn from examples would seem to me t~ lf you want to ignore or fl;n1 11 1 authority of legally constitute~ ~\ States loyalty hoa.rds, get a 10UNESCO and be paid by Unc 1~f f for the privilege of kicking hi the teeth. .1 t There can he no question ,th• t the small part of U ESCO s r ~ which I ha vc read to you .m~rcol justifies The American Legions ol sition to this specialized agcncY 1 United ations. I am confidcn~, this record also inspired 1na 1j America\ greatest patriotic or!!~ tions to join with The A111 Legion in this fight. T 1 ~ Y is 1 his is Jnited e persolli l the pro ll fairnr> :hould d cies whi( • Direct :he poli d by d 1ther inti l that -Genenil citizen. lem of le' employ~ recent her gail1 two WCI )n con' ,f the C :;co to emplo~ been • perate 11 )ard. ,,. 1cllcd to Jloyces. :o to r salary ies arno0 1tion wii on its ~ ESCO, ~ of pa' ns fired pcrate 11 oard. ; FIRED cl inst•1i mal a11·• ployee> ~y had r ce the can w'? was ne froJ11 t me to r ffou111 uted L'P 1 a job uncle. ing ]1if1' on th•1t co's rel i n1~rcoi gion s 01 >?;cncY nfidcl11 cl 1nt1P' ·ic or!!•' , j\Jlll' BAD INFLUENCE? You know, of course, that The American Legion's opposition to ~NESCO is not based exclusively on e facts I have cited, damaging and COnclusivc as they are. We arc strongly opposed to li~ESCO because of its propaganda 1n this country for world government. . 1 The record clearly shows that from 1 s inception U ESCO has been 1denti£ed with the idea of world gov­~ lllent. And the record also shows ~la~ NESCO has tried to peddle its •• 0 al-minded concepts to the one ><Oup in America most likely to be ~hrsuaded by its propaganda - our 001 children. th They arc likely targets only because it? have not yet acquired the matur­lru and experience to understand the e danger of world government. ~·These world-government propa­~ nda efforts are in direct violation of p e ~~t of Congress authorizing U. S. ~rti.c1pation in U 'ESCO. Congress le ·c1flcally prohibited U ESCO in­" rfercncc in America's educational ,stem C() It is. not surprising, in view of this ~i 111Plctc lack of respect for the sover­L ·~n laws of the United States, that lj~ Esco should state in its publica­Ch; entitled "In the Classroom with Ag' ~ren undC'r Thirtcl'n Years of hree that "as long as the child iilll athcs the poisoned air of national­tan' education in world-mindedness r 11 Procluce only rather precarious I ts." 'iia~s sam(' publication further states <f p education for world-mindedness de resent l'ncountC'rs obstacles out­rt/ he school. The principal one 1' 1 ~ly is nationalism." his is only one example of U ESCO's world-government ad­vocacy. Another can be found in UNESCO's publication, "The United ations and World Citizenship." In discussing world citizenship, this pub­lication sta tes: "World-wide organization for the conduct of human aHairs is, therefore, essential. o teacher with a sense of realism and even elementary knowl­edge of world affairs will ignore this basic need or be indifferent to its con­sequences for education. \Vorld ma­chinery is required; and human beings with the right outlook are required to utilize it or to insist that it be utilized. The educator thus has a double task: to teach about the machinery of world cooperation and to foster the growth of the spirit that will make it function. Education has, in short, the urgent duty to develop informed and compe­tent world citizens." There are some who contend that U ESCO did not publish these docu­ments or that U ESCO no longer is endeavoring to peddle these ideas. They have seriously deceived them­selves, for here is the record: The publications, "In th e Classroom with Children under Thirteen Years of Age" and "The United ations and \Vorlcl Citizenship,'' arc listed on page 26 of U ESCO's own catalogue of available English language publica­tions in thC' field of education issued by U 'ESCO up to September, 1955. Incidentally, the cover of this cata­logue proves rather conclusively that U\'E CO does intend to get its mate­rial into our school svstcm in violation of tlw prohibition ·by Congress. It reads: "Education of interest to primary Our National Interests Are Served (From an address by Walter H. C. laves, Former Chairman, U. S. National Commission for UNESCO) j\f !\k.F no 1ni.,tak<' about it - hllr national int<'r<'~l:io. ar(' !-t{'n('d i\'!' our tn C' mbt"r~ hip in U ESCO. tid I don ,l mean that there is :::y truth in th e idea that l' Lnited Sta tes dominatef;! '\ .E. CO. e don' t dominate it. I etth ('r dOt" ~ any other ('ountry '1°tninnte. either 1loe• UNE CO ' 0 ttJinnte u or 1<'11 us whut we :"<' lo do or inte rfere with us in tiy "ny. Dominution, interf('r· t,;ce, ("Ontrol, jus t aren't in "It'. E. CO's vocnbulury or its con· 1~11 llhon or its actions. What id t' tte i free, friendly COO(lCrU· •on nnrl n1utunl aid. Or <'Our-.e our national inter-f'~ ts nrf' Sf'n f'd hy NE CO. \'l•Jten the lnclonC'""ian del('1:ation .!'la)~, " ~ C' "' e l<-omc U E CO he("nu'ie it hC"lp ~ us 111akc our national euhurt' und aspiration., known to thf' West," the) are Sflcnking of tht">ir national inter­l'' i l"· ~· h('n ~te,ieo says, "We arc hu1>py to be in U E CO bccau-.t• it le t ~ U!i bene fit from reseureh on the d c,<• lo1unent of urid zones," thC"y are s peaking of their national interes ts. rfllOhf" nre t\\O exumples of a score J <·ould t>itc. And we, too, urc happy to belong lo UNESCO he<-outoie our national intercsh arc "'ell erH•d. school, secondary school and univer­sity teachers, students, teachers' train­ing colleges, education officials, adult education instructors and fundamen­tal educators." It is not necessary to examine each and even· one of U ESCO's publi­cations to determine whether this agency is not only propagandizing for world go,·ernment, but seems also to be the sanctuary for red-tinged radicals. \Ve need onlv follow that famous axiom: "Consider the Source." The list of authors of U ESCO publications who have been identified with organizations listed as subversive by the Attorney General or the House Un-American Activities Committee is ... long ... [Editor's note: Com­mander \ Vagner's partial list has been omitted, but a fuller list, furnished by The American Legion's publication, The Firing Line, follows this article.] UNESCO is also active in the field of \'isual education. And so are some of its left wing representatives. Let me cite just one example. For a number of vears the UNE CO Film SC'ction was 'headed by John Grierson. This individual resigned as head of the National Film Board of Canada at the time of the Canadian espionage hearings. Denied a visa to this coun­try, he came in through U ESCO and headed the film section of that organi­zation. There are many others, of comse, whose identification with C:\ESCO gives The American Legion more than sufficient cause to oppose this agency. The most prominent of these were Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White. The American Legion's conclusion based on official congressional reports, that Hiss and White were, in fact, associated with the formulation of UXESCO, has been denied or dis­counted in some quarters. Let me again cite the record so you can judge for yourself whether we are right. In its January 3, 1955, Report, the Senate Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Secu­rity Laws concluded, and I quote: "l. Alger Hiss, Harry Dc.xtcr White, and their confederates in the Commu­nist underground in government had power to exercise profound inRuence on American foreign policy and the policies of international organizations during \Vorld \Var II and the years immediatelv thereafter. "2. They' had power to exercise pro­found influence on the creation and operation of the United 1\'ations and its specialized agencies. "3. This power was not Ii mi tcd to their officiall} designated authorit}. It was inherent to their access to and influence over higher officials, and the opportunities they had to present or withhold information on which the policies of their superiors might be based. (Continued) UNESCO - GOOD 0 R BA D "-!. Hiss, White and a considerable number of their colleagues who helped make American foreign policy and the policies of international organ­izations during crucial years have been ~;posed as secret Communist agents. In the Second Report on Acti\'ities of United States Citizens Employed h} the United Nations of the Senate Sub­committee to Investigate the Adminis­tration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws is this statement, and again I quote: "Harry Dexter \Vhite was the Trcas­u1y's representative at the United i'\ations' San Francisco Conference, where he gave particular attention to the establishment of U ESCO." There is one final question which I would like to answer. I ha\ e been asked, and I'm sure that manv of vou have also been asked: \Vhy can\ Ambassador Ilenr} Cabot Lodge, America's representa­tive to tlw United ations, do some­thing to clean up !'\ESCO so that it will he acceptable to The American Legion and the American people~ Ambassador Lodge h<•st answered this question in his testimony before a House Subcommittee on Appropria-tions on Januaiy 27, 1954, when 11 said, and l quote: . " ... I think the lack of an admin1' trativc framework for the specialize agencies is something that has pro,·e' \Cl"} baflling. UNESCO and all the' other agencies arc more or less h111 unto themselves. Thcv are entire outside of my jurisdiction. The Se~r< tarv-General of the United Nat101 cannot touch them. It is a constJV I source of confusion and embarr<1·' ment. "I think that is something that ti Congress might do well to look in!O· The American Legion thinks so, t<I \Ve have asked the Congress to m•1~ a complPt<• currpnt investigation UNESCO to determine whether not that agency has complied "it and is complying with the terms n1 conditions set down by ongress authorizing U. S. participation NESCO. W<• sincert'ly hope that the Co gress "·ill act upon this request ~ tained in the UNESCO resoluli0 passed overwhelmingly at our con1 '[ tion ... in \!iami. \Ve are certain t: such an investigation will confirill f American Legion's findings with r spcct to U ESCO. - Authors of UNESCO Publications Listed as Subversive THE following is a major portion of a list supplied by The Firing Line, official publication of The American Legion, stating that certain authors of and contributors to UXESCO publications lul\'c been identified with organizations listed as subversi\'e b} the United States At­torney General or the House Commit­tee on Un-American Activities. The complete list and documentation thereof may he obtained from The '\ational Americanism Commission, P. 0. Box 105.5, Indianapolis, Indiana. The Importance of Chemistry in the Life of Modem ,\Ian, by LI:-.:US PACLIL\'G. Testifying before the House Select Committee to Investi­gate Foundations and Comparable Organizations in 1952, LO IS BUD­E.:\ Z said that he was "officially advised a number of timPs ... in the middle forties" that PAULll\"G "was a member of the Communist party under discipline." BUDENZ testified that "Communist leaders expressed the highest admiration and confidence in DR. PAULI'.\'G." In 1951 the House Committee on Page 18 Cn-.\merican Acti\'ities stated that PAULl~G's "whole record ... indi­cates that ... (he) ... is primarily en~rossed in placing his scientific at­tainments at the service of a host of organizations which have in common their complete subservience to the Communist Party, U.SA, and the So­viet ·nion. Professor PAULING has not dc\'iated a hair's breadth from this pattern of loyalty to the Communist cause since 1946 .... " Tensions Affecting International Understanding and Race and Psy­chology, by OTIO KLT'\EBEHG. Listed as an employee of Ui'\ESCO Secretariat (as of April , 1955), KLINEBEHG was labeled "well­known as an extreme leftist" hy the Special Committee to Investigate Tax­Exempt Foundations and Comparable Organizations in 195.t. A current mem­ber of the Public Affairs Committee, KLI:\'EBEHG sponsored the Ameiican Committee for Democracy and Intel­lectual Freedom and the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born during 1940. The latter organi­zation was considered "one of the oldest all\iliarics of the Com1n•11 part} in the nitcd States" by. 1 Spt'cial Committee on L n-A111cn° Activities. KLl'\EBEHG signed a statcn1cJ1 1 19 U urging the Presidt'nt and C0 1 gr<'ss to clef end the rights of the Cifil munist Part), USA. Ile has been ''.'.i' ated with the now defunct sub~·e 1 · 1i­Coordinating Committee to Lift .1 Embargo. This organization was ''l' by the Special Committee on 1 \nwrican Acti\'itics "as one of ;1 11 11 h<'r of front organizations, set up cl; ing tlw Spanish Civil \Var h) . 1 Communist part} in the United 51• 1 1 , and through which the part} ~;ur on a great deal of agitation .. · · Sl· Race and Biology, by LE ·r CLAHENCE DUN . A support< 1~ 11 subversive and Communist orlli' zations, DUNN sponsored the t\91 Voters Against Coudert and the 1 Fifth ational Conference o~ 11 American Committee for Protcct10 1 Foreign Born. He also sponsorr'~ Fifteenth Anniversar}' ation<1l ·it• Ference of the American Conlil11 for Protection of Foreign norJJ FAris Fom. \c l\"Ews, ,\ pfl' /· J 0 R BAD I NFLUENCE? ----- when I 1 admini> pecializ as pro\'~ [ all thC' less la1; ' entire· 'he Seer< l 'atior. . consta ·mbarrM' , that ti ~ok into· ks so, to< s to Jllak• gation hethcr " lied ,,it terms :i11 ingress : atiOJl . the Co 1uest cO esolu ti' ir con,·t ~rtain tll nfinn'f with~ ;ive omnH111 .'' h' t 'Am~·riC· Hl48. In 1940, DUNN was an Execu­tive Board member of the American fommittec to Save Refugees and was 1sted as a contributor to the now defunct subversive periodical, Equal­lfy, in 1939 ... Goethe. U. ESCO's Ilomage 011 the Occasioll of the Tteo Hundredth An­~ ttersary of llis Birth, by TITO\IAS /.\.'-/, (co-author). Before \lann's ~ath on August 12, 1955, the German- · .. rn no,·elist had supported 21 organ­:~~ hons and publications cited as sub­S~ rs1ve and Communist by the United Cates Attorney General and the House \&n1In1ttee on lin-American Activities. n· hl\ i was affiliated with the Civil 7 '.g ts Congress; Independent Citi­ ·lns Committee of the Arts, Sciences ~d Professions; ;\;ational Council of C: Arts, cicnee~ and Profc_ss.ions; •h·ngrt•ss of Amcncan-Sov1ct F nend­Soip, :\ational Council of American­d · 1 ·1ct Friendship; and sponsored a ~n~cr cl'icbrat!ng the 25th Anniver- 1101'} of the Soviet Red Army in 1943, 's d~r the auspices of the now defunct · Oviet Russia Today." 1)1 ~IA\:-.; was affiliated with the Com- 19~~ist periodical, New Masses, in •n , and the subversive Film Audi­lj~ es for Democracy two years later. dt· ivas listed as an Honorary Presi­• r nt of the League of American \Vrit­im\ a Communist subsidiary, and was for iatt•d with the American Council for ;1 Democratic Greece, Committee 1f d1c First \mendment, Committee Ped.ne .Thousand, and the ~ational tie/ration for Constitutional Liber- S~n 1949, \IA?\;\' was a ational ;l{>apsor of the Spanish H.efugee Ap­c0rn10f the Joint Anti-Fascist Hcfugce the r ~Iltt't', and was a supporter of ntoJ. ttwyers Committee on American l!Jo~ 1ons with Spain. In 19.J.6 ~IA the ;ored a eonference on China and \w ar East under the auspices of the •nd1 ~11 al ommilt<'c to \Vin the Peaee, 'h" l 1 ''•,l'a ic followin.." , •v ear endorsed an f,>r y of the \merican Committee tlie \17osht, Helicf, Inc. A sponsor of Upp \oriel )outh Festival, \IA'\1'\1 tre Ortcd the \etors Laboratory The­l• tti a~id th<' \\'oriel Congress of Jntel- 1\>a~ 1 J1 s 111 19 J'>. The following year he t;~l' 1Ht•d as ,1 Sponsor of the Scien­\\ ·oriJ11ld Cultur,tl Conference for .,, Pt'aee. ) ' e11 . l.\Dt~11s That Cause Wars, by DR. ti,~\•.'":') C-\.:\TRIL. A member of the \ •1t1onal Executive Committee of 1tt}:. 1nt•riean Committee for Democ­1(;\\'. f1d lntt>llectual Freedom in 1910, 01J,,,1 .HJ L signed a statement the ':iunis 111 ~ } ear dl'fending the Com- ~ t I .trty L'SA. He was an Execu- ~l'fs r · ·ont\1 :\'Ews, ,\pril, 1956 tive Committee member of the Film Audiences for Democracy, and spon­sored th e Conference on Bill of Bights - Sublime Risk of Free \Jen, under the auspices of the Emergenc} Civil Liberties Committee in 195:3. CA:\'THIL was listed as a 19.5.J. con­tributor to The Nation magazi1w. What ls Race? i\l. F. ASIILE\­\ IONTAGU (contributor). :\10>.­T\ GlJ was listed as a Guest Leeturer of the School for Democracy, an edu­cational institution controlled 11\ the Communist party in 19.J.2. Ile. was affi liated with the i\lid-Century Con­ference for Peace, and was listed as a member of the Editorial Board of lntemc, the official organ of the Asso­eiation of l nternes and i\Iedical Stu­dents (AJ\IS ). The House Committee on Un-American Activities cited this organization as subversive and a faith­ful follower of the Communist party lint'. :\IONTAGU was affiliated with thr '\ ational Council of Anwrican­Soviet Friendship and the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. In 195.J. he was listed as a con­tributor to The Nation magazine. The text of UNESCO publication, What ls Race?, was re,ised by l>.IONTAGU after criticisms were submitted bv II ADLEY CANTH.IL, LA WHENCE C. DUNK, and OTTO KLINEBEH.G. The Teaching of the Social Sciencl's in the United States and The Univer­sity Teaching of Political Science, '.\I \HSJIALL E. DI\lOCK ( contribu­tor ). In 1941 DI'.\JOCK was listed as a speaker at the Fifth '\"ational Con­ference of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. Ile" as affiliated with the \Vin-the-Peace Con­fen• nce, and was Vice-Chairman of the Progressive Citizens of America in 1947. The California Committee on Un-American Activities cited the Pro­gressive Citizens of America in 19.J.8 as "a new and broader Communist front for the entire United States formed in September, 1946, at the direction of Communist steering com­mittees ... " A Panel '.\loderator (or Chairman) of the Scientific and Cultural Confer­ence for World Peace in 19.J.9, DI\1- 0CK was also a 194.5 member of the Commission to Stud~· the Organiza­tion of Peace of the .\merican Asso­ciation for the nited 'a tions, Inc. Answer to 11Subversive Authors11 Charge By John F. McJennett Auislanf Director, U. S. National Commiuion for UNESCO [l'Acrs Fonmr NEws asked for a state­ment from the U. S . .\'11ti01wl Commission for (1 \ 'ESCO to acc01n1><11111 the list of "sub­rcr.\ iec tmtlwrs" furnished by 1'hc American Legion. The follotci11g is their rcp/!f. - Ed.] W1111 rq~<trcl to "certain authors of l''iESCO publications who haw dubious records of loyalty to thl' U. S.," I haw clwckecl .. . [those) ml'nlionl'd "ith U'\TESCO's gC'ncral catalog of publica­tions ... The catalog to which I refer gor•s up to Jul), 19.5·1, and the new onl' \1111 not hr• out until this summer. Thus, thl" rl'c­orcls availabll" to me at this time do not show what association ... [some of these .1 uthors] had with U'\JESCO. \I r. KlinC'berg has be<'n clean•d und1•1 the• provisions of Executh·C' Ordl'r I 0·122. It is my rc•colll'ction that Thomas \l a1111 W<lS a G1•m1an national "ho rC'lurned to Cl'nnany hl'forc his dl'ath. Ashll"y-~lontagu is of British birth. This list appears to havC' h!'C'n dra" n from Annl'x 9 of the lfousl' Committer' on Un-American Activities, datt•d 19·1 J. \ s vou ma\ kno". this volume "·as a compi­iation ~f lcttl'rhl'ads, claimed nwmbl'r­ships, etc., of a \'aricty of org<tnizations that had coml' to thl" attl'ntion of the lJn­American Acti\'ities Committel'. lam told that individual copies of Annex 9 ha\'C' heen circulated but that thr n-American \ctivitirs Committee has rl"fused the pub­lication official status . A check with the Srcurily Division [of the U. S. :\'ational Commission for U'\JESCO] h<tS bel'n maclt' and reveals that none of thl' \\Titl'rs listt•d \\WC eallt>d by the Un-American Activities CommittcC' lo rC'spond to questions about thl'ir asso­ciations. Tht> general catalog to "hich I rderrecl earliC'r lists 183 clifforl.'nt authors. 19.5.'5-.'56 "ill probably add another 100 to that figurl". It would bl.' extremeh unlikeh if a fl'\\ of this number would ;10t hold .l){'­liefs or hadn't been ml'mbl.'rs of organi 1<1tions of "hich soml.' national group dis­approvC's. In each instance the \\TitC'rs \\'l'r<' s!'lrcted on the basis of their stand­ing in their technical field. ThC'ir product "as mcasurC'cl by th!.' sanw standard. As you may also kno\\. b) arr<lllgl'ment with the heads of all international organ iza­tions in which the United States partici­pates, American nationals must satisf) the provisions of E\ccutiw Order 10·122 as regards loyalty <tnd sccurit). You will understand that must of the specifics pro and con on m.1ttcrs of this sort arc cfassified and that SC'curity Regu­lations prevent my discus ion. (Continved) UNESCO - GOOD o R -BAD \ational The Truth About UNESCO* Everyone act, and a illade re1 Opinions. J Dr. E\'ans' state 1ne n t is a reply to n1any of the current objections to UNESCO. THE United Nations Charter pro­vides that the Economic and Social Council may exercise a certain jurisdiction over educational and cultural matters, and in another article provides that specialized agen­cies may be established in certain fields if a number of the member states wish it. It was as a result of that authorization, and in response to a feeling on the part of the teachers of this country that the Economic and Social Council assignment was not ,1dequate and that we needed an international office of education, that some of us went to London the end of October, 1945, to write the UNESCO Constitution .... I am not here to tell you ... all of the U;>o;ESCO slor}. I am here today as a witness to answer questions as to the truth of charges which have been made in recent months concerning U'\ESCO, and I shall Limit myself to <lllswering those questions as honestly and calmly as I can. The first question is, "Is UNESCO preaching world government and onc­world citizenship?" The answer is, emphatically, "No, it is not." U1 ESCO has used the term "education for world citizenship," but it has used it interchangeably with the term "educa­tion for international understanding." If you look up the term "world citi­zenship" in one of the better diction­aries, vou arc likclv to find "world citi­zen" defined as a "cosmopolitan," as a person who feels at home in anv coun­tn. That is the sense in · which U~ESCO uses the term "world citi­zenship." UNESCO has not, to mv knowledge. ever come out in favor of anything stronger than the nited '\ations itself is. In other words, as far as any of its declarations and poli­cies are concerned, U ESCO is not in favor, nor has it ever been in favor of world government, unless the United Xations is world government. 'ow, I say "unless" merely because one has 0 ..\ slightly rcvisl'd wrsion of an address ~iH'n .it the Annual Confrrenc<' of the .'\ational Education Assodation, Detroit, \lichii:.m. July :3, 1952. Page 20 By LUTHER H. EVANS Dire ctor-Ge ne ral o f UNESCO to be \·ery cautious in the use of terms, since one of the tactics of those who attack UNESCO and the United Na­tions is the tactic which the Soviet uses in its attack on the free world, namely, to take good, honon·d words and pour the meaning out of them and pour some poll11tt'd kind of meaning into them. If l understand the term "world govt'rnment," it would mean that a government organ \\'Otdd be set WllW WOlll.O PHOTO Dr. Luther Evans, Director-General of UNESCO. up that would be above the national governments and would conti·ol th<' national govern men ls. U1\ ESCO has never preached that, and UNESCO's usage of "world citizenship" docs not 'Tlean litcrall) citizenship in a world government. On \larch 21 (1952] at a meeting of the E~ecutive Board of UNESCO we were struggling with a translation of a French term, "civisme internationale," and it had been translated as in the past, as world citizt'nship. One of the members of the Executive Board said, "Look, we're using the term citizen­ship without noting that it has a legal connotation in our different nations. \Ve arc not using it with that connota­tion in U ESCO. We literallv do not mean citizenship. which is a tenn im­plying legal rights and duties bet\\'een <1 state and an individual." The Execu- Pamphlets that none< lepr.esen te• I think it i . the statem• tive Board agreed with him that 11 ' !elves to s were not L1sing the term in a Jeg. "'ere comn sense. After a brief discussion th• national p Chairman said that the Sccretafl· "'•nted to would redraft the document to S· 1 ' Patriotism what we really meant. \Ve meant cd11 • 1nd Stalir cation for international understand111C "'ould deni We meant education of citizens r 0utside of know the role they play in the wor• ~hich wou and what their moral obligations i• 1n one's c good citizens of their own country ~~ •ither coun< toward the world as a whole. >Vorld pea< I have been at every U ESCO c0n. :h<tges ma fcrence except the one in 1946. I ''" 'n the fir present at London in 1945 when tP• ilarnely U' ConstitL1tion was drafted .... f\s Place, the 1; member of the Executive Board-~ ~s been 1 U ESCO where the program is ill' 1•~ird place ally drafted, ... I can assllrC yo11 1 11rected t~ complete honesty that there is V' 1hey Wt•rd one grain of truth in the assertion th· ~ans; an 1 t: U ESCO is preaching world go,·c~ llecial c<ff menl or one-world ci~izenship in\, 'tis1n of th poht1eal sense. The hlcratL1rc 1ss\ States e , by UNESCO, the resolutions for. 1~ •nyon~'s v~~ program of 19.52, among other t111nr I call for the development of act'~ DESIGN methods for education in \\'O\ ED eitizenship, especially in relation . .'l'he th. the principles of the Universal Deel; \t:sco 1 . 1 ation of 1!11man Hights. \Vhat 1 '. nivcrsal 1 means is that we want to teach pc0! 1~hts att to respect tlw universal Declar•111' ~n n·11' en · " fr 1 of B of fIL1man Bights. That Declaratt0 .·~ e'!Hentl I: something which was unaniin°t'1~ 1 Prop·i Y passed in the General Assembly of. '~ llm' g;t~1 United Nations· even the Soviet 01111 ~•nui · 0 cI 1. cI ~ot vote a' gainst [ it], t h ou~rJ 1 1'i0f Ih izrninagn Htl absta111ed. ~~t .1 ~<tcf. , .nun NOT OFFICIAL VIEWS I L'n· s this m: 1 Qi ,1hversal J A second charge is tl1at 1, ~ ts is not pan:ipl.1lets:. "Toward World L s<C 11ed hy t standing, put out by U ~ 1 , United att<'mpt to undc•nnine the patri0! ll8. This I of the children attending Amcr'r ;"Is. It is<; schools and to replace that with \: lr,t~e legal all) toward world government. 11 , 'n"'et Russ are some statements in the patnP~1 ~ ~ 1 t~d St·it~ "Toward \Vorld Understandtil r''ntativ~·s, which go fmther than I would ¢0 ~r't'. To fci'll; this matter of training children to 11 ·, Qi'hhon of II regard for higher loyalties and s0 1, I,,~. ts Comn hut, the point about the painphlc., ~1al Courn that they are summaries of se111',1 ~~ kb!y of U discussions, and they no more rel t ing on t sent the policy of U ES 0 !h'1~, ~•ts. Thes :1cco11nt of the discussion at !his 11f t ~.attempt 111g would n•present the pohc) 0 ~ 11! mini ., J'f: ~'t FACTS Fonl 'r 'nvs, AW'· s F'onu o R BA D INFLUENCE? -- ia tional Education Association. veryone was allowed to get into the act, and a lot of statements that were lll~d~ represented purely personal 0Pin1ons. It was clearly stated in the ~mphlets that this was the cas(' and at none of the statements necessarily represented what U ESCO stood for. l think it is a misconstruction even of the statements in the pamphlets them-that 11 ' \elves to say that the people present 1 a leg• 11-e~e committed to the undermining of ;sion th• national patriotism. Of course, the) ecrctafl· II-anted to keep away from the kind of it to 5 ' 11 "atriotism that Hitler and ,\lussolini cant ecl11 ind Stalin have cul tiva ted which ·standinC 11-ollld den{ the existence of any righ ts tizcns 1 ' Outside o one's own coun try and :he worl• ( hich would deny any responsibi lity ;ations i• ,n one's country for the welfare of untry •1~ :her countries as a means to having · 1 ~hor]d peace. Therefore, I think the SCO c<> 1 i •tges made about those pamphlets 46. I ,,._. n the first place miss the target, w.h.en, :h jllle]y UNESCO. In the second 1' 1 Pace, the nwanin~ of those pamphlets J3o.ar~~jV ~;1 been misconstrued; and in the n is 1 /rd place, those pamphlets were not re ):0 11 0, I lhected toward the United States. re. is th tiQ ey We're directed toward all na­r tion ·er' 1 1 °•.: and U, ESCO has not made any :) goi tn ~~c1al effort to undermine the patri­np 111 11e \.sin of the chi ldren of the United re fi ss ti a:tes, evC'n if it were undermining is or. c ~one's patriotism. er thin of a,c~r~ bESiGNED TO RAISE STANDARDS n ' ~ •lation ll Deel• vhat th ch pro!' C'ciar;1t1• Jara tio1:, ini rnof11i~ hly 0 . riet V1111 though J he third question is, "Does ~.Esco in propagandizing for the Ii tversal Declaration of Human C<t~ht~ attempt to destroy the Ameri­fr Bili of Hights?" The statement has 1l~!llently been made that U ESCO 1~ Pt~pagandizing the destruction of 'a~ 1~11! of Hights because it is propa­ir d1ltng the Universal Declaration Ir llman Bights. ow, it is necessary !ar~~t a number of things ckar as re-vs I Un~ this matt('r. In the first place, th(' ' I ai IVer_sal Declaration. of Il um_an tl1.1t. cl• ~sits is not a treaty. It 1s a resolution ~I ~sC ·. etl by the G('ncral Assembly of :J . ti' lj8 n1tC'd Nations in December, patr1;iC ·,at' This document states some high ~ml: I• ~ ths. It is not binding on any state, v1th fh' ~'"i e legal sense. It was voted for by ent. }11• ~nit~t Russia, as well as by the i<t lll) .11t ~ .. 0~d ~tates. The United States rep­tanl ~o Ill it tatives spoke eloquently in favor nild ·11. ,,•U To follow up the Universal Dec­cn 1t0 0 o ~i~hton of Human High ts, the Human inl 1 JcL' ~~i j1 Commission, the Economic and mp 1 11i1 llibJ Council, and the General As-se; 1.rr -~rk.Y of United ations have been ore .111 ilqnt 1ng on the development of cove­) !h'ni<' "'i1t 1 : These draft covenants reprc­! h15 f ~ ~t/tte111pts to put in treaty fonn lie)' 0 ~ 1n minimum obligations which ·J 1~ "<-15 ,., Jlf' . I' 0 11(; \ ! countries would be willing to under­take. lt is clearly stated in the drafts as they have been prepared to date that the obligations are minimum, and that higher obligations which may be contained in a nation's constitution and laws would continue in effect in that country. ow, some people have ignored tl1is whole situation and have declared that if the covenants as now drafted were to be adopted in tl1e United States they would deprive us of cer­tain of the liberties we now have under the Bill of Bights. That is an absolute fa lsehood; it is a complete National Commissions Serve as Links T llE ecrelariat in Paris can· no t cnrry out the whole of the L ESCO program. This must he do ne ma inly by th e Notional Commissions coordinating the ir e ffo rts through the Secretariat. The National Co1n1nissions arc a uni <rue fea ture of ESCO . They J)rovidc the 1nachin c r) whe reby peo)llcs can talk to pc o1>les. If the supporte rs of o ur orga ni zation in the 111 c mhc r s tnt('S ever forget thnt in e ver) eo untry the exec ution of the LNESCO program must hegin at homt", if they come to think o f the Secretariat .as be ing nil of L. ESCO and 1he Narionul Com· mi:i,'lions n1e relv as ae. ... ocintio ns o f indhidua ls ,.;ho ta ke an inte r· est in U ESCO, then our orga ni· za ti on is dooin e d . Ins tead of 1>eople• lulking to peoples n il that ~ c sha ll have is bure.uue rnts ~ ri tin g to bureaucrats. J know that ) ou arc dc lcrmincd thi ~ shull not happe n. ( Srntemenc by former Director· General Jaime Torres Bodet in leaflet, "UNESCO." July. 1952.) wrenching of the documents from their basic meaning. I think most of the attackers do not even try to ex­plain away even the provisions to which I have just referred .... U'.'IESCO is trying to achieve goals in the general direction of our own Bill of Bights and trying to pull na­tions along to a higher level of equal­ity and of freedom, and ... it has no intention whatsoever of reducing thC' rights that people already have. The fourth point relates to the re­vision of textbooks.
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