Keyword
in
Collection
Date
to
Download Folder

0 items

Houstonian 1989
People
Citation
MLA
APA
Chicago/Turabian
Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1989 - People. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. December 22, 2014. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/22668/show/22403.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1989 - People. Houstonian Yearbook Collection. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/22668/show/22403

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston, Houstonian 1989 - People, Houstonian Yearbook Collection, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed December 22, 2014, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/22668/show/22403.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

URL
Embed Image
Compound Item Description
Title Houstonian 1989
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Language English
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Digital Collection Houstonian Yearbook Collection
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name index.cpd
Item Description
Title People
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name yearb_1989_079.jpg
Transcript is called microprobe analysis. Originally developed in the 1950's to determine the elemental content of rocks and metals, it is a powerful tool in biomedical study. In microprobe analysis, electron beams produced by an electron microscope generate high magnification computer images of cells and their cellular regions. These beams also help scientists to create color maps of elemental patterns in cells and determine the overall quantity and location of elements with a high degree of accuracy. Elements that constitute the various parts of the nerve cell can be identified by the electrons that orbit their nuclei. "When the beam from an electron microscope collides with these orbital electrons, x-rays of specific energy levels are emitted," LoPachin explains. "Because scientists already know what the characteristic x-ray energy level is for each element, individual elements can be identified and quantified." The electron microscope's beam must be moved point by point across the cell every four seconds to avoid structural damage. Because of the precise nature of the work involved, a computer is used to control the microscope's beam. The software program that makes these computer-generated pictures possible was designed by Robert Gey man, a research associate at the University of Texas Medical School(UT). Currently, only LoPachin and a few UT faculty members are using this software. Data from the electron microscope is then trans- mitteed to a high resolution color monitor. Because the resolution of a paper printout is not as sharp as a photographic print, LoPachin takes a photograph of the monitor's screen. The sharper the image, the clearer the understanding. Consequently, LoPachin uses a Hasselblad camera that produces an extremely detailed image. The end result: a color- coded chemical map of the elements that comprise a cellular region. According to LoPachin, we are just beginning to realize the importance of this cellular mapping process. "The use of computer- generated photography in scientific endeavors is a new and expanding field. It is very exciting to be on the forefront of a technology that improves the way we look at microscopic anatomy." LoPachin readily admits that his research is possible only through the shared expertise of Dr. Albert Saubermann, a professor in the UT Department of Anesthesiology. Saubermann has been performing microprobe analysis for over a decade and has perfected the process of producing elemental images. He is currently using microprobe analysis to determine the elemental relationship between two microscopic parts of the brain, glial cells and nu- erons. Saubermann believes that thorough analysis of this relationship is the key to understanding how anesthetics work. "Without microprobe analysis, elemental composition is determined only through careful statistical calculations," he says. "Although the margin for human error is small, it is still a signifacnt and distressing reality for the scientific community. As a result, we appreciate the advantages of an actual photographic image. With these microprobe images, we can make exact interpretations of an element's location and are able to see elments that were not previously visible." Microprobe analysis is currently performed with relative ease, but Saubermann recalls that it wasn't always this way. "One of the first hurdles we had to overcome was trying to prepare the sample tissue," he explains. "We chose to freeze the sample, which allows us to observe the molecules in their original wet environment without being affected by chemical fixatives or stains. Very often, the drying power of stains causes cell structures to collapse. This, in turn, can cause elements to move into cellular regions in which they are not normally found. Rapid freezing, on the other hand, maintains the distribution of elements in "'As we expand our understanding of the distribution of cellular elements, the possibility of designing drugs that can prevent or modify injury and disease could become a reality." Cell Photography ■ 89