more probable that they mark the site of the tomb of the Empress Helena,
which is mentioned by Josephus.
The position of two other places of interest without the walls, on the
north side of the city, are shown in the picture, viz., "The Grotto of
Jeremiah " (29), which consists of a huge rude cave, excavated in the rock,
connected by modern tradition with the name of the prophet, but probably
in reality nothing more than a quarry, from which stone was obtained for
building purposes ; and the Nebi Samwil (31), a commanding hill, on
which stood the ancient Mizpeh of the tribe of Benjamin. The name
Mizpeh, signifying a watch-tower, is peculiarly applicable to this hill, which
affords an extensive view over the whole of the surrounding country.
The valley on the western side of the city, in which are situated the
upper and lower pools of Gihon, is hidden from our view; but to the south,
on a portion of the Hill of Zion, which was formerly included within the
walls of Jerusalem, but now stands without, is seen a cluster of buildings,
which bear the name of the Tomb of David (6). This marks, probably, the
true site of the Royal tombs of Judah; for although burial within the walls
of their cities was forbidden by the Jews, an exception was made in the
case of their kings, and we kno# that David and most of his successors
were buried in Zion.
Having now surveyed the surrounding country, let us turn our
attention to the city itself.
The first thing that strikes us is the smallness of its compass. The
walls which surround the city are not much more than two miles in
circumference. Formerly, doubtless, the walls extended much further to
the north, and included also the whole of Mount Zion, and the spur of
Ophel, on the south; but on the east and west, the valleys of the Kidron
and of Gihon prevented the extension of the city in those directions.
Jerusalem occupies the ridge of elevated ground which lies between
those two valleys. Its walls, which follow, more or less, the inequalities of
the ground, are irregular in their course, excepting on the eastern side; but,
speaking in general terms, it may be described as a square, with its sides
facing the four points of the compass. There are now only four gates
leading into the city, which stand nearly in the centre of each of its four
sides. There were formerly several other gates, but they have been walled
up. The principal entrance is situated on the western side, and is called