nave disappeared and there is no ready reference or written evidence of any program. Much material apparently
Was lost when the libraries of the elementary curriculum,
secondary curriculum, and personnel offices were coordinated into a central filing system under Superintendent
Goslin. Evidence of change in the school program is
Scattered all over Pasadena — in newspaper files, in private
scrapbooks, in pamphlets, and in stacks of records at the
office of the Board of Education.
After gathering information concerning the Goslin
'urninistration, the researcher is confronted with a more
baffling; task. The source material is not easy to read. It is
infusing. To the layman, there appears to be something
new tind vague about the philosophy of education. It is
difficult to identify. Familiar philosophy is used to indoctrinate the reader with unfamiliar philosophy. Take, for
Sample, these parallels:
t W'- should conserve and pro-
^'t our natural resources.
(Children should not be made
1 feel inferior.
ft(. i s""i'"-iry: Words such as
<;(i"iu. liberty, peace, conser-
l,;''1""- love of man for his
The conservation of natural
resources necessitates public
ownership ami communal enterprises.
There should he no grades,
no failures, no curriculum restrictions, and no competition,
because "competition is the
poorest base on which to try
to develop (lie little citizens ol
a dee country."
Were re-interpreted in terms of
a new and questionable concept
011 years in America, the schools have been the center
BlUch community activity; however, this activity has
tally been confined to education, social gatherings, lec-
jes- and occasional local meetings. In this capacity the
"'"Is have served the community well.
the Goslin administration advocated a school-centered
"Irnunity in which the school was elevated to a position
extreme importance. The school was to be the living
j e "I the community, the center around which all activ-
' revolved. With the school as the leader, the community
i as h> participate in solving problems of labor, business,
">l|Si.,.. .—If .-Jr-i . -in ■ -. l.l:.. ..i:l::•..-....
, ''<■ pressure for a school-centered community created
^ ''-'Min-ss in Pasadena. Although few were acquainted
th "'e P'an for such tt school, many were aware that
Schools were expanding into more and more of the
Og, welfare, medicine, public services, public utilities,
•Ovation, food, race and class problems, and even
"Uinitv life and into the home as well
11 order to organize a school-centered community it
to use groups. Groups were the "pilot
' through which the activities of the people were
nie, the group idea was to be enlarged into interna-
lh tn"(''<'(l. The group was important first, last, and always.
"sm. It vvtis believed that there should be the "devel-
"t of an ever-widening group consciousness until
'niian race is the group." Excessive emphasis on the
!,,.' ''"'tance of the group at the expense of the individual
v-i, '(' People wonder if this interpretation of group
•it, niacy had a collective significance. They were not
where it was leading.
s,.i " order to speed up the program, study groups of
"'i personnel were organized to discuss the Pasadena
schools. Later these study groups, or workshops, extended
to the lay people in the city who met to discuss civic and
world problems, conservation, UNESCO and world understanding, and human relations. The method used for conducting these meetings was group dynamics.
Although The Pasadena Story maintained that there
were no curriculum changes under Willard Goslin, there
were many. The 100 per cent experience curriculum was
introduced by Dr. William Heard Kilpatrick. The curriculum was to be broadened on the base of experience. Fixed
courses of study were to be reduced. The teacher was
freed from curricular requirements in the lower grades.
Courses of study were introduced as experience necessitated. The first job of education was defined as personality and character development. The teacher was deprived of guides and a set curriculum which had already
been tried and tested.
In the upper grades the 100 per cent core curriculum
was expanded to include subjects such as citizenship,
home and family living, philosophy of life, personality
problems, the spirit of science, and human relations or
race and class consciousness. One bulletin carried the
amazing description: "The curriculum is within the child."
Both teachers and parents were confused with the
100 per cent experience curriculum, which removed yardsticks for measuring achievement. The experience curriculum threatened to water down courses of study with vague
substitutions which could not be graded. People began to
wonder if children could receive an education under the
It was further recommended that college requirements
be abolished. Colleges were to be open to everybody
regardless of qualifications. Scholarship societies should
be abolished. These recommendations made many feel
that the whole structure of education was being broken
XJsk of the suggestions that met stonewall resistance was
concerned with setting up school camps. A committee met
for the purpose of setting up a school camp for sixth
grade children far away from home and parents. Distance
from home influence was essential. Children in school
camps would learn "group-cohesive" living. The individual
would learn to accept his place within the group. The
group would rule and the individual would be subordinated to the group at all times. Discipline, rewards, punishments, and routine duties would be imposed not bv the
teachers and counselors, but by the group. Socialism was
to be lived in the mountains, away from home influence.
Hoy Scout, VMCA, and other independent summer camps
would be replaced by school-ruled camps.
Parents and citizens in Pasadena feared these camps
in which children ruled themselves and decided upon their
own discipline. In Japan as in Germany, school camps
started innocently as week-end sojourns and ended as
harsh training camps. The camps were used to indoctrinate
youth in totalitarian doctrines and to alienate children
from their parents.
In group self-discipline children vv ere not to be restricted with rules, except those which they agreed upon.
Students were to decide upon the course of study, and
were not to be committed to the teacher's choice.
The feeling was widespread that group self-discipline,
as advocated in Pasadena, threatened teacher authority
\i us. April, 1956