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Breakthrough 1976-08
Page 14
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Breakthrough 1976-08 - Page 14. August 1976. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. April 23, 2014. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/3208/show/3201.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(August 1976). Breakthrough 1976-08 - Page 14. Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/3208/show/3201

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Breakthrough 1976-08 - Page 14, August 1976, Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed April 23, 2014, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/3208/show/3201.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Breakthrough 1976-08
Publisher Breakthrough Publishing Co.
Date August 1976
Description Vol. 1 No. 7
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • periodicals
Language English
Physical Description 20 page periodical
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Original Item Location http://library.uh.edu/record=b2332726~S11
Digital Collection Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see the UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the “About” page of this website.
File name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Page 14
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see the UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the “About” page of this website.
File name femin_201109_519n.jpg
Transcript ortia's Law Discrimination against women by the insurance industry in coverage, availability, underwriting practices and rating is as pervasive as is discrimination against women in employment. The form and extent of discrimination varies from one kind of insurance to another, with perhaps the worst record in the area of health and disability insurance. Several well documented government reports show that on the whole, the insurance industry has both neglected women as prospective clients and dealt with them less favorably than with men. A great deal needs to be done to remedy these forms of discrimination by the insurance industry. Because private insurance activity is not considered to be tied closely enough to the state to fall under the "State action" requirement of the ERA, those states passing such an amendment would still not be able to use it to eliminate sex discrimination in insurance. However, it should be recognized that the practices of insurance companies (e.g., whom they will insure, premium rates, cancellations of insurances) are largely unregulated today. Therefore, in order to reach the present sex discriminatory practices in the insurance industry, a federal statute or a series of state statutes must be enacted specifically to regulate the industry. Some states have passed, and numerous others, including Texas, are considering legislation to prohibit sex discrimination in underwriting and availability. The Texas State Board of Insurance has proposed a series of Rules relating to unfair discrimination practices based on sex or marital status in insurance policies, and are inviting inter- By Patti O'Kane ested persons to submit written comments on the proposals to Doug Barnert, Assistant Deputy Commissioner, State Board of Insurance, 111 San Jacinto, Austin, Texas 78786, before the Board's September hearing. Also, anyone who wishes to testify in person at that meeting can do so by contacting Mr. Barnert. The following is a list of the proposed Rules, Sections 059.21.21.104-059.21.21.108: Oral contraceptives would be covered. .104. UNDERWRITING Availability of any policy may not be denied to an insured or prospective insured on the basis of sex or marital status of the insured or prospective insured. Specific practices prohibited by this rule shall include, but not be limited to, the following: following: (A) No insurer may deny coverage to females gainfully employed at home, employed part-time or employed by relatives when that coverage is offered to males similarly employed. (C) No insurer may exclude from prescription drug benefits oral contraceptives when all other prescription drugs are covered. (D) No insurer may deny, under group policies, coverage to eligible husbands of female employees, when dependent coverage is available to eligible wives of male employees. (E) No insurer may deny disability income policies to women employed in high risk STRIP, SHOP RECYCLE **W mn WOOD - A DIPPING PROCESS - WE STRIP ANTIQUES, STAINED GLASS, WICKER, METAL, ETC. Extra Large Vats For Architectural Wood. 14 AN ECOLOGY MOVEMENT" 527-8081 4422 GREENBRIAR classifications when coverage is offered to men similarly employed. (F) No insurer may deny maternity benefits to insureds or prospective insureds purchasing an individual policy when comparable family coverage policies offer maternity benefits. 1105. POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS The amount of benefits payable, or any term condition or type of coverage may not be restricted, modified, excluded, or reduced on the basis of the sex or marital status of the insured or prospective insured. Specific practices prohibited by this regulation shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (A) No policy may treat complications of pregnancy differently than any other illness or sickness under the policy. For the purpose of this rule, complications of pregnancy shall be defined as pregnancy complicated by concurrent disease or abnormal conditions significantly affecting usual medical management, such as, but not limited to extra uterine pregnancy, severe toxemic disorders, severe puerperal sepsis, severe hemorrhage, or any complication of pregnancy requiring delivery by caesarean section. (B) No policy may restrict, reduce, modify, or exclude benefits based solely upon the genital organs of one sex. (C) No policy may apply arbitrary waiting periods to maternity benefits in such a way as to exclude coverage for premature births when normal maternity benefits are included in the policy. Medical evidence of the prematurity of the baby may reasonably be required. (D) No disability policy may offer lower maximum monthly benefits to women than to men who are in the same risk classifications. (E) No disability policy may offer more restrictive basic benefit periods and more restrictive definitions of disability to women than to men. Normal pregnancy is not considered to be a disability. (F) No policy may establish different conditions by sex under which the policyholder may exercise benefits options contained in the policy. (G) No insurer may limit the scope and lor amount of coverage an insured or prospective insured may purchase based on the insured's or prospective insured's marital status. .106. RATES Any rate, rating plan, or rating classification filed by an insurer which includes a differentiation on the basis of sex or marital status must be justified in writing by the insurer to the satisfaction of the Board. All rates shall be based upon sound ac- tuarian principles, a valid classification system, and must be related to the actual and proven loss statistics. .107. CONVERSION A person covered under a group plan as a dependent shall be considered to be a member of the group. If a dependent spouse loses group coverage due to a change in marital status, the dependent spouse shall be considered to have been a member The Travelers Insurance Company Hartford, Connection ^^^INfORMATION, FOR Injuries received in wreck of Car, or tip burning or wreckage of a Passenger Steamer $5;000 if Killed $2,500 for loss of one or more limbs $25.00 per week Total Disability $ I 2.50 per week Partial Disability Pays FOR Ordinary Accident $2,500 if Killed $ 1,250 for loss of one or more limbs $ 12.50 per week Total Disability $6.25 per week Partial Disability P Cost only 25 Cents per Day 7 Days $I.5o 20 Days $3.5o 10 Days $2.00 3o Days $4.5o 12 Days $2.5o 45 Days $6.00 15 Dai's $2.y5 60 Days $y.5o go Days $10.00 Travelers Insurance Co. Policy (1900) of the group and therefore be eligible for continued coverage under the group conversion plan. .108. CONTINUANCE OF COVERAGE In individual policies, if a person loses coverage due to change in marital status, that person shall be issued a policy of equal terms having the same effective date as the policy under which coverage was afforded prior to the change in marital status. Normal pregnancy should be considered a disability. The regulations will apply to individual and group policies issued or issued for delivery in this state and administered by all types of insurance companies. They address themselves to an area long neglected in insurance, and certainly make a good start at equalizing insurance practices; but they don't go far enough. In employment rights litigation, courts in all the states are prohibiting the exclusion of pregnancy and maternity related disabilities from disability income and sick leave plans. The Texas regulations should likewise prohibit the exclusion of the entire medical costs of pregnancy, childbirth, abortion and sterilization, and not just complications due to pregnancy, from standard single person health policies and require that those risks be spread over the insured population of the state as a whole. Likewise, the final rules should consider pregnancy as a disability so that it will be covered under disability plans. There is no reason to distinguish between pregnancy and other temporary disabilities, and certainly no reason to distinguish between pregnancy and "normal pregnancy." (Reg.105E) While it is important that insurance companies be required to justify their rating systems when they charge different premiums on the basis of sex, there are difficulties with a regulation that allows companies to make such a justification on the basis of "sound actuarial principles" or "a valid classification system." Although the insurance industry would have consumers believe that the sex division in the actuarial tables is a logical and precise way of calculating premiums and payments, those who have carefully studied the tables say that the insurance classification system is nothing more than "sex discrimination on sex discrimination." Constitutional litigation has not yet yielded any final decisions on the merits of the sex based rating question. A number of states have enacted laws which prohibit discrimination in coverage and underwriting policies, however, and persons sending comments on the Texas Rules might propose that the Board look more closely at the sex based tables to ensure that not only will unfair practices in insurance relating to sex discrimination be declared illegal in the State of Texas, but also that the "statistics" used to buttress these procedures will no longer be accepted as "sound actuarial principles." Just as Blacks lobbied in the early part of this century to eliminate race based acturial tables, so too must women work for the elimination of these more subtle forms of insurance discrimination, as well as the more blatant examples that are still practiced by the insurance industry in Texas today.