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Houstonian 1988
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Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1988 - Issues. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. December 21, 2014. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19159.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1988 - Issues. Houstonian Yearbook Collection. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19159

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston, Houstonian 1988 - Issues, Houstonian Yearbook Collection, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed December 21, 2014, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19159.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Houstonian 1988
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Language English
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Digital Collection Houstonian Yearbook Collection
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Issues
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name yearb_1988_038.jpg
Transcript Clarence Brandley is still on death row in a Texas prison. Photos by Michael Williams. The questions a Supreme Court judge must answer when confronted with an Eighth Amendment case are: Is the penalty imposed excessive, does the penalty meet with society's norm, does the penalty permit modern justice to infuse? Each question must also be answered by lower courts, according to Rosenberg, when handing out punishment. Americans constitutional authors felt strongly enough that they tied this amendment to the other to prevent government from over running the people, according to Palmer. NINTH AMENDMENT The Ninth Amendment to the Constitution was added to the Bill of Rights to protect the assumed rights of the people over the enumerated rights of the state and federal governments, according to Rosenberg. The Ninth, Rosenberg said, applies to the unwritten laws we live by, those laws which are the morals of society. To explain she cited the case of Goldberg and Griswald vs. the State of Connecticut (1965). The argument centered on the use of contraceptives in relation of a married couple. Connecticut had legislated laws forbidding the use of any type of contraceptive by persons married or not. As one person put it "legislative morality"! These are as Rosenberg noted, "assumed rights outside of those written in the constitution, that must be protected." Those unwritten, implied, laws are the ones people live by from day to day with no real need of police action, according to Rosenberg. For example: it is understood that when a person kills another, they have not only broken the written or common law, but the moral code. Even before Moses wrote down the Ten Commandments, it was understood that murder was an anti-social behavior, and must be corrected. What the Ninth Amendment does is belay the fears of a paranoid populous that felt government would over run the people. As Rosenberg put it, "the Bill of Rights tells us the majority can not do all they want." The Ninth Amendment put it simply into the language of an earlier generation. Thus the Ninth Amendment reads, "The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." The final say belongs to the people. TENTH AMENDMENT The Ninth Amendment to the Constitution was designed to protect the WT LET THB «*TATE OF TEXAS fMURDERAN ^ INNOCENT M/W individual's rights if the state was over run by the Federal Government, according to Palmer. The Tenth Amendment, however, was designed to prevent the Federal Government from circumventing the states' rights and thereby taking control of all aspects of governing the people and the need to implement the Ninth Amendment. The Tenth Amendment states, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." James Madison, one of the fram- ers of the Constitution, tried to explain the reason for a Tenth Amendment and the Constitution. He said, "A dependence of the people is no doubt the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions." While Madison was originally arguing for the need of checks and balances in the government itself; he was inadvertently arguing for the need of a bill of rights, the tenth in particular. As Madison put it, "If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." It is for that precise reason the enumerated protection of the Tenth Amendment is called tor. Palmer brought out the Supreme Court's ruling on the constitutionality of the New Deal legislation. It was not a denial of the need of such programs, but the way in which it was done, the court said. The particular areas that Federal programs had taken over, belonged in the domain of the states. The Supreme Court held that the Tenth Amendment stipulated only certain things could be done by the Federal Government, the rest are up to the state. However, Palmer notes that Supreme Court rulings in recent years have drifted away from that theme. Recent rulings open more leeway for federal intervention in state affairs and affairs of private citizens. Madison summed up the Tenth Amendment and the purpose behind this nation with this; "It is of great importance in a republic, not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers; but to guard one part of the society against the injustices of the other part." — Allen Manning Constitution 43