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Breakthrough 1976-01
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Breakthrough 1976-01 - Page 10. January 1976. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 25, 2014. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/296.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(January 1976). Breakthrough 1976-01 - Page 10. Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/296

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Breakthrough 1976-01 - Page 10, January 1976, Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 25, 2014, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/296.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Breakthrough 1976-01
Publisher Breakthrough Publishing Co.
Date January 1976
Description Vol. 1 No. 1
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • periodicals
Language English
Physical Description 16 page periodical
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Original Item Location http://library.uh.edu/record=b2332726~S11
Digital Collection Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see the UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the “About” page of this website.
File name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Page 10
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see the UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the “About” page of this website.
File name femin_201109_513j.jpg
Transcript World hope in sisterhood The term "Latinamerican woman" immediately raises certain questions. In a world made ever smaller by communications and technology, how can one speak of women as Latinamerican, European, North-American, Asian or African? Let us accept as well known the feminine archetypes: the senoritas with their rumbas or sambas, their balconies, serenades, and flowering compliments. And then - the French women, love; the Italians, the Germans, the North-Americans emancipated at age twenty with their automobiles and universities, who are expected after a Mercedes Valdivieso certain time to return to the established order, to the herd and to marriage. An example: The Encyclopedia Britannica says that Chilean women - some of the most emancipated in the Western World - have been "permitted" the greatest freedom in South America 1 Terminer' is the exact word because it includes the idea of one who awards freedom: in this case, man. One would have to study very seriously however, the economic and social conditions that fostered that freedom. And when one speaks of "freedom," one speaks also of "class" in Latin America. Freedom is not the same for a woman of the lower classes as it is for a woman of the upper or middle classes. The subject of freedom does not present itself in the same form to the lower class woman. She cannot argue with parents or husband. She faces a reality called domestic service or factory work, or children to care for or a husband to serve. In Latin America, lower class women with Indian or Negro blood look forward to a common destiny: a brief childhood, briefer adolescence and a long and bitter adult life. Freedom is presented to the lower class woman by and through some man: an occasional companion, lover, husband, sons, and she pays with her servitude. The less the economic development, the more the subjection of women. One must ask oneself if that reality is very different for the lower class women at unskilled jobs in Europe, the United States, and the rest of the world. It might be that certain 10 distinctions appear as basic differences. An example would be the capability of acquiring possessions for domestic consumption: automobiles, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. These are items that an advanced industrialization has placed on the market and that advertising has imposed upon us as in- dispensibles.But basically, does an essential difference of "being" exist in the lives of these women on a world-wide level, as far as the possibility of human achievement is concerned? Although the international press emphasizes in theory the need of an equalization of salaries and promotions for women, in fact it ridicules the implementation of such emphasis. This was clearly noted during the meeting of women in Mexico. Arguments and personal items were converted into "news," while conclusions and serious efforts were minimized or forgotten. A meeting of women was something "comic, grotesque." On the other hand, it is not comic that in Latin America the men in parliament come to blows or insult one another with reference to their respective mothers. That is of no importance and is brushed aside or mentioned only for political purposes. The examples exist everywhere. The important thing is to observe how and to what ends the game is manipulated. And this game takes place in regard to women from the lower classes on up. Freedom, of course, is not the same for the worker or the housemaid as it is for the university student or the lady of means. For the student there exists the dialogue with her books, the reference to that historic, sexless voice of art, the humanities, the sciences - masculine references but without the urgency of immediate fears with respect to women. Already the young women of Latin America are progressing beyond embroideries, music and exquisite cuisine, without disdaining any of these. They advance in spite of the nostalgic sighs of grandparents, parents, or husbands. But such sighs converge and weigh upon them like a dense cover, making it difficult to breath. The social pressure remains. The ideal woman is the wife-mother - nestmaker-consoler and cook. Articles, magazines, columns for the lovelorn, all direct their efforts, facilitating the road toward the natural throne of woman-place of honor next to the stove, by the eternal flame of the hearth. No one attacks the throne, but rather the concept of "being enthroned." Thrones can also be overturned in the management of a great company, the presidency of a university, the cabinet of a country. An aDunaance of thrones would deprive it forever of its unique quality of being the only possible one. It is true that the idea of freedom frightens many women. Changes of consciousness are the loneliest, the most painful and the most difficult to accomplish. But they are also the most decisive. We must put in balance the great words, 'immutable principles," and realize that what exists is not the abstract, but the relative. Words function "in relation to," never in and of themselves. "Motherhood, love, fidelity, religion, honesty," are human concepts; they are mingled with human beings to function, thanks to them, well or badly in relation to them. One must not forget that it has been in moments of struggle when the dimension of "being" has been seen most clearly. There will be women who hide their heads and fortify themselves with "femininity." Fortunately, there will be others who abandon that sort of innocence or fear. "Liberty" is a hackneyed word whose ultimate significance should be directed towards the full realization of the individual. As an economic class or as a human being, liberty in respect to woman is relative to money and to man, never to her own deep and conscious reality. That consciousness of identity should be set forth at the international level. The sisterhood of women is an essential requisite to its achievement. Let us hope for it. By MERCEDES VALDIVIESO LA MUJER LATINOAMERICANA Y SU RELACION CON LA MUJER UNIVERSAL Hablar de la mujer latinoamericana plantea de inmediato ciertas in- terrogaciones. Dentro de este mundo cada vez mas redicido por las comunicaciones y la tecnica en general, puede hablarse de una mujer latinoamericana, europea, nor.teamericana, negra o asiatica? Demos por conocidos los arquetipos femeninos: senoritas con sus accesorios de rumba o zamba, de balcones espatTbles, de serenatas.de piropos. Y despu£s las francesas y el amor y las italianas, las alemanas, mas las nor- americanas tan emancipadas a los veinte anos con sus automoviles y sus colleges, de las que se espera al cabo de un tiempo, el retorno a lo establecido, a la cordura y al matrimonio. Un ejemplo: es cierto que a una mujer chilena - una de las mas emancipadas del mundo occidental - dice la Enciclopedia Brit&iica, se le ha "permitido" mas libertad dentro de Sud America. "Permitido" es la palabra exacta porque incluye a quienes otorgan la libertad, en este caso, el hombre Pero, habria que estudiar muy seriamente cuales han sido las condiciones economicas y sociales que permitieron esa libertad. Y cuando se habla de "libertad" tambien se habla de "clase" en Latino america. La libertad no es lo mismo para una mujer del pueblo que para una mujer de las clases altas o medias. A la mujer del pueblo no se le plantea de la misma manera el asunto. No tiene que discutirlo con los padres o el marido. Es una realidad que se llama servicio domesticos o Fabrica de cualquier cosa o Hijos que cuidar o companero que aten- der. La mujer del pueblo con mayor o menor sangre india o negra en las venas tiene en Latino a me'rica un destino comtfn. Una infancia muy breve, una juventud mas breve aun y una larga y amarga madurez. La libertad no se plantea sin o en torno al sexo, a lo inmediato. Es lo finico que esa mujer posee y se le plantea con respecto y, a traves del hombre. Comps(nero ocasional, amante, marido, hijos, servidumbre a todos ellos. A menor desarrollo economico mas sumisidn de la mujer. Lo interesante es preguntarse si tal realidad es muy diferente para lasmujeresdel pueblo, para las trabajadoras de los oficios menores tanto en Europa como en Estados Unidos o en todas partes del mundo. Puese ser que ciertas diferencias aparezcan como diferencias ba'sicas, un ejemplo seria el de la capacidad de adquirir bienes de cpnsumo dome*stico: automoviles, neveras, lavadoras, etc. Ar- ticulos que una mayor industrialization ha puesto en el mercado y la propaganda ha impuesto como elementos im- prescindibles. Pero, en profundidad, existe una diferencia esencial, de "ser," en cuanto a posibilidades de realization humana entre estas mujheres de una clase economica inferior a nivel mundia? Es digno de mencionar que aunque la prensa international enfatiza la necesidad de una igualdad de salarios o de promociones para las mujeres, al mismo tiempo ridiculiza la puesta en action de tales en- fasis. Se advirtio esto claramente con ocasion de la reunion de mujeres en Mexico. Las discusiones y los chismes se convirtieron en "la noticia," las conclusiones y los esfuerzos se disminuyeron o se olvidaron. Una reunion de mujeres era algo "comico," "grotesco." No es comico que en los parlamentos latinoamericanos los hombres lleguen a las manos o se insulten en sus respectivas madres. Eso no tiene importancia y se disimula o se menciona con un proposito politico. 0 Los ejemplos estan por todas partes. Lo importante es ob- servar como se manipula y por que se manipula el juego. Y este juego se efectua sobre y desde la mujer del pueblo hacia arriba. La libertad, por cierto, no es la misma para la obrera o la criada que para la universitaria o la senora. Para la estudiante existe el dialogo con sus libros, la referenda a esa voz pasada y sin sexo activo del arte, de las humanidades, de la ciencia. Referencias masculinas pero sin las urgencias de los temores inmediatos con respecto a las mujeres. Ya las muchachas f de Latinoamerica van mas alia del bordado y de la musica y de las exquiciteses culinarias, sin desdenar ninguna de estas, van mas alia a pesar de los suspiros nostalgicos de los abuelos, los padres o los maridos. Pero tales suspiros se convierten y gravitan como una capa densa que dificulta la respiration. La presion ambiente permanece. La mujer ideal es la mujer ma<ire-companera-nido- consuelo y cocinera. Articulos, revistas, consultores sen- timentales todos se inclinan facilitando el camino hacia el trono natural de la mujer, sitial colocado junto al fogon, a la llama eterna del hogar. Nadie ataca ese trono, salvo el que se le entronice. Los tronos pueden desplazarse tambien a la jefatura de una empresa, a la presidencia de una universidad, al consejo de ministros de un pais. La abundancia de tronos privana para siempre de su calidad unica a ese u'nico posible. Es cierto que la idea de libertad asusta a muchas mujeres. Libertad es una palabra cargada de con- notaciones de todos colores. Y el miedo no es la menor de ellas. Los cambios de conciencia son los ma's dolorosos y largos de efectuar. Los mas solitarios pero tambien los mas decisivos.Poner en la balanza las grandes palabras, los "principios jmnu tables" y darse cuenta de que no existen abstracciones sino relaciones. De que esas grandes palabras funcionan "en relation a," nunca en si mismas. "Maternidad, amor, fidelidad, incluso religion, honestidad" descendieron de los cielos y se mezclaron al ser humano para funcionar gracias a ellos, bien o mal pero en relation a ellos. No se debe olvidar que ha$ sido en los mementos de lucha cuando se ha visto mas clara toda la dimension del ser. Habra' mujeres que escondan la cabeza y se parapeten en "La feminidad" Habra otras que, afortunadamente, perdieron esa clase de inocencia o ... de miedo. "Libertad" esa palabra tan trafda y Uevada cuya ultima signification deberia estar origida hacia la plena realization del individuo, cuando se refiere a la mujer se plantea solo con relation a 1 hombre. Como clase economica o como ser humano la libertad respecto a la mujer es relativa al dinero y al hombre, nunca en conciente y honda realidad de ella misma. Esa conciencia de autenticidad se debe plantea a nivel international. La frater- nidad femenina es un requisito esnecial para lograrla, Esperesmosla.