responsible to it, such as the Soviet Military Intelligence.
the Soviet Foreign Office, or the Supreme Economic Council. In each case his responsibilities to the Soviet agency-
have complete priority over any consideration of the
domestic Communist Party.
5. Nonparty Communists. — Certain sympathetic persons find it inadvisable or inexpedient to join the Communist Party. For example, a person of great wealth or prominence may be in full sympathy with the Party, but he maybe unwilling or unable to attend meetings or carry out all
Communist duties. But he agrees to abide by the Party's
wishes and submit to its discipline. He may be a businessman who depends upon the Soviet government for commercial favors. He may be a politician or a union official
who could not be elected to office without the votes eon-
trolled by the Communist bloc. In some cases compulsion
may be employed to whip the individual into line.
6. Communist Party Supporters. —There are other individuals to be distinguished from the above group who are
in no sense under Communist discipline, but who voluntarily and knowingly support the Communists in one or
more ways such as voting for Communist candidates, signing of Communist election petitions, donating money for
the Party or its press, supporting campaigns in behalf of
the Party of individual known Communists, supporting
organizations openly sponsored by the Communist Party,
defense of Communist legal cases, doing organizational
and political favors for the Party, or writing for the Communist press. In each case the subject is fully aware that
he is supporting the Communist Party or one or more of
its members or one or more of its directly espoused activities. The usefulness of such non-Communists is demonstrated by the example of Raymond Boyer, a wealthy and
noted Canadian chemist, who described himself as having
"worked in organizations in which there were Communists
and in which I knew there were Communists, and I have
worked very closely with Communists, but I have never
held a Partv card nor paid dues." A memorandum found
in the Soviet Embassy cites his services as follows:
Gives full information on explosives and chemical plants.
• * " (Gave the formula of RDX ° * •).
RDX is an explosive perfected in England in 1942. fie also
furnished information regarding the pilot plant at Grand
Mere, Quebec, for the production of uranium.
1. Fellow travelers. — As differentiated from the above
categories, a fellow traveler may be defined as an individual who from time to time supports one or more organizations or campaigns operating under the indirect and usually unpublicized initiative and control of the Communist
Party or its representatives. Here we must point out three
(a) Conscious fellow travelers. —A conscious fellow traveler is one who affiliates with or supports one or more of
these groups with full knowledge of its character. For the
most part, such persons are motivated by a definite sympathy for the Soviet Union or the Communist Partv or
both. Here again we must differentiate between two
groups under this heading:
(i) Consistent fellow travelers. — Among those who
support or affiliate with such organizations or campaigns are those who on no occasion take issue with the
Communist Party or its auxiliary organizations. They
have a consistent record of such affiliations or sympathy
throughout all changes of the Party line, and despite the
fact that such organizations have been publicly exposed
(ii) Unreliable fellow travelers. — Occasionally thei*
is defection among the fellow travelers who support the
Communist Party or its auxiliary organizations. Th"
may be due to disillusionment as to the real nature <»
the Soviet regime or antagonism toward such actions a>
the Stalin-Hitler Pact or disgust with Communist met""
ods in a particular organization. The sincerity and depf
of the individual's conversion may be measured by tW
individual's subsequent behavior. If he supports no of"
Communist organizations or campaigns subsequent ,0
his first break, it may be assumed that this break is siOj
cere and thorough. If, however, his name is to be foul"'
supporting such organizations or campaigns at a latfH
date, it may be properly concluded that his break V%
neither genuine nor substantial
(b) Unwitting fellow travelers. — It would be only vf\
to indicate that individuals have supported Communis
inspired organizations in the belief that such organization
were accomplishing some meritorious, social purpose. TM
may have had not the faintest notion as to the organic
tion's Communist character, they may even be anti-Cof^
munist. In other words, they may be outright dupes. Su*
names are not usually found in organizations of an outnf?*
Communist character. Nevertheless, the Communists <5
come their financial and moral support.
The Communists are perfectly frank in admitting
usefulness of the fellow traveler. F. Brown, an agent of' ,
Communist International who operated in the Unw.
States in the 1930's, who was also known as Alpi *"<
Marini, has testified to that fact in the Daily Worker
August 25, 1937, page 2, where he declares:
It is no exaggeration to state that besides the 55,000 Corn-
nuiiiist members, there are today tens of thousands ol individ-
mils who are active in every field of the progressive move*
in, ut, carrying out the line of the Party in practice. They wo1*
shoulder to shoulder with the Party members, follow t'lL"
Party line through our press — Daily Worker, Sunday \VorMr>
language press, through the mass activities of th,- Party^
mass meetings, lectures, .nu! all struggles in which tin- Cow
i, ii mists arc in tin- Ion-front. ° * ° We must point out: l-i'^"'
that their actual work is appreciated by the Party; secon" •
that we consider their work Communist work and want tin'11
to continue it.
How to Judge a Fellow Traveled
It is possible to set up definite standards for judgMj
fellow traveler's devotion to the Communist Party an1
Soviet Union, which must be taken into consideratW
judging his loyalty to the United States. This scale "s
hard and fast. It cannot be applied mechanically. I* J1,
be utilized intelligently with an eye to the history ol j.
period, our current relations with the Soviet Union,
age of the individual at the time of his affiliations. \i
possible changes in his views. It should be recognized I
an individual who has passed through certain experf*|
with Communist organizations and who has been J
oughly and completely disillusioned, can be of con*" ft
able value in counteracting Communist machination''J
adopt an attitude of "once a fellow traveler, always •' I
low traveler," is to place an obstacle in the path ol '""^
education of such individuals and to make it und<'*"'
for an individual to desert their ranks. The following
should, therefore, be kept in mind in judging a >l
I. The number of his associations with Cornm"
Facts Fohi'm News, \;""'
such poor who i
P of 31,6
E '" revie