List which contains the names of the towns in Texas which have denied service to Mexicans be it in restaurants, movie theaters, barber ships, pubs, etc.
According to reports received by this general counsel of diverse origins.
SAN ANGELO, TEXAS. Currey Drug Store; Texas Grill, N. Chadbourne St., owner George Wylie; Coney Island Sandwich Shop; Manning’s Café, 1302 N. Chadbourne St., owner Ed. Motl. Service denied to Mexicans.
ROTAN, TEXAS. City Barber Shop; Vittitow Barber Shop; Alton Parker Barber Shop. All these barber shops denied service to Sergeant Alejandro Martinez, to parachute Frank Velez, to soldier Guillermo Gonzalez, and fifty more Mexican American soldiers. Service is also denied to Mexicans in the restaurants and in the pharmacies of this place.
FREDERICKSBURG, TEXAS. Downtown Café, 323 East Main St. On March 7, 1944 the following members of the American Army were told that they could not be served in the restaurant but that they could be served in the kitchen. José Alvarez Fuentes, Second Class Marine; soldier José D. Sales, #38557190, Company B, 65th Battalion, MRTC [Medical Reserve Training Corp.]; soldier Pablo R. Ramas, #38557007, B Company, 65th Battalion, MRTC; and Marine Juan Garcia.
UVALDE, TEXAS. Dinette Café. On April 8, 1944 Service was denied to soldier First Class Cruz M. Rodriguez and also to the W.A.C. Lydia Rodriguez, both members of the United States Army. In the following establishments service was also denied to Mexicans, including to the members of the armed forces of the United States. Newport Café, owner Mr. Midget; Shadowland Café and Beer Parlor, owner Robert Fullingwater; Walgreen Drug Store, owner Spears Bros; Hangar Six Café; Palace Drug Store; Candy Shoppe; Manhattan Café; Casey Jones Café and Beer Parlor, owner Casey Jones; Sasal Cave, owner Henry Casal.
LUBBOCK, TEXAS. To Mexican-American members of the North American Army and to persons of Mexican origin in general service is denied at the following establishments: Ben’s Café, 813 13th St.-805 Broadway, owner Ben Kinnard; Brown’s Drug Store, Café Department, Broadway Avenue; Luby’s Cafeteria, Broadway Avenue; Weiss Jack-o-Lantern Café, 1220 Broadway Avenue; F.W. Woolworth Company, Restaurant Department, Broadway Avenue; Post Office Drug Store, Café Department, Avenue G. In the Anglo-American barber shops all the Mexicans are segregated - at the bus station (City Bus Station). Several hotels and apartment houses do not rent rooms to Mexicans and they are also denied the right to reside in some sectors of the city.
SEAGRAVES, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at all the restaurants, as well as entrance to the town’s theater.
McCAMEY, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at all American barber shops, as well as at the Clulb Café and three other restaurants.
BIG SPRING, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at all the restaurants and they are segregated in the theaters. At the Army Airfield there exists a sign which says: “Any soldier who considers himself white should not cross over to the Mexican sector of the city.”
SPUR, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at the following establishments: Hagan’s Barber Shop; Spur Barber Shop; Cayce’s Barber Shop; Johnson’s Barber Shop; City Drug Company; Red Front Drug. At the City Drug Store soldier Pedro Hernández was denied a glass of water, even though it was extremely hot. There are two dentists who have chairs for exclusive use by Mexicans. At the Palace Theater Mexicans are segregated.
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. At the barber shop of Gus Siebenniecker, situated on Cupples Road, service is denied to Mexicans. At the Terrell Wells Pool owned by H.F. Stumberg, entrance is denied to Mexicans without regard to their social position. There are several other public establishments in Bexar County where Mexicans are discriminated against. There are also several residential districts where the right to reside is denied - social position notwithstanding.
SNYDER, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at all the restaurants and at all the barber shops; they are not even permitted to clear their shoes in barber shops. Dr. J.G. Hicks denied dental service to the mother of an American soldier of Mexican origin; the nurse informed the patient that Dr. Hicks would not tend to people of color.
ROBSTOWN, TEXAS. Persons of Mexican origin are denied service at the Steak House. At the Robstown Hospital, owner by Dr. N.T. Gibson, persons of Mexican origin have been segregated and obligated to wait in the waiting room assigned to Negroes. Two of these persons were Rev. Jesus Rios, minister of the Baptist Church of Robstown, and his wife. Mexican American children are segregated in the elementary schools of Robstown, Texas.
BLUNTZER, TEXAS. The Mexican children are segregated from the Anglo-American children in the elementary schools. The best building is used by the Anglo-Americans while the Mexican children are educated in a rundown shack.
MIDLAND, TEXAS. Mexicans are segregated and obligated to use a balcony in the section reserved for Negroes at the Yucca, Ritz and Rex Theaters. Mexicans are denied service in restaurants. At the Ritz Café there is a sign which reads: “No Mexicans Admitted Here.” Five American soldiers of Mexican descent were denied service at said café due to their Mexican origin. The local police are very unjust with persons of Mexican extraction. The following incident reflects the attitude of the police towards the Mexicans. One day an American soldier of Mexican descent was walking on the sidewalk, accompanied by a young lady of German origin, and a policeman called out to the young lady and told her not to be associating with Mexicans - that it was a disgrace for “white” people to associate with Mexicans. Mexicans are segregated at all the elementary schools. Persons of Mexican descent are not permitted to enter the Catholic Church during the hour of religious services for Anglo-Americans. On Sunday, May 7, 1944 at 9 a.m., two Mexican youths were asked to leave the church. The porter told them that the Mass was only for “white” people.
MELVIN, TEXAS. The Mexican children are segregated in the elementary schools. A building known as the “Community Center and Library Building” constructed by the “National Youth Administration” has been denied to various leaders of Mexican origin who have requested it for meetings of the Parents & Teachers Society. The “toilets” of said building have been denied to ladies of Mexican descent.
CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS. A foreign minister of the Mexican Consulate was charged ten cents for a soda that only cost five cents at the “Drive-In Stand.” When he asked why he was being charged that amount he was told because he was Mexican. At various public establishments, Mexicans are discriminated against. In addition, there are residential districts where they are denied the privilege of living. The Corpus Christi Municipal Counsel has refused to discharge an ordinance which prohits humiliation of Mexicans at commercial establishments.
NIXON, TEXAS. At the White Spot Café service is denied to Mexicans.
O’DONNEL, TEXAS. Persons of Mexican origin are denied service at Liddell’s Café.
SEMINOLE, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at Chuck Wagon Café.
HASKELL, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at Reid’s Drug Store.
BRADY, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at the F.Y. Barbecue Pit. At the public park in Brady a sign was put up with the following inscription: “This Park Is for Whites. Negroes and Mexicans Should Stay Out.” The Mexican children are segregated in the elementary schools. Mexicans, including American soldiers of Mexican origin, are denied service in the restaurants and pharmacies. At the Waffle Shop, Mexicans also are discriminated against.
NEW GULF, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at commercial establishments in New Gulf, Wharton, Boling and surrounding places.
LA MESA, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at the commercial establishments. Two of these are Bill’s Café and the Blue Bonnet Café.
WICHITA FALLS, [TEXAS]. The following establishments deny employment to women of Mexican origin, including to the wives of Mexican American soldiers: Domestic Egg Plant, Inc., 1900 Bluff St.; Wichita Laundry, 602 Austin St.; Pond Laundry, 602 Ohio St.
NEW BRAUNFELS, TEXAS. At the Ivey Green Café service is denied to Mexicans. Entrance is denied Mexicans at Landa Park. South Americans have been segregated at Landa Park. They have been told: “Those tables are for South Americans. These are for white people.”
WACO, TEXAS. Mexicans are placed next to Negroes in the McClennan County jail.
BOERNE, TEXAS. Mexicans are segregated at the Cascade Theater. Mexicans are denied entrance into the public pool, property of the City of Boerne.
VICTORIA, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans, including soldiers of Mexican origin, in the following establishments: Hi-Way Café, South Moody, owner E.H. Jay; Omas Café, 211 South Main St.; Rips Café, Port Lavaca Highway; Baker’s Place, South Main St.; Round House Bar, 211 South Cameron St.
EDNA, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans, including soldiers of Mexican origin, at the following establishments: Dahlstom Eats; Ed’s Café; Cozy Café; Ronnels Café. Service is also denied to them at two other restaurants.
FORT STOCKTON, TEXAS. At the Pecos Theater Mexicans are admitted only in the balcony. There are denied entrance into Comanche Swimming Pool.
PECOS, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service in hotels, restaurants, bars and at Anglo-American recreation centers. In the theaters they can only sit where Negroes sit. In the Anglo-American stores Anglo-Americans are served first, even though Mexicans were there first.
BALMORRHEA, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied entrance to the public park, even the Boy Scouts of Mexican origin are excluded. Deputy Borunda of Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico was denied service at a restaurant.
TAHOKA, TEXAS. In the following establishments service is denied to Mexicans. D. and F. Drugs, Luncheonette; Lee’s Café, owner Lee Montadilen; Victory Café, owner Joe T. Mosley. There are other establishments where service is also denied to Mexicans.
SUGARLAND, TEXAS. The supervisors mistreat Mexican workers in the agricultural fields. Mexican children are segregated in the public schools. The Mexicans are placed alongside the Negroes in the hospital.
RUNGE, TEXAS. Service is denied Mexicans at Manda’s Café, whose owner is a Miss Groos.
LULING, TEXAS. At the Cottage Inn Mexicans are served only in the kitchen. The owner is Gus Terrell. In the Hi-Way Inn Café Mexicans are served, but they are segregated from the Anglo-Americans, the owner is T.A. Landrith. At French’s Sandwich Shop service is denied to Mexicans. At J.R. Mackey Drug Store, whose owner is C.R. Mackey, service is denied to Mexicans within the establishment. (They are sold popsicles, but they have to eat them outside.) Mehner Drug Company, owner Geo. Mehner; Watkins Drugs, owner Bill Watkins; Green Cross Pharmacy, owner Dr. Clay Nichols. At the Southern Café service is denied to Mexicans. Dr. J.T. O’Banion segregates Mexicans in his medical office.
STRAWN, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans in all the Anglo-American barber shops, and they are segregated in the theater.
SINTON, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at the Dodson Café, whose owner is an individual whose last name is Dodson, and also at the Steak House Café.
BIG SPRING, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at the following establishments: Pales Lunch Room, 104 Main St.; Waffer Café, Quick Lunch, Main St.; A.F. Lunch, 207 Main St.; Clover Grill Café.
COLEMAN, TEXAS. Mexicans are placed with Negroes at the Dixie, Gem and Howell Theaters. Ten Anglo-American restaurants deny Mexicans service.
ROCK SPRINGS, TEXAS. In August 1944, service was denied to Mr. Luis Gonzalez at the Smith Café. At this same place service has been denied to sever other American soldiers of Mexican descent; one of these is Mr. Trinidad Perez. Mr. Perez, as well as Mr. Gonzalez was wearing a United States Army uniform when humiliated. Perez was injured in action and is now discharged.
SUDEN, TEXAS. Blondie Café, owner Blondie Puckett. On October 7, 1944 said owner denied service to two men of Mexican descent who had gone to the restaurant accompanied by an Anglo-American friend of theirs. The Anglo-American had invited them to drink a cup of coffee. When they entered, the owner of the restaurant asked the Mexican men if they were Mexican and when they responded that they wee, the owner ordered them to exit the place.
GERONIMO, TEXAS. The Mexican children are segregated in the public schools.
SLATON, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at various commercial establishments.
COLORADO, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service at various commercial establishments.
PEARLAND, TEXAS. Children are segregated up to 7th grade in the public schools.
CAMERON, TEXAS. Mexican children are segregated in some schools up to the 7th grade, at the public schools. Mexicans are segregated at some theaters. There are clothing stores in which they are not permitted to try on the clothes before they make the purchase. Service is denied to Mexicans in various commercial establishments.
JUNCTION, TEXAS. City Café, supervisor John R. Kenard; Cozy Café, supervisor Buddie Hunt. Service is denied Mexicans.
HUTTO, TEXAS. There is a restaurant where Mexicans are prohibited entrance through the front of the establishment. They are told to enter through the back door, which is where the Negroes are served.
ROUND ROCK, TEXAS. There are two restaurants where service is denied to Mexicans.
FORT WORTH, TEXAS. At the restaurant property of M.A. Johnson, 114 E. Weatherford Street, service is denied to Mexicans, including American soldiers of Mexican descent. When the owner is asked why, he answers that Mexicans are not served and that he does not have time to give explanations.
LOLITA, TEXAS. Mexican children are segregated in the public schools.
McALLEN, TEXAS. W.F. Hester, owner of the Broadway Service Station, does not permit Mexicans to drink water at his establishment.
PANDORA, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at various commercial establishments.
ROSEBUD, TEXAS. At the public hospital Mexicans are segregated and placed alongside the Negroes. To enter the hospital the Mexicans have to enter through a door which has a sign that sas: “Entrance for Negroes and Mexicans.” Mexicans are denied service at the Imperial Café. The owner publishes a notice in the local newspaper which says: “Notice: Mexicans are not served at the Imperial Café.” There is a dentist who segregates Mexicans and does not permit Mexicans to enter through the same door the Anglo-Americans use. He orders that Mexicans enter through a back door to a room assigned for Negroes, and he sits Mexicans in a [dental chair] used by them. He charges more for his services to Mexicans than he does to Anglo-Americans.
ELGIN, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at several commercial establishments. In the restaurants they are told to go to the kitchen if they wish to be served. American soldiers of Mexican descent are treated the same way. The Elgin Café and the Hotel McDellen deny service to Mexicans.
BASTROP, TEXAS. There are several commercial establishments that do not serve Mexicans. The owner of a restaurant situated on the main street says unabashedly: “We do not serve Mexicans.” In some restaurants they are served in the kitchen.
McQUEENEY, TEXAS. Mexicans are not permitted to visit [ ] Lake. They are not even sold hamburgers in a little stand established there. American soldiers of Mexican origin have also been humiliated in the same manner at this place.
NEW BRAUNFELS, TEXAS. Marion Café, 180 San Antonio Avenue. At this and other restaurants Mexicans are denied service.
POST, TEXAS. Only one of the fine Anglo-American restaurants in this place serves Mexicans. The other four deny service to Mexicans and have a sign that says: “No Mexicans Served” and “No Mexicans Wanted.”
LOCKHART, TEXAS. On July 4, 1941 some Mexicans went to a dance being celebrated on one of the main streets of Lockhart. About eleven p.m. the orchestra announcer said the following: “I have been asked to announce…that all persons of Hispanic origins who find themselves here need to leave this block. This is an American celebration [and] it is only for white people.” Service is denied to Mexicans, including American soldiers of Mexican descent in the South Café and in all the Anglo-American barber shops. On December 1, 1943 an American soldier of Mexican descent entered an Anglo-American baraber shop to get his shoes shined. A Negro told him he could not do it and to speak to the boss if he wanted to know why. When the Mexican American military member asked the boss he grabbed him by the collar, tried to stab him and started pushing him outside. The military member afterwards went to the South Café, accompanied by his cousin and ordered coffee for both of them. The waitress told them that she could not serve them there. Then the military member and his companion started for the sheriff’s office to formulate their complaint regarding what had happened to them. Surely the sheriff had already been advised of the incidents because as soon as the soldier entered his office the sheriff told him: “You were not born in a restaurant.” The military responded that he had only ordered a cup of coffee, and immediately the sheriff stood up and slapped him, ordering him to leave.
GONZALES, TEXAS. Four young Mexicans, well dressed, were denied service at the Michelson Café.
FORT STOCKTON, TEXAS. Soldier First Class L.A. Moreno, belonging to Troop A, Fifth Cavalry Regiment, Fort Bliss, Texas was denied service at the Hollywood Café in Fort Stockton. He was told if he wanted something to eat he would need to leave and enter through the kitchen.
SAN MARCOS, TEXAS. Mexican women are not allowed to use the toilet for Anglo-American women in the court house. Service is denied to Mexicans at several restaurants and pharmacies. Mexican children are segregated in the public schools.
ANSON, TEXAS. Sommer’s Café. Service is denied to Mexicans.
ROSCOE, TEXAS. Service is denied to Mexicans at all Anglo-American restaurants and barber shops.
STERLING CITY, TEXAS. There is a restaurant that denies service to Mexicans, and will only serve them if they consume the food outside of the establishment.
LITTLE FIELD, TEXAS. There is a refreshment [shop] that denies service to Mexicans unless they consume their drinks outside the establishment.
AUSTIN, TEXAS. Mexicans are segregated from Anglo-Americans at the public hospital. There are several residential districts in which Mexicans are not permitted to reside without any regard to social standing.
NATALIA, TEXAS. Cox Place, Dick’s Café, Macon Café, owner W.R. Lay. Service is denied to Mexicans.
GANADO, TEXAS. Lee Koonce Café, Macon Café. Service is denied to Mexicans in the same hall where Anglo-Americans are served. Mexicans are told to enter into the section for Negroes.
GOLIAD, TEXAS. There is a restaurant that denies service to Mexicans. One day, a Mexican asked the owner why he refused to serve Mexicans and as a response the owner pulled out a pistol and ordered him to leave his establishment.
MASON, TEXAS. King’s Café. Service is denied to Mexicans.
CLEBURNE, TEXAS. Mexicans are segregated in all the hospitals belonging to the railroad companies. Mexicans are placed alongside Negro patients.
HONDO, TEXAS. Mexicans are segregated at the Ray Theater. They are told that they should not sit with the Anglo-Americans because the Mexicans are not “whites.”
HAPPY, TEXAS. There is a restaurant that denies service to Mexicans.
BORGER, TEXAS. DeLuxe Barber Shop. Service is denied to Mexicans.
BEEVILLE, TEXAS. Gaun Rooming House. An artisan of Mexican origin, busy working on national defense work, was denied a room simply because he was Mexican; three Anglo-American workers who accompanied him were rented rooms, but not the Mexican.
DEVINE, TEXAS. Gene’s Grill, owner Mrs. Thelma Bohl. On August 14, 1943 two distinguished Mexicans entered and sat down at a table where Anglo-Americans sat at the extreme end. The owner approached the Mexicans and told them: “Why did you sit here? Don’t you see that a white man is eating at this table? Don’t you know the difference between a white man and yourselves?”
CALVERT, TEXAS. The Office of Gasoline Rationing for Robertson County has refused to extend gasoline coupons to a Mexican agricultural worker, even though he proved he was a creditor of theirs. The complainant said he was treated that way simply because he is Mexican.
OZONA, TEXAS. Hancock’s Café, Ozona Drug Store, Ozona Hotel, Butler Café, Smith Drug Store. In these establishments service is denied Mexicans. Mexican children are segregated in the elementary schools and superior [high] schools of Ozona. Mexicans are segregated at the Ozona Theater. Mr. Alejo Lara, who has two sons in the Army who have been injured in action, was denied service at Ozona Drug Store. One of his sons has just been hospitalized at Fort Sam Houston Hospital. He is paralyzed due to spinal cord injuries received in the line of fire.
ALICE, TEXAS. Mexicans are denied service in all the Anglo-American barber shops. Mexican children are segregated from the Anglo-American children until 7th grade in the public schools.
ALPINE, TEXAS. Mexicans, including American soldiers of Mexican descent, are segregated in the theater and they are put with the Negroes. The owner of a billiard hall prohibits Mexicans, including soldiers are Marines of Mexican origin, to play there.
MARATHON, TEXAS. A large sign that was placed in front of a restaurant and said: “No Mexicans Allowed” was cause for the Mexican people to protest. Afterwards the owner removed the sign and placed there an even larger sign.
HARLINGEN, TEXAS. A group of Mexican-American youths were denied entrance to a public pool; however, another group of youths, among whom were several of German and Japanese origins, were allowed use of said pool.
POTEET, TEXAS. At a dance which took place on July 4th of the present year, in one of the streets of Poteet, the Mexicans present were told to go dance somewhere else because they were not wanted there.
SEGUIN, TEXAS. A troupe of young American Boy Scout explorers of Mexican origin were expelled from Starcke Park (a city park), even though they carried the American flag. They were told that this park was only for “white” people.
WHARTON, TEXAS. In several commercial establishments service to Mexicans is denied. Until this year, Mexicans were not permitted to vote in the primary elections of Wharton County.
HORTON, TEXAS; RICHMOND, TEXAS; MATAGORDA, TEXAS; BRAZORIA, TEXAS; BAY CITY, TEXAS; ANGLETON, TEXAS; STANTON, TEXAS; AMARILLO, TEXAS; GREENVILLE, TEXAS; JACKSONVILLE, TEXAS; CLEVELAND, TEXAS; BRAUNFIELD, TEXAS; LEVELLAND, TEXAS; SHAMROCK, TEXAS: in all of these cities and towns exist commercial establishments that deny service to Mexicans.
In the majority of these cities and towns of the state of Texas they have Mexican children segregated in the public schools.
In the majority of the cities and towns of Texas there are also residential districts where Mexicans are not allowed to reside.
The purpose has been to have the Mexicans humiliated and treated like inferior beings.
The same situation exists in the states of Arizona, Colorado, California, and part of New Mexico.
(NOTE: The discriminatory acts have been repeated in several cities, but only one or two incidents are noted. In some of these cities racial discrimination has not been repeated, but these don’t seem more than 20% of those towns cited.)