came from outside Pasadena. It would not have been possible lor him to work with the existing personnel of the
Subterranean channels were used to introduce curriculum changes, and members of the central staff were not
"insulted. For example, the five-hour core program (in
W'hich English, history, geography, social studies, art, and
other subjects were incorporated as one) was started in
""ie of the junior high schools. By undercutting supervisors
at the control office and the principals, and by disseminating changes directly to the teachers, the control of curriculum was centralized in the superintendent.
Another irregularity is to be found in the fact that no
Permanent record of curriculum changes was kept during
Mr. Goslin's superintendency. Specific changes could not
'l(' traced through any definite channel to the administration. The method of selecting textbooks was so vague that
uo one person could be held responsible.
In less than two years Willard Goslin not only succeeded in organizing a tremendous sales machine, but
*»0 in changing the policies so as to give him greater
control. For a short period he enjoyed a position of absolute
Power. The personnel and policy changes gave him direct
control over the school system. The program changes
Hnuld have spread this control to the community.
* Examining the facts, one finds that he introduced a
PW method of indoctrination: group dynamics, "an area
research in the group aspects of social change." In
Practice, this means that the group is the channel through
'Hell social change is made. To accomplish this, the jVm people wanted this-
"embers are conditioned to think in terms of change. An
' bareness of the need for change is created so as to direct
new social order openly advocated indoctrination. Dr.
George S. Counts said, "You will say, no doubt, that I am
flirting with the idea of indoctrination. And my answer is
again in the affirmative."
The Pasadena conflict might have been avoided if the
people had been aware of the dangers of the technique
of "divide and conquer." But what was this technique?
Pasadena had no example to follow. She did not know of
any other city that had been torn apart as she was. Therefore, she could not profit by the experience of others.
Research material indicates that the agitation in Pasadena vvtis not accidental, but planned. The planners must
have examined the history of Pasadena to determine its
weaknesses. One (weak) factor in Pasadena was progressive education, which had long been smoldering under
recurrent streams of protest. There had been flurries of
disapproval of progressive education in Pasadena, but no
violent reactions. Differences of opinion were respected.
Teachers and parents were not discredited for voicing
their opinions. Ulterior motives were not read into people's
In the normal course of events, the dispute over progressive education would have been settled cooperatively
or would have subsided. Why didn't this happen in Pasadena? It didn't happen because the disputed phases of
progressive education were accentuated by the Goslin
administration despite the well-known dissatisfaction.
Thus coals were heaped on the smoldering fire and the
flames of protest were fanned. There was no attempt made
to settle the dispute.
group toward this change. Change is the underlying
"|<(' lor action. Every member of the group thinks of him-
U as tt "change agent," a person trained to effect change.
"' complete sublimation of individual identity is essen-
'" for group productivity. The goal of group dynamics is
Members of the study groups recognized that there
',(' spotters who had been indoctrinated in advance with
More stress on the 3-R's and
0 Goslin program and with the group goals. These
iced and pressured lor certain ideas to be
( c''i(lcd .is part of the group thinking. Thev- also worked
Aether to reject ideas.
Example: One teacher had just been exposed to Coni-
.un"St activities and felt that she should awaken people
t "'<' danger of communism in the schools. She waited
, r die leader
or someone else in the group to introduce
. . Problem. During the first three meetings nothing was
. '' about communism, hut she observed that the leader
More discipline | adult,
More stress on the teaching of
American history .mil civics.
Higher standards of achievement.
Less talk about psychology,
guidance, reading readiness;
more time devoted to the actual
Assurance that speakers invited
to lecture in tlie schools would
support tlie American way of
This is what they were
Widen the curriculum to a 100
per cent experience curriculum
with no stress on the fundamentals.
No fixed curriculum.
('.roup self-discipline (by the
children; classroom freedom).
More stress on world history,
world citizenship, and living democracy within the group.
No grades, no failures.
More emphasis on the need of
psychologists and guidance in
Intolerance ol public opinion as
to die subversive connections of
the recorder worked together to indoctrinate the
Vti!D' Finally she told the group about her experience
r, '' Communists, and suggested that there should he a
r. I,S(-' in the schools to point out the dangers of com-
l Hie leader looked at the recorder and said, "Witch-
J'"' recorder added, "lied herring."
lit, . was •'"■ Her suggestion vvtis dropped. She was
1^ '"Hated. The subject of communism did not appear in
■*pOrt of the discussion group.
kr \ "" s "' indoctrination did not originate with Wil-
'■nslm. One of the most influential planners of the
I \ fanuary, 1950, the Pasadena Independent published tin
editorial revealing its views on progressive education; the
public vvtts invited to submit letters on the school debate.
Response was overwhelming. In general, the letters asked
lor more emphasis on the 3-R's, spelling, discipline, American history, and for the restoration of the good features
of past educational programs.
Most people felt that after these public protests something would be done to settle the dispute. Instead, something was done that widened the rift. The people who
protested were stoned with words. Mr. Goslin began to
discredit his opposition.
When people asked sincere questions about the origin
of progressive education, thev were told that some people
out vi News, April, 1956