*"*n't These UNESCO Programs
.Strictly speaking, these are not
NESCO programs but the reflection
L'ne aspirations and the determined
*0rts of a considerable portion of
JJankind. UNESCO is but one of the
. any different agencies which is
ajjj0,*'ng to bring them to fruition.
«^'e the words "help," "encourage,"
^tudy," "provide." UNESCO is not
jUBSTrn Tl.; FOR NATIONAL AND LOCAL
Va>N" It is a service agency, an acti-
j°r, catalyst, coordinator.
uNESCO, therefore, will not acini *]P'ish these prognuns. The peoples
L ""' world will - and UNESCO is
^ °f the tools they are using.
tecificaHy Why Should
j ernational Action Be Necessary
0 toipe Out Illiteracy?
. '"'re are more than a billion peo-
cannot read, and more than
world's children have no
iths of "
111 ,crc '
ft *ho ,
J°«. It would be absurd to assert
., the eradication of illiteracy all
ti?'he world is a "UNESCO goal.
tl Priv°nS °^ 80vernmL'nts and scores of
lS He at'' voluntary agencies are tackling
tit) doi ~ '""' many °f them were
lansl:''' j'nrrjt |()nR ))(,fore UNESCO existed.
'i „y UNESCO is making a significant
f Hi essential contribution in its de-
"' ]>< itKj1""1'11! of fundamental education
Ho'." t,K' '"''P " can offer to nations
i * tla, ar'' building their first system of
t<"'""V S education,
to the 1
™ «„. 's fundamental Education
"at Does UNESCO Have
0 Wth It?
»f l1946 UNESCO put a small group
Hij Ports to work to determine
j \n\,,m fundamental education
rid c0 j ^..ky a man t0 C0Pe witn "fe in
or 'ne f "'e r"v,lr°nment. They set themsel
fi V ta,.r—'"^
( ?*ctii °^ developing a simple and
iS ^e system of teaching the three
oblei'1* j »sf °J living. The result is described
I \<h[ I feJ"'hu'iental education - an emer-
esea'Y',' %s hll-in until formal school sys-
u"iwl. f|^Un he established.
BfeJ* ari' now more than a hundred
*0t . ' fundamental education
. hi countries like India, the
v ^lnes, Peni, and Nigeria
??ar 'Sample, reading and spell
5s r.,f suhordinatetl to schooling it,
d "M Ser"tials of hvgiene, nutrition,
I S ^culture. There are, further,
uheij- ,8lonal demonstration centers.
k'ech n-ction ,s '° train teacners in
\ \, n.'ques of fundamental educa-
a*'onal fundamental education
*o»u.m News, April, 1956
projects are associated with UNESCO
and with each other through a
UNESCO clearing-house which helps
them exchange information, materials.
and consultation services. This exchange is especially important in a
field which is barely out of the experimental stage and in which novel
applications of some of the oldest principles of education are being tried.
Finally, UNESCO conducts "operational" activities which include survey
and advisory missions, the development of new materials, and pilot
What Is UNESCO's Role in Primary
And Secondary School
Admittedly, fundamental education
is a "hard way" expedient to make up
for the lack of schools yesterday.
What about tomorrow? UNESCO is
helping some 40 nations build new
school systems or reorganize and
strengthen outmoded ones. Here
again, UNESCO could not undertake
to build the hundreds of thousands
of schools which will be built; nor
will these schools be built because
UNESCO said they should; nor will
there be uniform "UNESCO school
systems." There is no such system.
The job is being done, and will be
finished, by Bolivians for Bolivians.
by Cambodians for Cambodians, by
Pakistanis for Pakistanis, and so on.
Because these nations requested
help. UNESCO is supplying certain
technical skills. Its teams, however,
may supply something of the spirit
which will make these schools successful. Its experts are saving these
nations time and costly mistakes. One
thing is certain — not one of these
nations, working alone, could have
marshaled the variety and quality of
technical advice which the UNESCO
pool can supply.
Does the Emphasis on Helping the
Underdeveloped Countries with
Their National Development
Problems Mean That One of
UNESCO's Original Purposes —
To Foster Mutual International
Understanding — Is Being
No. It means that first things come
first. The level of education in each
nation helps to determine the plateau
for common understanding among till
nations. And formidable though the
job may seem, we cannot expect anything like broad people-to-people understanding until the underdeveloped
two-thirds of the world succeeds in
raising its educational — and, with
it, its economic and social — level.
Are There Accomplishments
In Other Fields?
A UNESCO Advisory Committee on
Arid Zone Research now links practically all the important studies being
made on the use of barren desert
lands. This is a matter of primary
importance to the United States. Research centers in many countries,
including this one, are exchanging
research data and holding joint study
conferences. The latest of these was
held in Albuquerque, New Mexico,
in April, 1955.
At the instigation of UNESCO,
twelve European countries are pooling research facilities to explore peaceful uses of atomic energy. They have
formed the Council for European Cooperation in Nuclear Research
(CERN) and are establishing a large
laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.
UNESCO-aided international organizations in the fields of literature.
the theater, music, museums, history,
philosophy, modern languages, etc.,
link cultural leaders throughout the
A UNESCO-drafted Universal
Copyright Convention insures for
authors the same protection and treatment in a foreign land that the country accords its native writers. It has
been signed by 40 countries and came
into effect in September, 1955.
UNESCO's international coupon
system, which allows people in soft
currency countries to buy books, scientific equipment, and audiovisual
materials from hard currency countries, has resulted in the exchange of
more than sixty-five million dollars
worth of such educational necessities.
Education, Science, and Culture
Are Powerful Forces.
What Are UNESCO's Premises?
The parties to the UNESCO Constitution have stated in that document
that they believe in:
— full and equal opportunities for
education for all.
— the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth,
— the free exchange of ideas and
They further have stated that they
are "agreed and determined" to develop and increase the means of communication between their peoples and
to use these means for the purposes
of mutual understanding and a truer
knowledge of each other's lives.