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Breakthrough, January 1976
Page 7
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Breakthrough, January 1976 - Page 7. January 1976. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. July 5, 2015. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/293.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(January 1976). Breakthrough, January 1976 - Page 7. Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/293

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Breakthrough, January 1976 - Page 7, January 1976, Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed July 5, 2015, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist/item/303/show/293.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Breakthrough, January 1976
Publisher Breakthrough Publishing Co.
Date January 1976
Description Vol. 1 No. 1
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Women--Texas--Periodicals
  • Feminism--United States--Periodicals
  • Newsletters
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • periodicals
Language English
Physical Description 16 page periodical
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
  • Image
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
Original Item Location HQ1101 .B74
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b2332726~S11
Digital Collection Houston and Texas Feminist and Lesbian Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/feminist
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/special-collections
Use and Reproduction Educational use only, no other permissions given. Copyright to this resource is held by the content creator, author, artist or other entity, and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the copyright owner. For more information please see UH Digital Library Fair Use policy on the UH Digital Library About page.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Page 7
File Name femin_201109_513g.jpg
Transcript What's the score? The following is an interview with Jan Cunningham, National Coordinator of the Women in Sports Task Force, NOW. BREAKTHROUGH: Historically women have been viewed as the "weaker" sex and their active participation in sports has been discouraged. Consequently, the female athlete has been seen as an "oddball" or a misfit in society. What, in vour opinion, is the reason for this attitude? CUNNINGHAM: The attitude that women are the "weaker" sex is primarily the result of social conditioning. Sports are considered a masculine domain where one is rewarded for action, intelligence, creativity, independence, aggressiveness, competitiveness and a spirit of adventure, traits which are recognized by psychologists and society as "masculine" traits. To become an athlete a female must put aside the "female" identified sex traits such as dependence inac- tiveness, submissiveness, passiveness, etc. and adopt the masculine traits. Therefore, she is seen as a "she-man" a lesbian or some other sort of social freak and her achievements are thereby rendered "exceptional" and not to be taken seriously. This type of thinking is not, by the way, limited to female athletes. Any woman who competes successfully in a male dominated field must fear success as well as failure. In succeeding in her field she "fails" as a woman in the eyes of society. BREAKTHROUGH: Still, men are considered stronger and better suited physically for athletics than women. Why should women and girls be encouraged to articipate in sports when their chances of success are minimal? The physiological differences between men and women is vastly overrated. It is true that the average male is larger, heavier and stronger than the average female. However, in recent tests between well conditioned females and males with average conditioning the females outperformed the males in all areas. It is only in sports where strength and height are the predominating factors that men can consistently outperform women. CUNNINGHAM: For example, 25 years ago the women's record for the 100 meter dash was 11.5 seconds compared to the men record of 10.2. Today the men's record is 9.9, an improvement of only .3 seconds, while the women's record is 10.8 an improvement of .7 seconds and only .9 seconds off the men's record. > Even more dramatically, Shane Gould's current women's world record for the 400 meter freestyle is 4.21.2, a full pool length ahead of Johnny Weismuller's men's record of 4.52.0 in 1927. Physiologists believe that as more and more women are given the advantage of diet, training and coaching methods that are provided men athletes, the gap between sexes in most physical tests could well be narrowed to 10 per or less. It is already known that females outperform males up until puberty and, as we all know, it is in puberty that social conditioning really begins to make itself felt. Then the "tomboy" is expected to lay aside her football and take up knitting. BREAKTHROUGH: You've been talking primarily about competitive athletics. What about the woman who's not extremely competitive? What would sports have to offer her? CUNNINGHAM: The Greeks had the theory that a sound body was a prime requisite for a sound mind. Supposedly, that is the guiding principle of physical educators today. Unfortunately it is often lost in the mad scramble to get to the top where winning is every thin gand the only measure of success. There definitely should be a reemphasis on competition and a reemphasis on conditioning as a ay of life. BREAKTHROUGH: Any woman who participates in some sort of athletic activity, whether it be jogging, excercise or active sport will eventually come to a greater awareness of, identify with, and satisfaction with her own body. This satisfaction and body awareness is seen by the majority of mental health authorities as being a prime requisite to a healthy self-image and, consequently, good mental health. CUNNINGHAM: Perhaps Olympian Francie Kraker best summed it up when she was discussing jogging in a recent issue of Ms. magazine. "With jogging, she discovered the joy of letting go, of taking off barefoot down a country road or across a field. She became conscious of the small pleasures or being fit—the harmony of mind and body, the ability to bound upstairs with ease, to sleep well and wake with a feeling of anticipation...At those times, she never doubted who she was. Winning diminished in importance when she realized that she has alreadv won most of what she wanted." BREAKTHROUGH: What do you see in the future for women in sports? CUNNINGHAM: There will have to be a definite change in the philosophy of physical educators and society in general. We are going to have to begin in the grammar schools by exposing girls to the same opportunities in coaching and training that we give boys and this will havae to be carried forward into the junior and senior high schools. Like integration it will be a time-consuming process and won't happen over night. However, it has already begun. The Little League decisim has opened the door to girls and now they'll receive the same training and coaching opportunities as boys have been receiving. Gradually the results of this equal opportunity will pay off and you'll see more and more women competing with and against men in sprts like track, baseball tennes, golf, swimming and other similar sports which are not controlled primarily by height and weight Also, given the opportunity to participate together throughout their school years, boys and girls and men and women should learn to re-evaluate society's position concernng sports and they should begin participating together in all sports, whether competitive or not, on a more or less equal basis. That is to say, men will no longer feel that they must dominate all sports activities and "show off for women andwomen will no longer feel that they must sit bade and be passive spectators. Pam Spira on way to Olympic games Hi there sports fans! Did you know the Olympics are coming this year? Did you know they are held only once every four years? Did you know that tryouts for the United States' women's Olympic team in gymnastics were held here in Houston December 6? You didn't know that? Don't you read the papers? You do read the papers, you say, but you only saw the advance stories and a Pagae 6 photo and caption in the Post Sports Section (Sun., Dec. 7) and a dab more in the Chronicle the day after the meet. Did you find who qualified in this, the first of three tryouts leading to the Montreal Olympics? Did you know that a 16-year-old Houston, Pam Spira, qualified by taking a 2nd medal in floor exercises and by placing 11th out of 68 regional finalists from all over the USA& Remember, you read it here! PEGGY HALL Olympic hopeful Pam Spira ACLU continued from page 4 This marital status discrimination may actually be sex discrimination; banks which used to discount the wife's income when a couple applied for a mortgage now say that they will discount either income. In order to attack marital status discrimination in Texas it is necessary to show the sex discriminatory effect of certain practices. The burden this imposes on women illustrates the necessity of pushing for inclusion of marital status in any future legislation. The enforcement provision of the Texas law gives the individual a private right of action and does not force her to restrict her complaint to an administrative remedy. It allows the recovery of actual damages suffered or fifty dollars whichever is greater. Our statute also provides for the rec overy of court costs, but unlike some states', does not allow attorney's fees or punitive damages to be assessed against the loser in the court action. While the Texas prohibition of sex discrimination shows the legislature's recognition of the problem, the omission of marital status discrimination and the recent passage of the Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, with its strong enforcement provisions, have shifted the emphasis in combatting sexism in credit to the national level. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex or marital status by any consumer or commercial creditor. While it permits creditors to consider the effects of applicable state laws that affect credit-worthiness, it assures equal access to credit to woman regardless of their sex or marital status. As an amendment to the Federal Depository Insurance Bill, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act is enforced through a number of federal agencies. On October 28,1975 the Federal Reserve Board issued the final draft of its "Regulation B," which provided guidelines for these agencies in their implementation of the Act. Several sections of the original Regulations received widespread criticism from the credit industry. While the final Regulations reflect this "foot dragging" by allowing creditors more time to comply with the provisions, the Regulations are generally considered to be comprehensive in their prohibition of a multitude of sex- based credit discrimination practices. The Regulations impose some general requirements on creditors, such as informing applicants that the use of titles (like Mr., Ms., Mrs., or Miss) on applications forms is optional, or requiring creditors to give in writing the REASONS for credit denials. In addition to these general provisions, the rather complex guidelines can also be broken down into more practical "dos" and "dont's" for creditors who are required to bring their credit practices into line with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. By PATTY O'KANE continued in February Breakthrough