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Breakthrough, March 1976
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Breakthrough, March 1976 - Page 11. March 1976. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. July 29, 2015. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/4730/show/4724.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(March 1976). Breakthrough, March 1976 - Page 11. Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/4730/show/4724

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Breakthrough, March 1976 - Page 11, March 1976, Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed July 29, 2015, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/4730/show/4724.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Breakthrough, March 1976
Publisher Breakthrough Publishing Co.
Date March 1976
Description Vol. 1 No. 3
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
  • Newsletters
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • periodicals
Language English
Physical Description 16 page periodical
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
  • Image
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Original Item Location HQ1101 .B74
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b2332726~S11
Digital Collection Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the UH Digital Library About page.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Page 11
File Name femin_201109_515k.jpg
Transcript Arts and Reviews Myths take identity For days I carried around Myth America, hooting in derision and waylaying anyone within reach with quotable tidbits like: "The faculties of which genius is composed are precisely those in which women are deficient by nature."(Wil]iam\ Walling, M.D. Sexology, Philadelphia, 1904). Sure it's an old song, stereotyped image number 309 say, but do you know the source for this nonsense? Myth America provides some clues. Carol Wald, an illustrator and collector of Americana, assembled this composite of stereotyped illustrations of women printed from 1865 to 1945. The pictures come from ads, posters, sheet music covers, post cards and trade cards. The text, written by historian Judith Papachristou, often seemed too general and dry, dry. But the fine print (the copy of the ads) makes fascinating reading. Overall, the images presented were ones I hadn't seen before, they were naggingly familiar- maybe intuitively familiar. Who is this childlike female who was providing the inspiration to go off to war, or symbolizing the pampered and protected "good life," or reigning as queen of the household, madonna mother and man's favorite mascot? Oh, I remember now. I think I saw her the other day in a television commercial. Myth America is the first documentation that I have seen of the commercial portrait of the American woman. And sure enough, she has always been pubescent, pure and forever beautiful. In short, a fantasy beauty whose image has been powerful enough to make us crack our ribs in corsets, bind up our breasts, shave our bodies, and tease our hair, just to name a few tortures. As to who created this fantasy, Papachistou implies that in a world where much was wrong, these first advertising illustrators, probably male, were only too happy to occupy themselves with visions of the girl of their dreams. This is a chicken and egg question, but I am not so sure advertising should take the rap alone. They could have been merely reinforcing existing images. I did agree wholeheartedly with Papachristou's summation in the "American Beauty" section: "Ewuating female perfection with physical beauty results in a view of women as less intelligent and able than men; and it lies at the root of their inferior status in American life .... Behind the fantasy of the American Beauty Rose lies a harsh and bitter reality." JODY PERKINS How-to's explained Now in 1976, a year perfect for self-evaluation, comes How To Decide: A Guide For Women, by Drs. Nelle Scholz, Judith Prince and Gordon Miller. A 128-page illustrated paperback intended to help women learn how to make decisions about their life- direction, How To Decide is set up in workbook form. Charts, graphs, questionnaires, and examples motivate the reader to get down into honest self- examination, especially in the areas of career and family. No simplistic packaged solutions are given here. Instead, the workbook offers "how to" techniques designed to help each woman analyze what is best for her own life situation. By studying a variety of career and personal dilemmas, specific problems confronting women are analyzed in a larger context. Each case study of an American woman offers the opportunity to examine underlying problems - how to build self-confidence; how to handle anger in constructive ways; how to focus skills;* how to use assertive behavior rather than aggressive or passive behavior; how to deal with uncertainty. Rough questions are posed, the kind that insist on serious thinking. Some questionnaires are meant to be quick studies, others will take weeks of personal examination to answer. It's a book set up to force brutal honesty with oneself - about goals or lack of them; ambitions and dreams; influences such as husbands, parents, friends, children. For the reader who wants to enter (or re-enter) the world of work, specific tasks are given in holding a family conference, preparing a resume, conducting a job campaign, filling out an employment application and going to a job interview. There's also a good section on how to return to school. How To Decide is designed to be used either by women alone or in groups, with or without a group leader. A stimulus to affirmative action, it is an individualized guide to help women develop new awareness, recognize problems, and advance interests and abilities. The Workbook was published January 5 by College Entrance Examination Board, Box 2815, Princeton, NJ 08540, and sells for $5.95. The authors are all professional educators and trainers in decision-making. How To Decide aims to help women learn those skills needed to set goals and reach them, taking them through a step-by-step procedure. KIT VAN CLEAVE "Equating female perfection with physical beauty results in a view of women as less intelligent and able than men; and it lies at the root of their inferior status in American life..Behind the fantasy of the American Beauty rose lies a harsh and bitter reality."— Myth America, Picturing Women 1865-M45 by Carol Wald. Text by Judith Papachristou. Author sees manipulation Although more women are entering business and politics, the symbols and mythology of power are still predominately male-dominated. According to Michael Korda, author of "Male Chauvinism! How It Works," and "Power/ How to Get It, How to Use It," the ultimate image of power is the male president, surrounded by his male advisors, with all the trappings of the male* oriented society: secret service men, soldiers, jets and limousines. Supreme Court justices, senators, representatives, governors, corporation presidents and school superintendents retain the male- dominated power structure where women are still unwelcome. What power women do achieve is given to them by men, and men are reluctant to relinquish their power monopoly. Korda says hard work alone is not enough because money will be given a woman grudgingly and every effort will be made to prevent her from having real power. He isn't surprised he says, that in nearly 1,300 companies required to file proxy statements by the Securities and Exchange Commission, there were 6,500 officers and directors earning over $30,000—only 11 of whom are women. Korda believes that until women have their proportionate share of power, which, for example, would be 50 U.S. senators, they will be obligated to fight their way into the world of business and politics by clandestine methods, infiltrating what remains an obstinately masculine structure with masculine symbols, traditions and laws. In order to plan their strategies, Korda says, women should be aware of the weapons men use to keep power from them. 1. Committee. Korda says the minute a woman is appointed to committee, the men begin to down-grade its importance and to transfer whatever executive functions it has to a new and smaller all-male subcommittee. He adds, "The men who remain in the committee will often arrange for catering and coffee making, all to be handled by the women. This gives the men an opportunity to let the women worry about who gets what sandwich." 2.Downgrade a position when it is given to a woman. For example: The marketing manager's job may have been very powerful, but as soon as a woman gets the job, the power moves elsewhere. The other male managers tend to usurp and ignore the power previously held by the male marketing managers. 3. Sex. Men rob women of power with the adroit use of sex, Korda says. "Accomplished men can easily put down a woman and flatter her at the same time," Korda states, "and the use of sexual signals is a basic tactic in a whole series of complex power games." He lists flirtation, flattery, seduction and innuendo as techniques of control men use against women. "When a man attempts to establish a sense of intimacy, he chooses one of the three social male-female relationships: father figure, husband figure or lover," Korda says. Few men will admit they flirt with their secretaries to make it difficult for them to ask for raises or decline unpleasant chores, but Korda makes a strong case against them. Likewise for the men who show a "fatherly" interest in a woman executive's work so that in any disagreement he will have the advantage of parental authority. "Men attempt to make women think of their roles in the organization as the equivalent of their roles in the outside world," Korda warns. "A woman who puts up with a domineering husband may soon find that she has a second one as a boss; a woman who wants protection, love and flattery will soon get it from men at work, at the expense of raises, titles and power. Men are adept at forcing women to become stereotypes." Korda believes feminists are correct in questioning the purpose of the traditional man- woman courtesies in working situations. Such courtesies are used to single a woman out as being different, not "one of the boys." A woman would do well tobe on her guard when a male colleague goes out of his way to praise her appearance, open doors for her, or light her cigarettes. Korda warns such sexual gestures segregate women from men and exclude them from the existing power structure. 4. Trivia. Men force women to struggle for the small things they want and deserve. For example: A woman vice- president is omitted from the companys' letterhead while all the male vice-presidents are included. Her office is smaller than the other vice-presidents' offices and her secretary makes less than theirs. These are small matters, but examples Korda gives of the extent men will go to rob women of deserved power and respect. In conclusion, Korda advises women to insist on equal treatment; it's the only path to power. When faced with any of the above strategies men use to withhold^ power from women, a good counterattack is to say, "You wouldn't treat a man that way, and you can't treat me that way either." And mean it! BARBARA WESOLEK 11