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Houstonian 1988
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Houstonian 1988 - Issues. 1988. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. July 31, 2015. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19158.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(1988). Houstonian 1988 - Issues. Houstonian Yearbook Collection. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19158

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Houstonian 1988 - Issues, 1988, Houstonian Yearbook Collection, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed July 31, 2015, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19158.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Houstonian 1988
Creator (Local)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Date 1988
Description This edition of the Houstonian, published in 1988, is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • College yearbooks
  • University of Houston
Genre (AAT)
  • school yearbooks
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
  • Still Image
Original Item Location Houstonian
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b1158762~S11
Digital Collection Houstonian Yearbook Collection
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please cite the item using the citation button.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Issues
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name yearb_1988_037.jpg
Transcript W ' EIGHTH AMENDMENT Where the Sixth and Seventh Amendments guarantee the rights of the accused to a swift and expedient trial by jury, the Eighth Amendment guarantees that any punishment dealt by that jury will not be excessive in accordance to the offense. It is from the point of arrest through the point of incarceration that the Eighth Amendment covers. The Eighth Amendment states, "excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted." Although, excessive bail is quite often the lawyers pre-trial plea in court when requesting the suspects release until trial and conviction and excessive fines, the complaint which quite often gives cause for new trials. It is the cruel and unusual punishment clause which causes the greatest amount of commotion, according to Rosenberg. She said the Eighth Amendment is the avenue not used by inmates, when attempting litigation against a state for improper medical care and callous treatment while incarcerated. The State of Texas is currently under indictment by a federal judge. The problem, overcrowding in the State Prisons. Inmates were claiming it is cruel and unusual punishment to have three men in a two man cell, the court agreed. In Ruize vs. The State of Texas, the judge for the federal court appointed an to oversee the repopulating of Texas' prisons. Yet the Eighth Amendment has been applied to cases other than criminal. In the Supreme Court Case of Ephram vs. Wright (1976), the use of corporal punishment (paddling) in schools, came up. In this instance the parents of a student whose punishment in school was so severe, he spent time in a doctor's care. The parents brought suit under the unusual punishment provision. They alleged that the excessive paddling constituted cruel and unusual punishment. Even though the court disagreed that the punishment was not excessive in relation to the cause, it is still recognized as an Eighth Amendment case. The Eighth Amendment owes its historical basis to the ancient, "star chamber" in England, according to Palmer. The "star chamber," Palmer noted, "is non common law kind of court that did not use juries (another tie to the Sixth and Seventh Amendments), but because they could not use juries they could not inflict the death penalty. "So for exemplary reasons, to make examples for people, they slit the criminals noses, and cut their ears off." The star chamber continued on until Parliament took over from King Charles I. It was the resulting ill- feelings and all together disdain for star chamber suppression that led to the Eighth Amendment. 42 University of Houston