this field is to encourage, to promote
collaboration, and then to give technical guidance and advice when it is
wanted as to how this ought to be
done. As you may know, James Quil-
len wrote a book for UNESCO giving
advice to individual member states on
how to do this sort of job. I know he
has standing with you, and he certainly deserves standing because of
the great job he did for UNESCO.
The fifth question is, "Is the
UNESCO history of mankind atheistic and a one-world government
enterprise which would deflate nationalism and do other vicious things?"
My position on the UNESCO Scientific and Cultural History of Mankind
is simply this: The enterprise is enormously ambitious, and many of us
have thought at one time that
UNESCO should not undertake it. I
personally have been in favor of the
enterprise, but the United States government at UNESCO conferences has
been opposed on occasion to it. It
changed its position ... at UNESCO's
Sixth General Conference (June-July,
1951). It expressed a change of position and came out strongly in favor of
the present plan because the history
then seemed at last to be a practicable
enterprise. It seemed at that time that
a form of operation and a plan for
the history had been developed which
was worthy of support.
ALL RELIGIONS REPRESENTED
The plan is briefly this: UNESCO
has set up a commission with a maximum of fifteen members nominated by
the International Council of Scientific
Unions and by the International Council of Philosophy and the Humanistic
Studies. I know that is a mouthful, but
it includes all the range of science, as
internationally organized by the professions themselves, and the whole
range of philosophy and the humanities, with a good deal of the social
sciences, literature and language
thrown in. These people represent the
great areas of the world; they represent the great religions of the world;
they represent the great cultures and
most of the great nations of the world.
Some of these people are not devout
religionists of tiny group; and one of
those persons is the Chairman of the
Editorial Committee, Professor Ralph
Turner of Yale University. Now, the
attack on this cultural and scientific
history started out to be a Catholic
attack on the ground that Mr. Turner
Wits reputedly an atheist. Mr. Turner
denies being an atheist; he says that
he is an agnostic. The allegation is
made that he was fired from the Uni-
versity of Pittsburgh some years ago
because he did not believe in God.
The fact is that a faculty committee
cleared him of this charge.
UNESCO is in favor of human welfare. It is in favor of lifting up the
millions in India and other places to tt
decent standard of living. Its principal
weapon for that is the Technical Assistance Program. But, UNESCO is
not as socialistic, I guarantee you, as
the [conservative] wing of the Republican party. UNESCO has never
come out for standard of social security as high as [it] approves. UNESCO
has never come out for a public health
program or federal aid to education as
advanced as the program that [conservatives have] supported. UNESCO
does not preach these doctrines.
UNESCO preaches that we must learn
about one another. We must try to
find the truth. We must try to spread
the truth in many ways, including the
technical assistance method.
The onlv fundamental doctrines to
which UNESCO attaches itself are
these: It believes that the mind of
man has something to do with peace,
and that unless people have trained
minds and minds full of facts, there
will be no peace; UNESCO believes
in the doctrine of equality of peoples;
it believes that democracy is essential
for peace; it believes that the free flow
of information is essential for democracy; and besides that, it believes that
all cultures and all peoples should be
understanding of and tolerant toward
all other peoples and all other cultures, including their religions.
Now, my last point is that UNESCO
is a secular organization rather thfl
one that believes in revealed truth. A"
attack was made on UNESCO . . . jl
a Jesuit organ in Rome on the grounj
that it is a secular organization. 0}
course, UNESCO is a secular organ*
zation. Are you going to have an inter
national organization made up of go?
ernments, and striving to be universal
that is religious in character? Do y<£
believe in destroying freedom of reJJ
gion? I don't see how you could ha*'
such an organization unless you d.'(".',
ed some of the religious questions. "'
can have UNESCO perform the gr^
tasks I have just been talking ah1'"
without asking anyone to give up '*
religious convictions. But, are >'"..
going to decide that UNESCO
Hindu, Moslem, or Methodist?
UNESCO values all religion*
UNESCO cherishes all religio"',
UNESCO tries to preach tolerance"
all religions, and UNESCO doctrU*
are in agreement with the fundame
tal precepts of most religions. 1
... I have covered the pii"c'le,
points that ought to be dealt with &
such a witness as I described at '.-
outset. I do not know all the detj*L
of all UNESCO's programs and P"*L
._ t j a i _n ti— ..K.r/.inei1
ects. I do not know all the statefflj
that all UNESCOans have ever m
I am sure many statements have
made that are not true and many
have been careless, but I assure
that in counter-attacking the V^L
who are spreading these lies a^jj
UNESCO you would be strengthen
the forces of peace in this con'1
I in the i
Jent of th
, te acco
f detail h,
UNESCO and American Workers
By JOHN D. CONNORS, Director of Education, A.F. of I.
PRIMARY among the UNESCO
activities in which the American
labor movement is interested is the
holding of international seminars for
specialists in labor education, such as
those held in recent years at the Chateau de la Breviere, not far from Paris.
Here during one summer session, for
example, some dozen American trade
unionists met with their counterparts
from other countries to exchange
ideas, techniques, and information.
In the UNESCO exchange-of-per-
sons program last summer, tt group of
°Exeerpts from speech entered in the
Congressional Record for April 21, 1955, hy
Hep. Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (D-N.J.).
American trade unionists i«-
Europe studying labor organiza**!
working conditions, etc., in se*
countries. Plans are now under
for the American Federation of5
County, and Municipal Employ^/,
charter a plane to take a group °J|
members on a similar four-week
tour of six countries this year. .
These activities serve a double ■
pose: first, to enable workers in ,f
countries to learn firsthand j
Americans about our economicym
lems faced by all workers a" ,,,
they are solved through free,
cratic trade unions.
America's labor movement al*°
E, °e ca
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to<J J of sciei
l>'h- the r
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