U N E S C O —GOO D OR
The Truth About UNESCO
Dr. Evans* statement is a reply to many
of the current objections to UNESCO.
THE United Nations Charter provides that the Economic and
Social Council may exercise a
certain jurisdiction over educational
and cultural matters, and in another
article provides that specialized agencies may be established in certain
fields if a number of the member
states wish it. It was as a result of
that authorization, and in response to
a feeling on the part of the teachers
of this country that the Economic and
Social Council assignment was not
adequate and that we needed an
international office of education, that
some of us went to London the end of
October, 1945, to write the UNESCO
Constitution. . . .
I am not here to tell you . . . all of
the UNESCO story. I am here today
as a witness to answer questions as to
the truth of charges which have been
made in recent months concerning
UNESCO, and I shall limit myself to
answering those questions as honestly
and calmly as I can.
The first question is, "Is UNESCO
preaching world government and one-
world citizenship?" The answer is,
emphatically, "No, it is not." UNESCO
has used the term "education for
world citizenship," but it has used it
interchangeably with the term "education lor international understanding."
If vim look up the term "world citizenship" in one of the better dictionaries, you are likely to find "world citizen" defined as a "cosmopolitan," as a
person who feels at home in any country. That is the sense in which
LrNESCO uses the term "world citizenship." UNESCO has not, to my
knowledge, ever come out in favor of
anything stronger than the United
Nations itself is. In other words, as
tar as tiny of its declarations and policies are concerned, UNESCO is not in
favor, nor has it ever been in favor of
world government, unless the United
Nations is world government. Now, I
say "unless" merely because one has
°A slightly revised version of an address
given at the Annual Conference of the
National Education Association, Detroit,
Michigan, July -3, 1952.
By LUTHER H. EVANS
Director-General ol UNESCO
to be very cautious in the use of terms,
since one of the tactics of those who
attack UNESCO and the United Nations is the tactic which the Soviet
uses in its attack on the free world,
namely, to take good, honored words
and pour the meaning out of them and
pour some polluted kind of meaning
into them. If I understand the term
"world government," it would mean
that a government organ would be set
Wini: WORLD I',,
Luther Evans, Director-General of UNESCO.
up that would be above the national
governments and would control the
national governments. UNESCO has
never preached that, and UNESCO's
usage of "world citizenship" docs not
mean literally citizenship in a world
On March 21  at a meeting of
the Executive Board of UNESCO we
were struggling with tt translation of a
French term, "civisme internationale,"
and it bad been translated as in the
past, as world citizenship. One of the
members of the Executive Board said.
"Look, we're using the term citizenship without noting that it lias a legal
connotation in our different nations.
We are not using it with that connotation in UNESCO. We literally do not
mean citizenship, which is a term implying legal rights and duties between
a state and an individual." The Execu
tive Board agreed with him that 1
were not using the term in a leffl
sense. After a brief discussion ''"
Chairman said that the Secretaw
would redraft the document to *fl
what we really meant. We meant eW
cation for international understanding
We meant education of citizens j,
know the role they play in the wolj
and what their moral obligations J
good citizens of their own country ;"'
toward the world as a whole.
I have been at every UNESCO cOv
fercnce except the one in 1946. I *1
present at London in 1945 when '
Constitution was drafted. ... AS
member of the Executive Board
UNESCO where the program is
ally drafted, ... I
assure v<><' \
there 'is j*J
one grain of truth in the assertion '"
UNESCO is preaching world gove"£
ment or one-world citizenship in \J
political sense. The literature is*11,,
by UNESCO, the resolutions for ^
program of 1952, among other tW'S
call for the development ol a'"|
methods lor education in
citizenship, especially ill relation
the principles of the Universal Dcc, j
ation ol Human Bights. What '\
incans is that we want to teach I1'1'',.
in respect the Universal DeclaraJj
of Human Rights. That Declaratfil
something which was unaniin"1'.^
passed in the General Assembly " I
United Nations; even the Soviet Uf> j
did not vote against [it], tboug11
ac*, and a
""at none (
''"ink it i
^'ves to s
£ one's c<
in '?es "la
11 the firs
NOT OFFICIAL VIEWS
A second charge is that
pamphlets, "Toward World l1"'^
standing." put out by UNE'
attempt to undermine the patri<%
of the children attending Ani^'u' ,,
schools and to replace that with » ^ $Jhe je .
■rnment. \]A b% R
alty toward world goven
are some .statements in the paml". /.
"Toward World Understand**
which go further than I would H
this matter of training children to ^
regard for higher loyalties and s0„"
but, the point about the pump" ^
that they are summaries of s('",.,r
discussions, and thev no mon' '" .
sent the policy of UNESCO *»»■
account of the discussion at this n!t||l
tag would represent the policy
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