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Houstonian 1988
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Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1988 - Issues. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 16, 2014. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19155.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston. Houstonian 1988 - Issues. Houstonian Yearbook Collection. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19155

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Students of the University of Houston, Houstonian 1988 - Issues, Houstonian Yearbook Collection, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 16, 2014, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb/item/19438/show/19155.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Houstonian 1988
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Language English
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Digital Collection Houstonian Yearbook Collection
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/yearb
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Issues
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Students of the University of Houston
Caption The Houstonian is the official yearbook of the University of Houston.
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • University of Houston
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Use and Reproduction This image is in the public domain and may be used freely. If publishing in print, electronically, or on a website, please use the citation button above. To request higher resolution images, please use the Request High Res button above.
File name yearb_1988_034.jpg
Transcript ment to the Constitution, to each and every person in America, even those who are not citizens. Yet, recent Supreme Court rulings have begun to eat away at this most fundamental of rights, said Griffith. He said that recent judicial interpretations centers on reducing the Exclusionary Rules Power. The Fourth Amendment's Exclusionary Rule states that "persons" shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." Simply put, the police or any entity can not search a person or their possessions without due cause and/or a warrant. The law also reads that any evidence obtained illegally or without a warrant is not admissible in a court of law. "You are not simply a pawn in the hands of law enforcement," said Griffith. People do not realize often enough just how extensive a right the Fourth Amendment is. What the Fourth Amendment does is protect citizens from their own government, said Dr. Jerry Franks, professor of Philosophy and Political Science at Midland Junior College. Where the First Amendment guarantees free speech and freedom of expression, the Fourth Amendment protects that right through the prevention of wire-tapped conversations (privacy) and requiring search warrants for home and papers (security) without probable cause. "The Fourth Amendment is violated every day on the streets of Houston, in terms of officers doing searches they should not be doing," said Griffith. When such searches consist of stopping individuals and conducting individual search and immediate property, such as a car. These are supposedly in the public's interest. From the illegal stop and search, to the search of a house or business, but nothing, according to Griffith, is as controversial as drug testing and lie detector testing at this moment. Both drug and lie detector tests have proven faulty, yet federal officials have made urine testing mandatory for some employment positions. The question posed by Civil Libertarians is "is it an unreasonable 'search and seizure' for the government to require you as a condition of employment, or of some other participation in government facilities, to have your body inspected and your urine tested for drugs?," said Griffith. It will be up to the next session of the Supreme Court to decide if drug testing is a breach of Fourth Amendment rights, he said. Presently before the Supreme Court, the Treasury Employees Union represents a case on behalf of U.S. Customs Agents, who are subjected to urine testing before consideration for promotions. The Supreme Court's ruling on this case will see precedence for years to come, said Griffith. The decision will decide whether the Fourth Amendment rights will be strengthened or further broken down. As to the future of the Fourth Amendment, Griffith said, we should look to the past. The founding fathers passed the amendment in response to years of oppression by another government. The convienences of modern life — video stores on every corner — however, controversy continues to surround the sale of pornography. Photo by Mark Lacy. Constitution 39