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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 1956 - File 069. 1956-12. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 25, 2017. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/699/show/698.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-12). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 1956 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/699/show/698

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 1956 - File 069, 1956-12, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 25, 2017, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/699/show/698.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date December 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries Special Collections
  • Energy & Sustainability Research Collection
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript IN THIS ISSUE: Condensation of EDWARD HUN 1956 book BRAINWASHING The Story of Men Who Defied It What Religion Can Do To Defeat Communism Editor's Mail Baiket DOWN MEMORY LANE Your October issuC' of Facts Forum Xetcs brought home old memoriC's. The article, " elections from the Great Prc­tC'nse," carried .1 picture and short quote from Dr. \\'lachstm Kulski, Proft'ssor of International R 0 C'lations at Svracuse Uni­Yersity. I rem<•ml)('r Dr. Kulski quite w<•ll, as his first teaching assignml'nt \\as at the University of Alabama for appro\imatC'ly five years. As a politic<il science major, I had the plt•asurc of hadng Dr. Kulski as my professor for se,·<·ral classes. Both hC' and ~!rs. Kulski. \l.D. , \\'l'rl' studC'nt favorites. \!rs. Kulski taught French, and both shC' and Dr. Kulski spoke s<•wn or eight languages fluent!'. His first-hand bum il'dl(e of "chess­board" diplom.1c·\ r.rnks "·ith that of Count Sforza and Roucd ... llis n•alistic outlook, temperl'd "ith diplomacy and immense integrity. cert.tinly places him as an outstanding authority on 7'/te Societ Regime, Com1111111i.1111 in Practice. I look forward to rl'ading his hook with a great deal of interest. As a historian .rnd teaclwr, I commC'nd you for your mann<'I' of pn•sentation of controversial nC\\'S. l think, too. that the documentation in ,1rticks is <'sC'C'llent. I urge you to continue the policy you have in informing the AmC'rican public. Rom:nT .\. Ss11T11, III 20:51) Summ<'n·ille Court ~lobile , ,\Jabama MORE ABOUT THE PROFESSOR For the past year I haYc b<•cn a dili­gent reader of ) our mag<l/.ill<'. and hav<' tried to get otll('rs interested in reading same. The reasons for my doing this ,rnd for my intense liking of ) om lll•lg<l/.inc is that it isn't trs mg to cram all\ thing down our throats. il!lt gl\·<·s both 0 sidt·s of the picture ,rnd ali<m s <Ill ,1, erage person to effectiH•ly come to his O\\'ll conclusions. Last ~onth I submitted thl' name of one of my former professors, "\\'ladyslaw Kulski, Professor of lntl'rnational Rela­tions at SHacuse C'niYersit1," for a sampll' cop; of your spll'ndid. n1<1g<tzine. Therefore, \\hen l S<l\\ the excellent article on page 2.) of your Oc·tober, I CJ:5G, issue pertaining to lum, l was happily thrilled. He imprt'5'l'd llH' so gre,1tly dur­ing my four mo11ths as his stud<·11t in " \\'oriel Politics" (J<utuary-\l,1y, 19)6) that it g<lH' rn<' .1 gn .. it lift to k110\\ Facts Forum Xetcs has sccn flt to give him the mueh-descn·cd r<•sp<'et for his work in making ,\merica awarl' of the Communist menace. ~1 \)011 c \HL BUR\K Ilqs. 32nd .\ir Division S\TaeusC' _.\F Station S}racusc 6, :\'cw York PRAISED AND APPRAISED Congratulations on your C'xccllent pres­C'ntations in thc Octoh<'r issu<' of Farts Forum Xctcs of "The Great Pretense" and John C. Cald\\'Pll's pcnetrating article, "Jkd China l''\ \ 'oleano." Your October issuc displays once again the forthrightnC'ss and objectivity that \Our publication so «xp«rtly <•mploys in its ,tbl<" and accurate prescnt<ttions of both sicks of controversi<tl issu«s. Thes«, I f«el. ar« just a f«w of the many quali­ties which haV(' helped Facts Forr1111 X!'tcs develop not only into one of the most patriotic and informatin• publi<·a­tions 011 the 11t•wsstand tochl\ . hut also into an «fkctiv(' instrumcnt ro'r dispelling apath) and misinformation - two factors which h,1v1• made obvious inroads into our country. HonEnT H1Tc111E b().', T\\t'nty.first Street, N.W. \\'ashington 6, D. C. STRIKING A BLOW FOR LABOR UNIONS? In the ~lay issue of Facts Forum X!'tcs, in thc article "Arc Hight-to-Work La\\'s Right?" [the '\O "side" contains] the stat<•m<•nt, "Tll('s<' laws prevent u11io11s from expanding." This is not so. They do not pr«vent voluntary expansion. If labor unions ar<' a good thing, and I helieYe th«y ar<'. thC'y "ill C'spand by virtue of th«ir merit as fast as the1 can organize and assimilat<' Ill'" mc1~bers. Forcible expansion is slan•ry. C. J. "' \\TLL Alst<·ad, :"\ew Hampshire DOUBTFUL DISPUTATIONS I h<t\'t' rcad \Ir. Cald"'«ll's int<'resting articl<• on " Hl'd China - U\; \ 'olcano," and go along with him most of the way. I lo"<·n·r, I h«li<"v<• h<' is \\Tong concern­ing Formo"ian restrictions on immigration and picture taking. l. Formos<t, du<• to its closc proximity to lh·d China. must p«rform the du,11 role of carrying on free C'nterprise, while serving as a s<•eurit) bastion. 2. Formosans, being well acquainted "·ith Communists, do not undPresll­matl' their slyness and triek<'rY :tS spil's, "'hich is a politieal acktHJ\\ Iccl!(­ment \\(' in the United States cannot boast of. 3. If people visiting Formosa wish a pic­tun• of the government building, thC'11 h) all nwans IPt them buy a post card - pcrsonalities will not be involved; n«itlwr will landscape changes. I. It sc«ms that aggressiveness of free· t•nt<•rpriw nations who would helP Formosa has been neutralized by ON red tape. C. D. II \HHIS 20i Embrcy DriVO Dallas, Texas ADDITIONAL POINTS REGARDING FLUORIDATION Your article- on fluoridation in the Sep· teml)('r issu<• is v<•ry good. The emotions arous!'d on both sicks of the controversy make it difficult to arrive at a satisfoctorY conclusion. Th<'rc are a few points thnt arC' not m!'ntionC'd in either of the articles. The AmC'riC"an ~IC'dical Association ]011r1111/ for 19.'52 through J9,') t C'ont:iinS m,lll) refc•n'llC<'s to fluoridC's and fluoricl<i· tio11. Although the A.\l.A. appears to I~ cntireh favorable to fluoridation. certain of th<;se r<'ferc·ncc•s contain disturbin!( implications which those who favor the program ignorl': l. Tlw Councils of Food and Nutritio11 and Chemistry and Pharmacy, in their report to the I lous<' of Delegates, "'.' portl'd that they knew of no ckktcn· ous dl<-cts from the ingcstion of fluor· id<• at the recomnwnded level ( 1 Pl"11 approsimat<•I) ) . They had C'Vidcntl) not investigated with any great cilfC thos<' in the Soutlm <•st "ho gre" u1; in localities" h«r« the "·at«r contain!'<! bt'l" <'C'll I and J .. ) ppm of naltlfi1 fluorid« and "ho lost all their teeth in th«ir thirties. 2. Following the above, the House 0i Dt·lt-gal«s euclorsed the principle 0 fluoridation of public watl'r suppJicS/· \\'h> \\'('I'(' the \\·ords 7irincip/c 0 used, and "hat do they mean? 3. A doctor inquiring about adding flt10;· (Co11ti11ucd 011 /lll/f.C 5,,) IN Tm. I \\'11\1 A~ II Al\n:n I11tcrv A Tm· I P1;1n.ll LOOK! !1 I Ess" "I Co11d L Ci."" ( T F \( 'IS Sl llS( I <:o,"' E p, s: L F\< p, Co,11 llo" J \\'11 \I l\ " Co, 11 \\"'I 1'01.1 . I 1'01.1 . ( S1 .oc.,, - rise, while ;cquainted undcresti· rickcry :is knowlccl!(· tcs cannot vish a pie· ding, then , post card involved; ~cs. ;s of free· ould help eel by U1 \HHIS )fl')' DriVC .. cxas n the Sep· • emotions ontrovcrsY atisfaetorY 1oints th:it ·r of the 1ssociation ~ contains d fltwricb· cars to he >n cei1:tin cli'.sturhin!! favor the Nutrition ')'. in their •gates, re· l dclctCfl" 11 of fluor· ,I (1 Pl'111 cvidcntb ~real cMC ' W"" ui> containccl 1f natttn•1 heir teeth House 0; inciplc 0 supplicS- 11cip/c of 111? ling flt1or· n 1111gc 55) IN TH IS Tm Bnm.1' \\'1'G m 1'1 \C >., Editorial b) Zdl Skillcm Volume 5 Number 12 December 1956 \\"u \T H1.1.1c.10' C" Do -ro D111 u Co\l\!l '1s,1,]. Anthony Marcus A'\' I hsnmH Pnu un 'T, Anwric:an Churc:hnwn \'isit the Sovit't Union A:>.ruu< \s Ym Tll ... \!om·: Pnu 1m·s T11v' GcH.o Intc:rvil'\\ of Tm. Jlo'\Oll\Bl.L Jl111n111r BnO\\'\lLL, Jn., Attornl·1·-Gt•neral of the llnitt'cl State's Tm: l'<l\n 11 TO D1-:srncn, \\fi/lia111 l/('11ry Cha111hcrli11 P BI.IC E" 11y '\o. 2 C ''' 111 D1.n· us '\Jo. I C11 ''"'IC" Lom..i'c; ,\111 10 '"rn TllL \ \11 111c " Lu.10' 1111!-nww of Thi' lfo11omhll' \\ . C (/)1111) /)1111iC'l, ne" ly-cketc'd Lq.(ion C >1nmanclt'1 Ess" Co,n ST nm Yot '\G \\n 111c· \'\S "J lm1 .\mcric:a Can Bt'st Fight Cmnn11111ism" Co11ck11sation of B11 \!'" \Siii'>.<., 1111 S >01n 01 :\11.' \\'110 D1.n1.n IT, Ld1rnrd lf1111/cr . Gt.l\1 PS1· s OJ Booi;s: ( :mrPl.TITI\ 1 Cm :x1s·11." 1., Hod11l'y Ci/her/ T111 \ \11111 '\ 1G11Ts, Boris Sokoloff F \C ·1 s Fom " '\ Ews Ac:c Ll"rs AIJ\ 1.m 1s1'G Svnsc 11rn1.11 S1TDY 01 F\C TS Fom" \1.11s Co, 11 si E'THY B1 ''"s: Essa) Contl'st Poll ()uPstions Slogan . Ll'l!l rs to till' Editors F \( JS i-011t \) ""' I. Qt '" 10'.S Ccl\11 10 1111 Cno". H11ssd/ \lag11irf' licm llms \'\I) (.1111 s c" El!" ('1111"'" \S Cn rs \\'1111 '1'111' 111 S1\l'\C: ,\not> l'\l is Fcun" l\ "" H \l)f() Sl Ill.Ill LES • Co'1"1 Ht"" \\ ""'<· Li n 1 11s rn rm E1>11 ons 1'01.r. 1\1 si r 1 s r 011 Oc ronu1 Poi 1. (,h 1 """ \\ "" 11s S1.o<." 1011 1111 \lo"" l'hotu ( .n dih l'.11!1 1). phntm prm 1tlt·d II\ 1'11hli<: Hd.1tio11s Dl'!Mrtnu·nt, '\.1tio11.d Co1111dl ol tlw Chmdu., ol C:h1i.,t in tlw .S .. \. 2 4 8 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 30 31 32 33 18 31 3-! 31 31 3.) 3'5 .')6 .)~ 62 63 64 61 61 OFFICIAL Pt:BLIC.\TIO'.\ of Facts Forum. Inc., !710 J.1ck,on Stn"f"t, D.111.t' I, Tt•:\,l\. Published monthly in tlw infrn·\lo,; nl F.l<:h Fontm participants and otht·rs c:on('t'rlH d "ith di .. 1wlli11J.! puhlic ;.11>athy. Entrred as c;,t·e<md cla<is nuttt•r at tht• Post Office, D.tllas, Tc·:x:t<>, undt·r the· \<:t of \larc:h 3, 1879. Printed in the U.S.A. BOARD 01· DllUTTORS: Rohc·rt It. Dedman, Pn·siclent; John L. D.1lc-, Yict•-Pn·o;icknt; \Varren A. Gilhc•rt, Jr., St•cn·t.u·,·; Joe• '\;hh, Treilsurer; Mrs. E. P. Lamb<:rlh, \lrs. Su<' \lc:Crnry, Hobert B. Gossett. ADVISORY BOA.HO: :\l.1jor ll A. Hnrdey, Chair­man; Dr. Arthur A. Smith, I .loyd E. Skimwr, D.1vid P. Strit:kler, Harn: J·:. llo.c:it·r. \\"illi.lm '.\·. Blanton, \fn;. 11. '· H.uS'i<·ll. lr., \fr<,, \\"all.I<.'<' S;Hal.!;r, \V. G. xn~!~l("s·hi'?~~~ ~:·~~)::.; 1 E:.\ i'i;(. ~:(·ii~ilt,~~d~~-~·~~~: C<·rwrnl Rob('rt E. \\'ood, llanford \k,i<.h·r, John \\"ayne. FACTS F~RU\f is n_ nationwidt' puhlic t'duca­tion, ll on::.lll1/,lhon d1·tll«.1frcl In .lron .. int.: public interest in current t'\E"nh and c..timulatins.? individual participation in th<~ sh.lping of puhlic policy. FACTS FOHl'\I is nonprofit and nonpartisan, supportuu.: no l}('litic.ll <.-.1ndid.1le or party. Facts Fonim's acli\ itit".; arC' d<•<,igned to prest·nt not just onC' \il""·· of a C(lnlro\t•n;ial i'i.,neo, hut op1)()sing \ it-ws. helil'\ in!! th.1t it h tlw ril!ht nnd the ohli­. c:ation of thl' Anwrican 1woplt• thl'm <•lvC's to lcam all tht• fact-. and conw to th('ir own <.'fmclusions. FACTS FOHlT\f is unalternhly oppo~wd to the Communist conspirac~•. and u'<'' ('\'(•ry m<•:rns with­in its powt·r to kt·t•p th<• .\merican people nwnre of the dan~C'rs of C1>mmtrni'im. SlG\"EJ) \HTICLl·:s .lpJH'!l~ini.t in FACTS FOHU\f '.\ FWS do not m·ct•:-.sanly n·prcs<'nt the opinion of the editors. \! \'\USCRIPTS <uhmitled lo FACTS FORU\I \"E\\"S 'ihould lw .H:c·omp.u1ird hy st:unped, st·lf­addrh, ed t'll\ t·lo1)(',. Puhli ... ht•r .l.,,umt•\ no n·~prn1- .,ihility for n·turn of u11solit:ikd m.inusnipt'i. Sl.RSCHIPTIO:\" RATFS in thc- tr.S. and U.S. POS\t•\<.ions, S) 1wr \'C'ar, $.5 for two yt'ars, nod $7 for :] yC"ars. All other countries, $4 per year. ('HA.\"GE OF AODRESS: St•nd old nddn•\!ii ( ex.1c .. t1y a' impri11tt•d nn m.lili11i.! l.1!wl of your <·op~· of th<• m.u!'.Lrill(') 1tnd rww :lddn·'is to F.\CTS FORU\I '\"E\\·s. D1·p.1rtnwnt (' \ 0 D.llLls 1, Tex.1s. Plt-.1\t allow thrt•t• "'("1·k for chanl.!;t'O\ <•r. ADVERTISING ITE.\DQL'ARTimS 1710 Juk"on Street Onllu. Tna11 \DVERTISL\'G SALE REPRESEXTATIVES EAST C'O.\ST l\trClanahan .\. Company 29'.i '1adi .. on \\enue Se\\ York Ii, '.'\t·w York '110-\\EST John R. Ruth~rford & Associates 230 East Ohio Htreet Chiugo 11, lllinoi" WEST COAST Duncan A. Sc-ott and Co .. Penthou-;e, '1ills Building San Frnnci!oiC'O I. California nnd 2978 Wilshire Rhd. Lo!! Angeles 5, California llii:lii:lii:l€lii:lii:l€!€l€l€-l€-l€lii:l€-l€!€~~­- .::::: '''£: Th c s La [ f o [ 1:A 'TS P 0 R M 1 E W S ;:; 11, V conveys ~);~) lo y 0 LI il Ill. U l L i t ll ti C 0 [ Ill l' il ll j ll g [LL l J 0 yo LIS Christmas for ,,A~::::.::::.:::.=.--- ~~ ............. -- --­,,~..,,,,,, / /; ,, , , ........................... --------- ------ - k _,,,,,, /I I ''- -- --- 1·-- A:-o EDI TORIAL 'eke/ l:. Br"''- 'ken- ~ ~-~ ,iAllni\ f!- O~-' By ZELL KI LLER"/, E dito r of Facts Forum News E \ ERYO:\E is talking about peace. The housewife speaks proudly of her young son in a non-shooting military service. The man in the street waxes eloquent on peace as he discusses the merits and shortcomings of public political figures. Even the two leading candidates in the recent presi­dential election made their campaign kickoff speeches primarily on the subject - with Adlai Stevenson taking as his theme, '"Freedom, Human \Velfare, and Peace," and Dwight D. Eisen­hower choosing simpli the topic, "Peace." The free world has even accustomed itself to hearing pro­test< ltions of a desire for peace from the leaders of the Com­munist world. Khrushchev, Bulganin, and Tito, during the year just past, have donned smiling masks and traveled hither and yon in a camp<lign of sweetness and light in order to beguile the unsuspecting into a false sense of security. In spite of all the cries of "peace, peace," informed and thinking people, far from being reassured, realize that though peace is a noble dream, it is not a present reality. Actuallv, the Kremlin dechtrcd war on the rest of the world more than -four decades ago when Lenin set forth the dictum that the Communist aim was world conquest. The Soviet rulers have never retracted this goal, but have continued to use it as their guiding principle. Even during the past few months they h<we stated that the USSR will give up the goal of world domi­nation "when shrimps learn to whistle and when iron turns to wood." S ince July 26, \\hen the dictator of Egypt, Carnal Abdel '\asser, nationalized the 103-mile Suez Canal, long used by all countries as an international waterway, the anxious eyes of the world have been riveted on the '.1iddlc East. \ Vith war clouds hovering darkly in this area, the hope of the world turned to the United Nations ecurity Council. Here \\~ls a chance for it to show its effectiveness, or lack of itl \Vith the plan authored by John Foster Dulles and adopted in Lon­don by eighteen of the principal user nations, as a springboard for negotiation, the Security Council worked desperately to formuh1te a plan of canal operation acceptable to all the nations concerned. It looked as if success were in sight "hen six major points of agreement \\{'fl' reat·hed in U. Secretary Dag Hammar­skjold's office through private conversations with British Foreign \ linistcr Seh'l" Llo}d, FrC'nch Foreign \linister Chris­tian Pineau, and Egyptian Foreign \tinister \fahmoud Fawqi. However, the deven-ml'mber UN Security Council failed to endorse the plan for international operation of the canal because of the vdoes of Soviet Foreign \!inister Dmitri T. "hepilov and Yugoslav Foreign '.tinister Popovic. To those already doubtful of any value the United States may have derived from the millions of American dollars poured out to Communist Yugosl.tvia, this veto only served to crystallize their displeasure at the drain on their tax pockets. Conforming with the usual Communist line, Sh<•pilov st.1ted, even as he vetoed the Council's endorsement of th<• agn•cment, that Russia wanted to cooperate in some plan for peaceful solution of the probl<'m! \!any people had look<•d hopefully to the peaceful solution of the Suez problC'm by the United '\ations as an opportunity for that org<rnization to display world leadership and insure for itself the prestige which would enable it to preserve peace, and fulfill the purpose for which it was established. However, Page 2 Russia again demonstrated to the world th,1t she is a mem b<'r of the United ations only to ruin its dkctiveness. She does not want a satisfactory settlement of the Suez cont rovers\, or for the United ations to be an effective instrum<•nt in an) other matter of world importance. The only thing accomplished by the Security Council's con sideration of the Suez difficulty was the reVC'lation, with al disguises torn aside, of how the nations of the world art aligned; with Russia, its satellite bloc, and the "neutrals"" Yu!(O­slavia and Egypt opposing the majority of the member nations of thC' United Nations, including the eighteen principal world powers which objected to nationalization of thC' SuC'z Canal. E ven the casual observer on the world scene begins to view the Suez problem as only one furunculous ma11ifC'statio11 of the encompassing malignancy of hate, oppression, and tyranny. It is obvious that Communist gangsters would corrupl the whole world by propagating this particular brand of "peace." Before these words are printC'd, the smoldering fires of another tension area in the Middle East may have burst into a holocaust of war between Israel and the Arab countries. In such eventuality, is there any doubt that the remainder of the world would not also become em broi led in the conflict? Many quasi-informed persons state that we are in no great danger of war; that Russia does not want an atomic war any more than does the United States. That brings one to consider the definition of war! Francis E. Walter, Chairman of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, states in his foreword to "Soviet Total War," the latest Symposium pub­lished by his Committee, that "Truly, the Russian masters and their fanatical followers are engaged in a total war - that is, in a war on every plane and in every sphere of activity." Congressman \Valter further states that the more than l!W contributors to the Symposium, all wPll-known au thorities on the phase of the subject on which they have written, agrN' in their conviction that the Communist thrl'at is clearly the !(reatest danger the free world has ever had to face. Ik writes, "They unmask its deceits and subterfuges - its relentless psy­chological, political, economic, sociological, and military strate­gi<' S. Like all reasonable people, tlwse contributors do not desire war, but only a lasting peace. On the other hand, they are fully aware that, in hoping for peace, we cannot permit our­selves to be frozen into extinction as free men ... either we prC'vcnt the achievement of communism's 'historic mission' - or we perish." S ubsequcnt issues of Facts Forum News will bring to itS readers some of the outstanding articles comprising the above· mentioned Symposium, just as a number of articles were pre­sented in past issues from the Committe<•'s prl'vious Symposiurll <·ntitled "The Great Pretense," in which thirty-nine experts found that the program outlined at the 20th Communist Con­gr<• ss constituted the greatest menace in the <•ntire history of the world Communist movement. As we come to another Christmas season, with a situation of t<•nsion, fc•ar, and anxiety throughout the world, who would dC'ny that the age-long symbol of tranquillity, the Dove of Peace, has a broken wing and can no longer soar in unhampC'red flight through cloudless skies of prospC'rity and good wiJI among men? FACTS Fonu,1 ' Ews, Drccml>cr, 1956 \Ve k•aders, eircums1 Will day of our fevfor hani pursuit Petr wrote, ambitio bani she Six penned merate( in tech areas o Em nothinp But,, about I a com1 insure Thi ninete light 01 fate by any of or sin that w Thi Sible ti efforts god Jes: of the that til Comm the Ire is app IVorJd. IV hen fled SI ll'lunisl Ev fled ( thougl of tha fact, I freed. holdin ChiJdr1 and tc Of the In nists, sh in WI t/i ember • c\Ol'S rs~, or In an~ \con •ith al ·Id art Yugo­nations "·orld Canal. ~ins to .~statio11 n, and corrupt and of fires of t into a ries. In r of the t? 10 great war any consider of the 1 in his 1m pub­: ters and hat is, in han J:lO 1rities on agrC't' in arly thC' e \vritcs. llcss psy­ry strate- 10t desire they are rmit our­~ ither \\·<' nission' ng to its he above· were prr­~ mposiurfl 1c experts mist Cow history of ituatioo of 1]10 would Dove of 1hampC'rccl good will \Ve arc forced to ask not onh our temporal and spiritual leaders, but ourselves as "ell - . "hat is responsible for this circumstance? \\'hat is the answer? \Vith the Christian world preparing to cel<·brate the birth­day of the Prince of Peace, might it not be well for us to calm our fevered s<'asonal activity and think quiC'tly about our hope for hannony - to search out the reason for the world's endlcss pursuit of peace and "hy it forcn•r <•scape's our gr.1sp? Petrarch, the great Italian pol't of the fourteenth century wrote, "Five gr<'al encmiC's to pC'acC' inhabit with us: avarice, ambition, envy, angC'r, and prick. If those enemies were to be banished, W<' should infallibly C'njoy pC'rpetual peace." Six centuries have passl'd since the great philosopher penned those lines. and lhC' c·n<•mies to peace which he enu­merated are still with us. Has, tlH'n, all of man's progress been in technological and sci<'ntific fil'lds? Jlave "·e failed in those areas of human lifl' which matt<•r most? Emerson said, ''"iothing can bring you peacC' but yourself; nothing can bring you pC'aC<' but tlH' triumph of principles." B ut, one protests, these are gC'n<•ralities. How does one go about banishing, on a national or international lPvcl - even on a community or personal lcvC'I, tllC' "C'nemic•s of peace" and insure the triumph of right principll's? The words of anolhC'r grl'al st udenl of social problems, the nineteenth-century English \\Til<'r john Huskin, shed a little light on tll<' subject. ITC' slated, "'\To peaec was ever won from fate by subl<'rfugt• or agreenlC'nt; 110 peace is ever in store for any of us but that "hich wC' shall win by victory over shame or sin - victory ovC'r the sin that oppress<'s, as well as ov<'r that which cor;upts." Tlwse are indeed sobt•ri11g and rc•vealing words. Is it pos­sible that our prcsC'nl troubl<-s ma~ bC' du<' in larg<' pmt lo our efforts at conciliation and agrN'm<•nl with the evil force's of godless communism, bC'ginning with our diplomatic recognition of the Soviet r<•gimC' in Novemb<'r, HJ33. and continuing since that time? Starting with the swe<•ping conc<•ssions made to the Communists at the T!'llt'ran, Yalta, and Potsdam conferences, the Iron Curtain h,ts now closed ovC'r 900 million people, which is approximately thrt'<'-<'ighths of tllC' total population of the world. Our tks<•rtion of the caus!' of fr<'edom in China, alone, when we ,1bandoncd Chiang Kai-shck to th<' onslaught of the Red scourge, brought 600 millions of Chincse into the Com­lllunist orbit. Even as late as the Geneva Co11f<·n•nt·e the Kremlin and Red China still dC'cC'ived the world "ith fa ls(' promises. Al­though thC'rc arc widely difkring opinions as .to the success of that Conference, it is not a matter of op1111on, but a sad fact that all Amcric<tn prison!'rs of war have not yet been freed. GC'neral \'an Fleet has slal<'<l that tllC' Communists are holding 100 men of all sPr\'icC's. \lotlwrs, fathC'rs, .wives, and children of these prisonC'rs co11ti1111<' to suff Pr agonies of gnef and to plC'ad in vain for our go\'!'n111a•11l to obtain the release of their loved ones. In viewing the advance' and th!' dl'ceptim1 of the Commu-nists one is reminded of the proph<'<"Y of lsamh: ' Their feet run to <'ril, and theu make haste to shed innocent blood: tlicir t/w11ghls are tlw11ghts of iniquitu· wasting and d<'slrnction are in tl1l'ir paths. The wau of ;ieace theu knoic nol; and lhrre is 110 iudgment in their goings: thcu hare made them crooked vaths: F'Acrs Fonu:-.1 l\'LWS, Dece111hcr. 19.56 whosoever goeth therein shall not know 11eace (Isah1h 59:7). Has tlw United States been inveigled into those paths of which th<' ancient prophet warned? Have we unwittingly, and through the betrayal of our country by both convicted and unapprehPntkd traitors, not only failed in the past to stop the Communist advance but, in many instances, have we not inckcd fill!'d tilt' role which ~farxians designed for us while boasting that capitalism would destroy itself? W e arc prone to accept precious liberties won b} our for­bt• ars al grmt sacrifice and suffering, civic privil<'g<'s procured through Jong weary hours of unselfish service, cultural gains mack slow!} through the centuries, a spiritual inheritance from God-fC'aring men and women who fC'lt keenly their obligations to humanity - all these benefits we t,1kc for grantC'd, as if thC'y had droppC'd into our lives quite by accident and had cost nothing. It is impC'raliv!' that we do not accC'pt our wondC'rful legacy with msual unconcC'rn. Our endo"·ments have bC'en bought with sacrificial toil and privation, with suffC'ring, tt'ars, and blood, and the only \\'ay we can repay the counllC'ss men and women who ll'fl us our heritage is to guard it closC'ly, lo value it s11prC'nwly, ancl, if need be, to d!'fend it with our very lives. Words and fC'elings of gratitude are not enough. The patriots who prcc·<'ckd us started many entcrpriscs they could not finish. ThC'y cxpt'ded us to carry on. The ground was cleared, the foundations poured, the plans completed for a ])('auliful build­ing of fr<•1•dom and peace. Now the previous builders are gone and if thC' magnificent edifice is to be C'rectC'd, \\C' must do it. \\'e should accC'pl this task hrawly, C'\'!'n glad!~. saying with H11pC'rl Brooke, "Now God be thankC'd \\'ho hath matched us with His hour." To repair the broken wing of the Dove of Peace, we must follow the directions of th<' Great Physician. God, by His very nalurC' of love and mC'rcy, desires pcact' for all mankind and is anxious lo provide all the good we crave. But as every privi­i<' g<' in lif<' carri!'s a corresponding responsibility, peace also earriC's its prit·<'. This price is not appc•tst'm!'nt or compromise with evil. Ile, at Whose birth the heavenly host sang, "Glory to God in thC' high!'sl, and on earth pcact', good \\'ill toward men" (Lukc 2: 14) said, "I mmc not to send pC'acC', but a sword" (1\1att. l0:3-I). Ile would thus havC' us cut oursdvC's asunder from thC' force's of darknC'ss, and Ile has provided a positive guidC' for our attainment of peace. W e m11st of necessity start on the lcv<'l of our pt'rsonal rela­tionships. Do w<' show Jove, sympathy, and understanding to nwmhC'rs of our familiC's, to associates in business, to the strangers whosC' livC's touch ours briefly? Do we strive con­stantly lo be constructive; to help instrnd of hinder; to build rather than dt'slroy? Do \\C carry Christ-like attitucks of forgive­n1• ss and optimism out, beyond our inn<'r circlt>, into the con­duct of C'ommunitv and state affairs? Ar<' \\'e able to sec even bt'vond tlH' bounciaril's of our O\\'n land and cxll'ncl positive as~islancC' lo s11ffC'ring people's every" here? Onlv wlwn \\'C' have clC'ansC'd the inside of the cup, put our own h1ius!' in orciC'r, and refused lo counlC'nanc<' the godless forces masquC'rading in Heel robes of pC'acC'ful conquest, will th<' hrokC'n \\·ing of t lw dove be healed. God recognized our human frailti<'s and provickd us \\'ilh the ncC'ckd help. Our part is to acc!'pt llis gift. For unlo 11s a child is l1om, unto 11s a son is given: and thi' gocemment shall be upon l1is shoulder: and his 1iame shall be called \Vonderful, Counsellor, the 111ig/1tu God, th<' ecer/asling Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increasi' af his government and peace there shall be 110 end (Isaiah 9:6). Eso Page 3 }- The author (at right) is president of the Institute of Foreign Trade. A native of Russia, he came to this country before World War I, and has since visited his homeland many times on behalf of leading American corporations. His past experience with the U. S. Immigration Service, the FBI, and the U. S. Department of Commerce, further serve to qualify him as an authority on the menace of communism. Mr. Marcus helped establish the American Friends of Russian Freedom, which has set up five rehabilitation centers for Soviet escapees in Western Europe. The AFRF refugee center at Kaiserslautern, West Germany, is shown above. OVER the years I have covered a great deal of territory trying to tell the storv of the Soviet godless force out to . destroy every­thing Christians and Jews stand for, against cvcn:thing the Founding Fath­ers of this 'country fought and died for. Among the masses I have always found a keen interest, an eagerness to do something to help end the Stalinist nightmare. Everywhere people have been ask­ing me: "What should I, as an i~di­vidual, do to help in the fight against the Communist evil?" In all my articles and speeches I have made it a point to make specific recommenda­tions how to fight that enemy. But I Page 4 have been feeding water into a sieve. All my warnings and recommenda­tions have been soon forgotten. Why? Because since Stalinism began its unholy march for world conquest, there has not come forward a single man of leadership stature to give all his time, all his energy, and all his life to lead the cmsade against the bar­barians. Let me give you an example. Some time ago I sp1ike before mem­bers of the Hitchcock Memorial Church in Scarsdale, 'cw York. A few months ago I was asked to speak there again. I agreed on condition that they would have in the audience ten lead­ing industrial and financial executives residents of \Vcstchcst<•r County. The; thought my request very modest; they were sure they could have twen ty 01 thirty. . g About a week before the meeur was to take place I received a tee; phone message that they could no m. d uce one of them to come beca' use 1 e it was the last football game of t 1 season. , of This is indicative of the tragcd) our time. They who have mos t '·e1t stake in the prcs<•nt emergency care the least. We arc pleasure drunk, ~~ are too much steeped in our . pe to pastimes to sec what is happening f r us. We don't want to find out why, 0JJ example, our taxes arc bordering do confiscation, why our boys must FAcrs Font '1 '1:ws, Dccrml1cr, 1956 Views Histori of the in ta use. The lca1 lllen of Goe and denorr kind's comn ibility int entinels of gainst the a moral on remarked i September reign, then Vive. Ther~ between ( Solingen, Wes Freedom Hou! the American <iols of the W Gt.ithorities one Present al th< ''ed to Russia ating in Germ the Ruman < ~ept rcpeotin! Postwar Russic of the F reedon of the escope1 ~nder the Sta '" revolt. If t 0PP<>rtun1ty ta Soviet n1ghtm1 they y or ~tin!( tek· not ausc the 1~ of ,t at care 1956 Views conflicting with o portion of this article ore expressed in "An Historic Precedent" on page 8, which includes excerpts from the report of the churchmen's delegation to Russia. garrison dntv all over the world after victorious -war; we do not care to find out who the real culprit is. The time for action, vigorous, com­ageous, persistent, and consistent ac­tion, is far too long overdue. There must come fonvard the crusading nucleus of men which will swell in numbers until millions of us arc en­rolled in the service of freedom's cause. The leadership must come from men of Goel, from men of all religions and denominations united for man­kincl's common good. It is their respon­ibility in the first place. They are the entim•ls of morality, and the struggle against the Soviet menace is primarily a moral one. As Dr. Daniel A. Poling remarked in his radio broadcast on September 18, 195.5: "If Christ shall reign, then communism cannot sur­vive. There is and can be no affinity between Christianity and atheistic Solingen, West Germany. The latest American treedom House, established early this year by the American Friends of Russian Freedom. Offi­cials of the West Germon government, American authorities and representatives of the AFRF were P_tesent at the opening. The speeches were cor­t1ed to Russia by the various radio stations opcr­Gt1ng in Germany. "This is friendship in action," the Russian escapees from Communi!t tyranny ~ept repeating during the exercises. Postwar Russian escapees in the lounging room of the Freedom House in Solingen. Note the you th of the escapees - all of them born and reared ~•der the Stalin regime. The youth of Russia is '" revolt. If the free world would only toke the 0Pp0rtun1ty to exploit this, the existence of the Soviet nightmare might be shortened. I<' >.crs Fom' 'I '\1:ws, December, 1956 communism. Between tllC'se two there is an impassable gulf. One or the other must give and go." \Ve have witnessed the murder and cnsl:n·ement of millions of men, wom­C'n, and children; we h<wc known for years that the Stalinists had murdered tens of thousands of men of God like yourscll'es, and "hat have we dmw about it? \Vhat meetings have been hrld in these United States to prott•st against the outrages? \Vhat protest marches have been recorded since the man-made hurricane was let loose by Lc'nin and his cohorts on NO\·cmher 7, 1917? l\'o one could h·uthfullv claim lack of information about the -true state of affairs behind the Iron Curtain. \\'e have had hundrrds of thousands of rscapees in the free world, the li,ing witnesses of the Soviet infc•rno, and wr have made Vt'!'\. little use of their kno'' ledge to lay hare the story "hich we must know for our own good. From the very inception Lenin, the arch-conspirator for world enslave­ment, had reminded us time and time again: "\\'c ha\'e never concealed the fact that our revolution is only the be­ginning, that it will lead to a victorious ending only then when we shall have inflamed the whole world with its revolutionarv fires." Those pro'nouncemcnts once sound­ed like the ravings of a madman. o one took them seriously. But look what has happened in .the interim! One third of the human race under the bloody rule of the enemy; the earth drenched with the blood of mil­lions of men and women resisting ensla\'ement; the Siberian hmdras fer­tilized with the bones of Christian victims. Our Diplomatic Bedfellows The enemy is cunning, determined. IIe "·orks day and night against us. A talinist anvwhe1·e in the world is read} to give i1is lift' at the drop of a hat if the Communist Partv so orders. Arc we as zealous about defending our heritage? An\'one who entertains the illusion that ~oexistcnce with e' il Stalinism is possible or desirable is not intc'lligent enough to know what is good for his countr\' or himself. \\'e lrn,·e had co­existen" ce with the enemy since '\on'mber, 19:3.'3, "hen we became diplomatic bedfellows with him. Has it imprO\·ed our n•lations with the Kremlin gangstt>rs? On the contrary, they have worsened. l ~ 1933 the So,·iets \\WC economi­cally and industrially impotent. \Vith our recognition came world-wide pres­tige. That was "hat the Communists wanted more than anything else. It opened to them unlimited opporhmi­ties all O\'er the world, for many gov- ernments followed our example and extended recognition to the same power. "' e failed to realize that whenever the enemy wants anything badly, and he certainly wanted recognition very badly just as the Chinese bandits now \\·ant it, it is proof that it is going to benefit him at our expense. Our coun­trv became the hunting ground of m«my thousands of So,·iet spying com­missions, spying on our industries, lab­oratories, stealing our priceless tech­nology acquired at great cost in labor and monev. Our saies to the Soviets achially dropped after recognition. The Krem­lin had gotten what it wanted, and we learned that all the talk about orders running into the billions was only a bait to get us into the trap. A little country like Cuba has been buying from us manv times the amount we ever shipped to Russia, cxccp't for the war years when we gave away our substance to help rescue Stalin and his gangsters from annihilation by Ger­many and the Russian peoples. We Betray Our Allies All this has helped the enemy to tighten the noose around the necks of his enslaved peoples - our only allies in the world. Khrushchev's goal is the same as Stalin's ever was. Khrush­chev's crocodile tears at the 20th on­grcss of the Communist Party last Fehruarv, shed over the fact that even lw and his immediate associates never knew if they would come out alive from a conference with Stalin, were cksigned to deceive the Russian peo­ples, to deceive the gullible free world. He and Bulganin and l\likoyan and .\lolotov and the rest of the camarilla were Stalin's closest satrnps. They made Stalin's purges and sadistic actions possible. And now that their master is dead they must continue the same tyranny or he torn to tatters by their outraged peoples. Permit me to ask you, is it in our interest to hobnob with such sadists? Is it moral to sit with them at the con­ference table, knowing in advance that the\ will never ahidr by their spoken or ~\'rittcn \\'Ord? \ Vhat have we ever accomplished by conferring with thrm in the past? And since our trading with them, exchanging industrial, scientific, and educational delegations can only henrfit tbe enemy, is it not stupid of us to participate in such exchanges? I can assure you that had we asked the Russian peoples, had the President Page 6 of the United States consulted some of the thousands of Russian escapees in our midst and in Europe before going to Geneva last summer, they would have begged him not to grace the Soviet savages with his presence; they would have pleaded with him not to trade with them, not to permit a single Soviet mission to set foot on American soil, not to exchange scien­tific information of any sort. They would have urged him to chase the Soviet Embassy spy nest out of this countrv; to drive the Soviet saboteurs out of the United 'ations, or ourselves get out of there. The Geneva Conference, a fiasco for us, has worked out just as Khrnshchev has planned it. The delegation-ex­change epidemic, a by-product of the Geneva Conference, has been running riot ever since. Although Molotov tor­pedoed the so-called "Geneva spirit," his wishes arc being fulfilled to the limit. He had askc•d for "mutual ex­change of delegations and reciprocal visits of representatives of industry, agriculhirc, and trade for the purpose of exchanging experience' and learning of the achicvcmC'nts of rC'spC'ctive countries in these fields .... " Why not? Our delegations have nothing to learn from such visits. If thev have anything worth while for us,· they will nevC'r let us see or find out about it. Most of the receptions are staged for foreigners in order to brainwash and induce them to brain­wash their home folks. The full story of how this is being staged has never been told. Too many of our officials have been intimidated. For example: An article of mine on how the Soviets are stealing our industrial secrets was first accepted for publication by a leading iournal and then refused be­cause, as one of the eel i tors told me later, "we have been advised by the State Department not to needle the Russians." It is possible that my article giving the facts how the Soviets arc brain· washing foreign visitors to give them false impressions of conditions in Rus­sia was refused by leading journals because of fear that it might spoil the honeymoon with communism ushered in by the "Geneva Spirit." But is it not strange that while we tremble in our shoes about what the Kremlin might say or do, the enemY seems to have no fear of us and has been ncC'dling us not with a pin or ;i needle hut with bullets - by shootin!Z down our unarmed planes, blackening our reputation all over the world, rC'j fusing to return hundrC'ds of our nav•1 ships lent to them for the prosecution of a war which ended eleven years ago? . I oftC'n wonder if we are still justi· fled in calling this "the home of the brave." It is still the land of the free. thank God. But how long can it re· main so if wr losC' our courage to fight for the cause of freedom and justice and mercy and the dignity of man? . What is thC' true reason for th1 ~ sorry state? Ignorance, of course. Ignorance' begets fear, and fear begets cowardice. Can men of God afford to permit In 1953 the American Friends af Russian Freedom were able to start Christmas parties in the_ir Freedom Houses for Christians who had never been permitted to hove a Christmas celebration il'I the land of communism. The people behind the Iron Curtain know about these festivities from th• broadcasts by the Voice of America. FACTS Fon :11 this ignorar too late to tnow what csounding \Vhen WC tor. \ \' e kn< our roof is 1ng is out o a honw is t \\ho know art. Howe~ bright idea thurchmen did not go to determit ProjC'ct. Cp Februan 2 ·xchang~. I son BlakC', sion: "You arc trt'e church \\ho iiwitc'< own [r{'P \\ ordC'r of the out to dt'sti Cod, and ' h<'arts in A nee• in Hu Ind comfo1 lt(•edom a ·hurchmen ·very thing to or face ,imc is tr) 1eligious 01 Pc•ople hen to g;ive th rec thPrc' ing to cl Vcrywhen 4 Warnin1 "If you r 1tc to. the I ausC' of hold a m1 l\lho)(' WOI nussia on] has been d \!;hen there 1f religion nitc•d St• Pie of Ru 'heir strug 1his warni lain that ! to the enc erving th I offc•re1 his associ~ 1hcr on ti· 11oseow. Dr. Bia] nd allc•g 1ple: vie ts ,vas )V a ·be- ! me ' thr I thr iving rain# them Rus­rnals I the 1errcl ewe t the nem) 'I h:1s or :1 oting ning ·l re· ;,;1val 1ution years justi- 1f th<' [rec. it re· I fight ustice n? r this urse! )cgets >crrnit in th eir otion i" rom th• this ignorance to continue until it is too late to remedy the situation? I know what vour answer will be: a esounding ·o! \Vhen we are sick, we go to a doc­tor. \Vr know to whom to turn when our roof is leaking, when our plumb­ing is out of order, whrn a bridge or a home is to hr built. \Ve go to those ·~·ho know best thrir b·adc or their art. However, when som<•one got the bright idea of sending a delegation of ·hurchmen to Hussia, they apparent]~ did not go to m n of my background to clctcnnim• the mh isahilitv of the Project. pon reading in the· press on Febrnar} 2, 19.56, about the projected ·~change, I wrote to Dr. Eugene Car­on Blake, who was to lead the mis­ion: ''You arc not dealing in Hussia with rec churchmen like yourselves. Thos<• ~·ho im ite•d vou did ·not do so of their "\\Tn free• wiil. They have done so by 1rder of the tyrannical, godless regime out to de•stroy all religions, all men of Goel, and all else that is dear to our hearts in \merica .... Your very pres­ ·nce in Hussia will he rendering aid •nd comfort to thr bitterest encmv of fre<•dom and n•ligion. Thr Hus~ian t·hurchmcn will lie to y011 about 'l'crything in Hussia. They will have to or face liquidation. The Soviet rc­irne is trying to use you and other rc•ligious organizations to confuse our lll'ople here, to enhance their prestige, o give the impression that religion is 1tee then• but at the same time plot­ting to destroy religious institutions ~1·crywherc. 4 Warning Goes Unheeded "If you really wish to render a sen•­cc to the people of Hussia and to tlw ause of fre<•dom, you should now ~old a meeting and declare to the 11-ho]p world that you will come to ~llssia only when the So\'ict regime ~as lwe•n destroyed by its own people, ~hen there is the same sort of freedom 1f religion in Hussia as we• have in the nited States. You will give the pco- ~lc of Hussia inspiration to carry on 1heir struggle until freedom is won. If 1his warning is not hC'<•ded , I am cer­tain that some clay you "ill rcgrC't it to the end of your clays. You will he ''!Ying th<' cause of Satan .... " I offered to sit clown with him and his associatt'S and enlighten them fur­her on the inadvisability of going to \ foscow. I received a brief reply. Dr. Blake wrote: "Despite the facts l11d alkgations, it is the considered ):' "'CTS Fonu:'\r EWS, Drrrmbcr, 1956 Dr. Eugene Carson Blake (second from left ) during his visit ta Moscow with the group of American clergymen, discusses theology with Russian Orthodox pries ts. opinion of Christian churchmen that we ought to have conversations with othC'rs who profess to follow Jesus Christ." If that was all Dr. Blake wantC'd, then• arc plent)' of Hussian churchmen right here in th<' nited States. For the good of America and all Christian churches he \rnuld have been well aeh ise•d to confer first" ith the Hussian Orthodo' churchnwn here'. I can as­sure you that he would have heard from them the same sentiments ex­pre• ssed in my letter of February 5, W'56. \ly counsel, given in good faith, and on the basis of a lifr-long study of the SO\ it't menace with manv vears spent there in the service of ic<~ding American industrial firms, \\·as ig­nored, of course. \\'e ll, the deputation headC'd hv Dr. Blake• has returned safeh to· tlw United States. They calk;l it "a distinct succ<'ss." T. too, considC'r it a distinct success - hut not for A mcriea, and not for the Christian church. Even Russian Churchmen Endangered Tt was a distinct success for the clever SoviC't propaganda machine which staged it, which now has rc­c ·ordings of the com·ersations lwld and the answers given by tlw Hussian churchmen, to he lwld against them some day, to he used in calling them "agents of the impt•rialist Americans, spies and ag<'nts of \ Vall Sb·cet," as tlwv ha,·c clone in innumerable in­sta1; ccs in the rccC'nt past. The SO\ iC't n•gime did not invite American churchmc•n lo promote the welfare of religion in Hussia. They know what they arc doing, even if some of our churchmen arc naive enough to think otherwise. The nine churchmen's statement de­clared, "There is ohviouslv a funda­mental difference hctwcc~ the con­cept of the mission of the church as we found it in the SoviC't nion today and that which we hold in our churches." I sav that the only differ­ence lies in the. fact that here. no gov­ernment can tell the Church what its mission should he, whereas in the SoYict Union it must toe the Commu­nist line. how to the wishes of the Kremlin gangsters or face liquidation as did their colleagues by the thou­sands. 'Peace' Where There Is No Peace In one instance the delegation, I am happy to record, showed good com­mon se•nsc whC'n they wrote: "How­ever, the statements of the church leaders were almost unifonnlv identi­cal in making vague aripcals. for 'the defense of peace' without taking into consideration the realities of the world situation or the facts of history." The reason, however, must be sought in the ab11osphcre in which our church members spoke to their col­leagues in Hussia. Those poor souls were in a trap, under the threat of death if the) failed to parrot the Party line laid do\\11 for them by the regime. The Hussian churchmen know bet­ter than we who is threatening the peace of the "oriel, "ho is instigating wars in all parts of the world. And any time they come to 'isit here they (Co11ti1111cd 011 page 49) Page 7 An Historic Precedent is the term u sed by the late Dr. Walter W. Van Kirk, of the National Council of Church es, to describe the visit of the American churchmen to the Soviet Union. The nine clergymen compri ing this deputa tion are pictured on the oppo ite page. WJDt. WOIU.n PHOTO American Protestant church leaders stand with two Russian clergymen in front of a massive crocked bell, which fell from a tower within the Kremlin. I ' Jt '\E, 1955, the governing gen­eral board of the ational Council of Churches voted that a widely representative group of American church leaders should visit Hussia. Primarily. the purpose of the visit was to manifest a spiritual fellowship, to increase the mutual understanding between the peoples of the two coun­tries. and to exchange ideas regarding the work of churches. After having planned their visit almost a \·ear in advance, a nine-man deputatio~ of American church lead­ers flew to ;\loscow in ;\ larch of this year for a ten-day visit. En route they made a stop at Prague, where they were guests of Czech Prot(•stant and Eastern Orthodox church leaders. \\'hen the American churchmen reached \loscow, ;\lctropolitan '\ico­lai, in behalf of Patriarch i\lexei, of the Hussian Orthodox Church, met them at the airport. ~lost of the talks were held at the home of the Patriarch, where the _\mericans met Hussian and Armenian Orthodox churchmen, Hus­sian Baptists, and Lutherans from the Baltic States. The deputation was able to make onh h' o side e'cursions. The\ 'isited tlH: Orthodox religious c~nter at Zagorsk, where they met priests in training. and also visited youth centers Page 8 and the Cathedral of St. 1 icholas in Leningrad. After their return to the United States, the churchmen made' a joint statement in which they describt'd their visit to Hussia as "profitable." Their complete statement is reprinted on the following pages, prt'ct'ded by a portion of their publislwcl report entitled •• 11 American Churchmen Visit the Soviet Union" Excerpts of this report follow: 0 The first of the formal convt'rsations opened in the 100-year-old Patriarch­ate, Tuesday, ;\larch 10, at noon as the nine American churchmen sat down at a round-table with \letrnpolitan '\!'ico­lai and interpreters. \letropolitan Xicolai, who directs the foreign affairs of the Hussian Orthodox Church, chose to represent alone the Orthodox Church in the initial session lasting two hours. The conversations were continued thereafter on five dilicrent occasions at the Patriarchate and the "-lonastery at Zagorsk. All of the discussion items suggested in advance by the 'ational Council's deputation had b('cn accept­ed by the Hussian churchmen. It was agreed that ~lctropolitan Nicolai would chair the first meeting, anc: thereafter the chairmanship alternatcc between the two delegations. [A c~n~­pletc list of religious leaders part1C'j pating in conversations was includrc in th(' original report, hut have been delct('d here to conserve space.] At the outset of the conversations Dr. Blake made a general introductoi:1 statement on behalf of the Natio11' 1r Council's d('putation. In the course i° his r('marks Dr. Blake referred to tie action of the General Board in in· structing its deputation "to extend 011£ greetings in Christ to the leaders 0 the churche.s. in the USSH and It oc assure them of our r)ra)'ers that t 1 God of righteousness will lcacl thl' people of the United States ancI thl.'. Soviet Union into the paths of pe;1cC· Dr. Blake stressed the church-t1 '.· church charact('r of the dcputa t ~· on .s 1 mission. "Our mission to you 15 '.1 church mission,'' he said. "It is not ·1 subsidiary supplement to nati0 11 ' 1 diplomacy. \Ve comt• without an)' in­structions from our government'. · · ,; We arc here as churchmen with. t dedicated loyalty to the risen Chns · 0Tlw C'Ompletc rtport on lhc nin<'-111 ;1 ~ deputation to Hnssia can b1• obtained fr<11 1 the Office· of Publication and Distrih~1t1°\; National Council of Churches, 297 J• or,ri, Ave., 'iw York LO, N. Y. Sing!!' copy 1 · C'(·nts. FACTS Fonu'r "\Jo:ws, DC'cC'm/Jrr, J9.56 In ' J. ) ovl the of tl ar t i~ It is in t: gospel, an upon th nations ti conversati ~ktrop similar v1 pleased ' and woul Russian c "We spt'< "basing 1 grounds. I ical instn conn·rsat1 between 1 The State On this iai spoke "In 191 from the~ of a Ill'\\' Church \\ not in h" The acth crampl'd I Church ; Chrhtian .1ffairs of I .1ffairs of free• of ' State" 01 tional act contrihul Church i~ He!igio11 i C11rric11llll " II O\\, rc:ligious ~ncl i11 th< c11ssions " day altC'n t>art of ti Sunday c• c11ssio11s Church. t>riests to religious 'TheC or orpha11 f'Ac-rs Fo n. g, ;111d ~rna tcd A con1- partici- 1cludrd c brrn l ·sations ~uctOJ) 'Htionnl ursc of to the in in· •nd our ders of .ind to mt thr ad thC nd th'.'. peace· ·ch-to­tation" s .1 is '1 ; not ;1 1tion•11 .1n)' in­it. ... with ;I Christ· In "WHAT RELIGION CAN Do TO DEFEAT co,DTLNI!:>'.\l." J. Anthony Marcus, noted authority on Russia and the oviet Communist menace, raises grave questions concerning the over-all results of "exchange visits" between the peoples of the United States and the Soviet Republic. Don't miss his article on page 4 of this i ue. It is in the context of the Christian gospel, and the bearing of that gospel upon the conduct of men and of nations that we embark upon these conversations." Metropolitan icolai responded in a similar vein. He said he was quite pleased with Dr. Blake's statement and would sec to it that each of the Russian conferees was given a cop). "\Ve sp('ak as Christians," lw said, "basin!!; our opinions on Christian grounds. If you arc here without polit­ical instructions, so also arc we. Our conversations will forge closer tics hchn'cn us." the State of the Churches On this question \Ictropolitan Nico­iai spokl' as follows: '"In l91S the Church was separated from till' State. This was the beginning of a Ill'\\ epoch. Up to that time the Church was connected with the State, not in hannonv, hut in disharmonv. The •tctn ities ·of tlw Church wc;·c cramped thl•reh). For us separation of Church and State means that the Christian Church does not mix in tlw nlfairs of the State, nor the State in the affairs of the Chureh. The Church is free of anv financial aid from the State. Our· churches and our devo­tional activities arc paid for by the contributions of the faithful. The Church is separated from the school. neligion is not a subject in the school t11rriculum. "IIO\\, then, do children recc'i\C teligious instruction? ln tlwir homes, and in the churches where special dis­c11ssions arc held, particularly on Sun­day alternoons. Preaching is a regular Part of the Orthodox serdcc, hut on S11nday evenings there arc special dis­~ llssions on the meaning of the Church. lkliedng parents can invite Pric•sts to their homes in order to gi,·e teligious instruction to children. '"The Church has no care of invalids Or orphans or the aged. The State docs FMTs Fo11L\I Xnvs, December, 1956 this. " 'c do have, howc\'er, a special dC'partmcnt to care for aged priests and for widows of priests. '"\Ve have theological schools. ThC'rC arc eight seminaries for priests in towns and villages, and two academics comparable to your theological col­leges and uni\"C'rsitics. Candidates for studv in the theological schools come aftc1: compll'ti ng the SC'c1ila1· schools. The secular schools h;n c both believ­ers and unbcliC'vcrs. Those "ho enter the theological schools arc bclie\'crs, The number of applicants C'\Cl'ells the places a\ ailablc. The tlwological schools prepare pril'Sts. The academics prepare theologians and teachers, and engage in theological research. "On the matter of relations to the State, the gm crnment has created two Councils, one on the aITairs of the Hussian Orthodm; Church, the other to deal with all other n•ligious bodies. Both of these Councils arc under the Council of \I inistl'rs of the• C'SSH. Tlwrc arc no clerg\ on these Councils. The) prm ide th~ means for inter­course bcl\n•en the Church and the Stale. For example, if a chureh re­quires material for new construction or repairs, the Council arranges for the proc1m•mcnt of the material at State prices. "The Hussian Orthodcr\ Church has about 20,000 parishes, 35,000 priests, 69 monasteries (including conwnts for women ). The principk' applying in the monstcrics is 'ora d lahora' - prayer and \\·ork. The nuns make cm­broidcn for H'stmcnts and other items for tlw . church. "The Hussian Orthodo\ Church has a certain number of churches abroad, Then' is tlw Exarchatc in l\orth _\mer­ica with about twenty parishes. In \\'cstc1rn Europe there an• churches undC'r the Patriarchate in France, England, Holland, Finland, and elsc­w hcre. There arc also Hussian churches in China. "The Patriarchate has fiyc dcpart­( Continucd on page 36, The late Rev Dr. Wal· r\ ter W Van Kirk, Mount l,I Vernon, N. Y., Execu_ tive Director, Depart­ment of Internal Af­fairs, National Council of Churches. Rev. Dr. Franklin Clark r\. Fry, New Rochelle,l/ N. Y ., President of the United Lutheran Church of America. Rt. Rev. Henry Knoxr\_ Sherrill, Greenwich , l/ Conn., presiding Bish­op, ProtHtant Episco­pa I Church (former President of the Na­tion o 1 Council of Churches). l'1 Charles Coolidge Par• \J lin, Englewood, N. J., Methodist layman. μ, lt R flo1r ll"Ould you feel if you u-ere told that your generation 1rns the ll'orst erer? - going to the dogs? Can youth's highest potential be reached if a " lw n gdog" air is ins ti lletl? Well - ph ysician , l1 eal thy­self! According to an old English prorerb, " }'outh and ll'liite flllper take a ny i m Jlression." The YWCA in Wash­ington, D_ C., is the locale for this gath­ering of page boys and their dates. Here Page Bill Maddin of Pittston. Pa., and Happy O'Connor of Wash­ington disploy an intri­cate step while other pages and dates watch WIDE WORLn PllOTO Page 10 AE the adults of Anwrica prO\ id­ing the necessary examples of integrity and high principle for youth to follow? Do our schools allow needed challt>nge to accomplishment, teach the pridt> of our fort>hears? Do standards required of radio and tele­vision provide moral guidance, mini­mize C'xamples of degradation? Perhaps it is time to admit that to a large degree the morality or immoral­ity of our youth grows from the seeds we allow to he planted. Do you remember your grand­mother (or perhaps it may have b(•en your aunt) who used to insist to your mother - " 'ow, :\.lary, you're being too hard on the lad! Ile's a fine hov, and you're making him fr•el that he isn't!" Of course, such words weren't meant for you, hut, as little pitchers often will, you managed to hear them. It made you ft>el good, too, to see the lo\'c and pride in Grandmother's eye when she looked in your direction. "Be sure to take Bohhy with you!" she'd say to Uncle Bill when he planned a trip downtown. "\Ve wan~ e\"eryone to know he belongs to us! That gave a youngster something to live up to, all right! And through the years that have rollowed many of your best efforts have been made because of the inspiration of that warm light which news of your accomplishment would bring to the eyes of someone dear to you. nprcpossessing though you may he, it has meant a lot to know that someone special thinks you are handsome, and very, very smart. Hasn't that faith spurred you to greater heights than you might other­wise have reached? Grandmother would not agree that a whole should lw qu<'nts." "Ar<'n't dr n?" sh; been hrou L"nfortu such wor mother to "juvenile ' tended to of that SIT Youth wh< offense it all of 'th< Pranl..s of Juvenile 1 If Gra1 COrr('ct, n diildren :1 for crime been spre: \Var II, : With juvt'l of the hla J. Edg: F'BJ, isSU( Police ofl Criminal f11ture wi srnall unl< Pccted d iuvenile t "The c1 Youth pro blanws "t ll"lany pai rcsponsih children tio checl.. he says, i \Vi.th c estirnatc•d 011tlook I F' ACTS Fe 1 e the : eye J. fOUi" 1 he want us!" ng to i the your ;a use light ment eone ough ~t to ; you fllart. I tO ther-that a whole segment of youth today should lw classified as "juvenile delin­quents." "Aren't you being hard on the chil­dren?" she would ask. "They haven't been brought up properly!" Cnforlunately, there are not enough such wonderful people as Grancl­rnothcr to go around, for the term "juvenile delinquency" has stuck. In­tended to refer to the illegal actions of that small 4 per cent of America's Youth who have known arrest for any offense, it is too often associated with all or the charactt•ristically reckless Pranks of teen-age youth. Juvenile Crime Breaks All Records If Grandmother's evaluation was correct, more and more of America's children arc being improperly reared, for crime in the United States has bct•n spreading since the end of 'Vorlcl \Var I I, and is breaking all records, With juvenile criminals receiving most of the blame. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBJ, issues repeated warnings to local Police officials that the n11mher of Criminal offenses committed in the future will make present figures look small unless there is a large and uncx­Pcctecl downturn in the number of iuvenile delinquents. "The crime problem is essentially a l'outh problem," says :t-Ir. Hoover, who blames "the apathy and failure of too rnany parents to assume th ir proper responsibilities." \!any families allow children to run as they please, with llo check on their friends. The result, he says, is a "juvenile jungle." \\'ith crime costing the country an estimat<•d . 20 billion a vear, and the otitlook for more crim~ and higher FA<Ts Fo11u'1 'EwS, December, 1956 costs, indilfcrencc to the rising crime rate is detected in many communities. People arc not aroused to the problem. The cure will not come, savs :\Ir. JJoon•r, until the nation gets. its fill and decides something will have to he clone. Thefts of automobiles arc expected to reach nearly 269,000 this year. In six out of ten cases, arrest records prow that the thief is a youth under 18 years of age. These teen-age criminals also com­mit half the burglaries, more than 40 per cent of the larcenies, and a consid­erable number of the robberies that now clog police records. 1 \Ir. Hoover feels that juvenile crime could be abated if parents were made lo face legal and financial re­sponsibility for the criminal acts of their chi ldren. Ile endorses jail sen­tences for "delinquent parents." While this doctrine is strongly op­posed by most officials who specialize in work with delinquents, a Parental Hesponsibility Act put into effect in \lichigan in :t-Iay, 1953, has achieved significant improvements.2 :t-lichigan Senator Harold \[. Hyan, sponsor of the act, was prompted by tlw idea that if vandalism costs the parents money, they will take a keener inlt'l'cst in the whereabouts and activi­ties of their chiklrc11. This law holds parents financially responsible up to $.'300 for juvenile vandalism.a \Vhen parents suddenly realize that they will have to "pay the piper" for Production on full scale typifies this Junior Achievement Company Business firms from all over the nation sponsor JA componics in which the teen-agers receive a foretaste of the free enterprise system which is the backbone of America. the dcstructi\'Cness of their children, they are "forcibly encouraged" to in­terest themselves to a greater degree in the activities of their olfspring. A familv circle which lacks cohesion may find· itself strengthened and re­fined through this encourageml'nt, as the results in Michigan would indi­cate. Russian Family Life Purged .\t the same time that . \merica faces problems of juvenile delinqul'nc~·. its ideological enemy in the 1.':remlin is experiencing difficult~ in the training of youth. Hooligans and delinquents, according to reports in So' ict nc,,·s­papers arc multi pl~ ing in Hussian cities. Instead of devoting their lives to "building socialism," these youths are found to be living recklcssl~" According to one Soviet magazine: It is bad when a child !wars onl' thing at home and something l'ISl' in thl' school. Ilis teachers tell him that rain and snow are due to natural eaus<'S, and at honll' hl' is told they come from Goel. In school he hears that lightning is an eledrk dis­charge, and at honw lw is told that it is an arrow of fire sent clown by Cod. Khrushchev is said to have come to the conclusion that the trouble lies in "improper influence" in the home. Family life has offended - so family life is now to be purged. Children are to step directly from the cradle into (Co11lin11ed 011 page 46) 'U.S. _\'eu.·s & "'orltl Rnmrt, Oc:t. -5, J<-J):fi, Jl. 66. 2Seu:su..:e(·k, April 2, J 956, I>· ~n. 1" \tichiJ,i;an Put., It L'p To Tht· P.in·nh." hy 11.u­old \\"hitman, Reader's Dti.:t ~t, \1.uc:h, 19)6. Page 11 PRESIDEXT E1sExuowrn's statement in a September press eonfc•renee that when the courts call "prop­erly" on the Attorney-General in seg­regation troubles "he will assist in every way possible,'' formed the cen­tral point of discussion in a recent Reporters' Roundup interview of Attorney-General Herbert Brown­ell, Jr. Mr. Brownell, considered one of the .\dministration's key spokesmen, served as chairman of the Republican '\ational Committee from 1944 to 19-16. Born in ebraska in 1904, he was graduated from the University of '\ebraska in 1924, and from Yale Law School in 1927. Entering the practice of law following graduation, he was elected to the New York State Legisla­ture five times from 1932, et seq. The Attorne\-General is a member of the .\meric~n Bar Association and the bar associations of '.'\ew York State and the City of New York. Interviewing this prominent guest, under the moderation of Mr. Robert F. Hurleigh, veteran commentator of the :\lutual Broadcasting System, were Mr. Clark Mollenhoff of the Washington Bureau of I.oak magazine and Cowles newspapers, and :\fr. Arthur Sylvester of the Sctcark News. :\Ir. Sdvester, opening the question­ing, rt'f~rrcd to President Eisenhow- Page 12 The Honorable Herbert Brownell, Jr. ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES is asked ... • What is your responsibility in implementing the segre­gation decision? • Were Republican chances in the South hurt through briefs your office filed in support of desegregation? • Do you take the position that it is within the right of the Executive branch to classify anything it w ishes as confidential? er's press-conference statement that if and when the time comes when the segregation of any district court must be implemented, it would be more or less the responsibility of the Attorney­General, working with the U. S. mar­shals, and asked if Mr. Brownell would outline the procedure which would be followed. "\Veil, let me start this way, fr. Sylvester,'' replied Mr. Brownell: "At the present time we have one case in court in which the Department of J us­tice is appearing as 'friend of the court,' involving the action that was taken by the Hoxie, Arkansas, Board of Education, to integrate the grade schools there. The Board of Education acted to comply with the Supreme Court opinion and then, as alleged in our brief, outsiders came in and dis­rupted the orderly handling of the local situation. As a result, the Board of Education obtained an injunction from the Federal Court there to allow them to go ahead in an orderly way and conduct an integrated school. "The court granted that request," he continued, "and an appeal has been taken to the Court of Appeals. \Ve are appearing there to support th(• cour­ageous action taken hy the local board of education to operate the schools." :\fr. Brownell pointed out that in due course the Federal Court of Ap-peals will decide whether the action taken was proper and effective in supporting the school hoard, and ex­pressed the opinion that this case may establish a pattern for other parts of the country where the school boards take similar action. As a result, he felt the action taken by the Federal Court of Appeals would be watched with great interest. "This is the only case of its kind thnt I know of that is in the federal courts at the present time," he concluded. "The President indicated that what will happen," stressed fr. Sylvester, "will be that a court will find someone in contempt and that that person or persons will he citl•d, following which action will be taken through the U. S. marshals. As 1 understand it, Mr. Brownell, the . S. marshals are in your department, and arc, as a matter of fact, responsible to you?" "Yes," replied the Attorney-Gcnen1l, "they arc responsible primarily to the courts, of course, for the enforcement of the court orders." "Well, then, how do you implcrncnt it?" inquired Mr. Sylvester. "How l~~ you plan that the U. S. marshals W1 carry out a court decision on tl1nt assumption?" Mr. Brownell opined that this wns getting into the speculativl' realm, and (Continurd on 71agc 53) FACTS Fonu'\t Ews, Drcrm/Jrr, 1956 l'\A sp r('; the powc destrO\. , nor i1; th extrenw t free and < of a man he might ~rantt•d <I IVhich fig1 <>f the Fell tan Hl'pul There 1 the Unitl' ratps of ta the most \1nerican 'llild hy Il on income 11loderatl'I '10,000 .• income 11 i111s12 as ican id<'a Portunity. tent ta~ r tlared 11111 P<tssing o to the 0 Prineiplc 6rrnlv iml 6seai s) st r. HES 1gre· ,ugh ·io11? 1t of 1s as ction ·e in :l ex­maY •ts of ~ards e felt :ourt with I th<1t ourts .d. what ~ster, eone on or 1hich u. s. fr. ·e in atter 1eral, 1 the nent 11ent v do will that By WILLIAM HENRY CHAMBERLIN LXA'd>Lll IIA\t1Ln>'\ perhaps spoh• more '' isely than he realized when he referred to the power to ta:1. as tlw power to destrO\ . '\either in I lamilton's lime nor in the nineteenth centurv were e~tn•nw la\,ltion lrnrdt•ns imp;,s(•d in free and ci\ilized countri<'s. The right of a man to rt'lain the proper!) "hieh he mi,ght earn or inherit "as taken for t;rant(•d as om· of the natural rights IVhic:h figure so large!) in the thinking ,,f the Founding Fathers of th<' \nwri­l «tn Ih•puhlic. There was no g(·m·ral in('Olll(' la\ in the United Statt•s until 186:2. \ ml the rates of taxation during the Cidl \\'ar, the most desperate ('nH•rgenq in \rnerican history, were unhcli<'vahly hrild hv modern standards: :3 per cent 011 inc;Jlll('S from $600 to $10,000, and lltoderatl'I} progressi\'(• rates ahO\'(' 10,000. The \\ho](• idea of a tax on income \\as thrcmn out tlH' \\inclow itt 1S72 as inconsistent '' ith the \mer­ican idl'al of unlimited pl'rsonal op­Portunity. \n attl'mpt to It•\ y a :2 pl'r tent ta\ on incomes in lSfl 1 was dl'­tlarl'd unconstitutiona l. Only after tlw Passing of the Si\tl'l'nth \ nwndment to thl' Constitution in J9 L:3 ".is the Principle of th(• federa l income tax 8rmh imhl'ddl'd in the Unitl'd Statt•s flscal systt•ni. F >.c •rs Font " '\ 1 '' s, /Jccc111bcr, 19.56 It was a very thin opening end of the wedge. The original standard rate of income tax was 1 per cent, with ('\emptions of $3,000 for single and $1,000 for married persons. (Of course, these exemptions are much higher than they would he at pn•sent, h('caus(' of the seYcre clepr('ciation in the purchasing pow('r of the clollar. ) There was a surtax of l p('r cent to 6 per cent on incomes in ('\Cl'SS of $:20,000 (the cqui\alent of about $.'5:3,000 at the present tinw ). Thl•re was a similar cl('velopnwnt in Cn•at Britain. Only th(' Bo('r \Var, at the ('ncl of the ,;in('(('enth et•ntt1n , brought the income tax up to on(' shiil ­ing on the pound ( 5 per C('nt ). Glad­stone, the great lcadl•r of the British Liberals in the SC'concl half of the 11inl'l('('11lh ecntun , want('d to ,1holish th(• income ta:1. alt;>gl'l lH'r ancl reclucC'cl it at one time to twopence on the pound ( IC'ss than 1 per cent ). \ otwithstancling \\hat might haYe Sl'emccl the innocuoush low ra tes \\ hich \\'('re set after the ·introduction of income tax in the Llnitcd States, voices of warn ing wcrl' raised against the principle of a lcY) which placed all the earnings of \ nwrican citiz('ns ,it the mercy of politicians, most of them with the politician's instinc­ti\ ·e impulse to spend. Senator Benja-min Harvey Hill warned that the new ta\ would .enable the government "to make all propert} and rights, all states ancl people. and all liberty and hope, its playthings in an hour and its 'ie­tims fore\ er." Hepresentati\e \\' illiam Bourke Cochrane of '\e\\ York dcclarecl in 1894 that "democratic institutions must perish from the face of thl' earth if they cannot protect the fruits of human industn ,,-IH'rcver thev arc, or in whate,·cr p~oportion they 'may be held h} the citizens." Increase of Over 300 to 011e The fantastic grO\\ th of yield from the personal income ta\ is illustrated by one strikin!:( comparison. The nl'w Jcyy hrou!:(ht in $SO million in the first year of ib imposition. Current Yield is · '31.2 billion. Of course, in the i;1ter­vening period, population and real wealth ha,·e grO\\n and the n1luc of mone1 has clecli1wd. But not in such steep proportion as mer 300 to one - tlw relation between the• cutT('nt take of income tax and what was lcYicd in 1914. This increased appropriation by the State of the fruits of the labor of its citizens, or subjects, is a world-wide trend, with one paradoxical e\ecption. (Conti1111ccl Oil page 40) Page 13 WTn~· WORl.O PllOTO The largest radium unit of its kind in America helps fight ca ncer with the use of 50 grams of radium valued at $1 million. The four­ton machine cost $50,000. Designed by Dr. Fa illa of Columbia Uni­versity, standing to the rig ht, the machine is in opera tion at New York's Roosevel t Hospita l. DESPITE all the medical progress and research that has been made to fight cancer, ne\t to heart disease this dead!) disease is the greatest killer of Ameri­cans. In fact, cancer is usualh much more difficult to detect than heart ailments. Dt:,eloping slowly at times from what can he a small, almost unnoticeable sore or pimple, cancer can strike "ith cl<•adlv effect, sometimes c•,·cn twenty or thirty years after the ·first appearance of tlw abnormal area. The person hearing such a sore or blemish can be in completely good health otherwise, never having been sick in his entire life; vet he can sudclenlv be stricken without warning. The victim might ha,·e he~n able to overcome this threat at the verv outsC't if he had known of the danger signs and wan~ings of cancer. There arc a number of common danger signs which t'\Crvone would do well to recognize if anv one of them shou.ld occur. Listed arc scH•n of the most ~ommon things which a person should always he on guard against: l. Am sore that docs not lwal. . ., A iump or thickening, 111 the breast or elsewhere. 3. Gnusual bleeding or discharge. 4. Any change in a wart or mole. .5. Persistent indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. 6. Persistent hoarseness or cough. I. An) change in normal bowel movpmcnts. _\t the first sign of an) of the abovC' s:mptoms, one should SC'S his famih doctor at once. Cancer is bv no means incurable. If 'cliagnoscd at this early stage: the patient stands e,·ery chance of a complete recover> - with Page 14 Public Enemy No. 2 " One in four, or over 40 million America11s now living, are fat ed to have cancer at some time in their lives !" This ominous warning is sounded by the American Cancer Society i11 their ammal report to inform, all citizens of the ever-constant dangers of cancer. the aid of the family physician. Also, it can be pointed out that an) one of the above seven signs docs not nece~­saril> inclicatC' cancer. lt is very possible that the persons ailment ma} be a simplC' cold or case of diarrhea. But at the same time, to bC' safe, it is advisable for one to consult his famil) doctor for a thorough examination. This is par­ticularly important if there is a recurrence of any of the seven danger signs. ~ l oreovcr, if there is any doubt, one should revisit his family doctor, to make doubly sure.' Tlwrc arc no privileged pC'ople who arc exempt froJll the clanger of cancer, for this disease is often no respecter of age. Ht•gardless of previous good health, a high stand­ard of living, excellent food and good shelter, as well as no signs of hereditary illnesses, eancC'r still assaults and kills tens of thousands. of new victims each year. The tragic ·J\mtric<m Cancer SociclfJ, Anual Report, 19.55, A movie camera which ta kes "action pictures" of the human larynx in na tural color is used in a Boston hos· pital as a new aid in science's fight aga inst cancer. FACTS Font''r '\1·:\\'S, Dccc111l1cr, J95(i revelation a large l wouldn't I affected I in time./. third ca1 death.2 How so can Cane~ "A cancer is proper!: in one pla realize is rlilfercnt 1 "colonizin Cancer place, bu break aw lymph VC! other part blood stn place wit! pain or c once a ca or spread it obviom not impo5: down and On the covered \1 fined to it be destroy lllcnts, or why the on the ale cancer- I With a tion, any c lllon dang seven alrc sons belie specialist · detect cai the contr: detect ma Could me: 11se of his by utilizir 1Vhich he there is a Pati nt m cancerous administe1 lion. tel/.Ja/e There a doctor m2 tient is be l\lill ched trial skin attention t caly pate. ......_ 'Ibid., p. 11 icans wme ng is ty ill IS of ointed neccs­, rson's But at onsult is par· of the 1t, on~ sure. · froJll pccter stand· tell as :s and tragic re,·elations about these deaths is that a large percentage of these cases wouldn't have occurred if the persons affected had seen their physicians in time. According to statistics, every third cancer death is a needless death.2 Ilow soon is "in time"? The Ameri­can Cancer Society replies by stating, "A cancer can usually be cured if it is properly treated while still gro\\'ing in one place. What most people do not realize is that cancers grow in two different ways - by spreading and by "colonizing." Cancer cells start growing in one place, but sooner or later more will break away ·and move through the lymph vessels to a lymph node or to other parts of the body through the blood stream. All of this may take place without the patient feeling any Pain or discomfort whatsoever. But once a cancer has started to colonize Or spread (metastasize) to other parts, it obviously will be very difficult if not impossible, for a doctor to track it down and treat it properly. On the other hand, if cancer is dis­covered while it is still local or con­fined to its orginal site, it can usually be destroyed by radium or X-ray treat­ments, or removed by surgery. This is lvhy the family physician is always on the alert for any possible signs of cancer - he knows. With a thorough physical examina­tion, any doctor can detect other com­mon danger signals, in addition to the even already mentioned. ?>.fany per­sons believe that only a highly trained specialist with elaborate equiment can detect cancer in its early stages. On the contrary, any careful doctor can detect many dilferent conditions that Could mean cancer simply by making Ilse of his eyes, ears, and hands, and by utilizing a few simple instmments 11-hich he has in his office. Then, if there is any reason to suspect that a Patient might have cancer or a pre­cancerous condition, the doctor can •dminister a more detailed examina­tion. tell-Tale Signs There are various ways in which a doctor may detect cancer when a pa­tient is being examined. Doubtless he IVilJ check thoroughly for any abnor­lllal skin conditions, paying speciai ~ttention to moles, warts, lumps, sores, 'Ca)y patches, and old scars. Skin can­.....__ (Continued on page 44) 1lbid., p. 11. '1ws, December, 1956 Babe Didriksan Zaharias, greatest wom­an athlete af all time, flashes her famil­iar victory smile after winning the Babe Zaharias Open, a golf tournament held in her honor, at Beaumont, Texas, in 1953. Soon after this victory, she entered a Galveston hospital ta fight a brave but los­ing battle against her most deadly rival -Cancer. Willi WOIU.O PllOTO Cancer Defeats No. I Champion RECENTLY, cancer claimed the life of its most courageous enemy, gallant woman athlete, Babe Didrikson Zaharias. For three long, pain-wracked years, the Babe refused to give up fight­ing. Stricken at the age of 39, after becoming the most famous woman athlete of all time by winning a total of eighty-three golf and tennis tournament championships in addition to those won in other sports, Babe's doctors knew that she was a hopeless case almost from the very start. \Vhcn the doctors informed her that she must have major surgery in order to survive, the Babe showed the same indomitable courage that had characterized her life as a sports champion. \Vhen the first operation was over, it was discovered that Babe's cancer condition was more serious than first anticipated. Never complaining once, realizing that she was facing the most ruthless competition she'd ever known, Babe bravely submitted to an agonizing series of one operation after another, all to no avail. Privately, the top specialists treating her marveled that she was still ali,•e; but her will to live and fight on upset all their predictions. Even towards the last, on the morning before she died, she whispered to her husband, George Zaharias, in ever-constant vigil at her bedside, that she'd beat cancer yet, that she wouldn't die. The end finally came to plucky Babe Didrikson Zaharias, but the mem­ory of her struggle against an enerpy called cancer has inspired us throughout the world to redouble our efforts to defeat cancer once and for all. The legend of the Bahe along with that of immortal Damon Hunyon will be spurred on by additional contributions now to the Cancer Fund. Aided by public donations, research can be greatly increased and time shortened in vanquishing cancer. Send donations to the Babe Zaharias Fund in care of your local American Cancer Society office. Page 15 Looking Ahead With the American Legion I THE Honorable W. C. (Dan) Daniel. newly-el<'ctcd '\Jational Commander of the American Legion, interviewed by a panel of \'Ct­eran newsmen on a recent Hcporters' Hounclup program, reiterated the ded­ication of his administration to the elimination of subversive clements which are attempting to destroy America's freedom, a dedication voiced in his acceptance speech. Commander Daniel is an executive of the Dan Hiver Textile \!ills in his home town of Danville, Virginia. Hav­ing held numerous Legion posts on local. state, and national levels, :\Ir. Daniel was in 19.52 chosen ;\'atiohal \'ice-Commander of the American Legion. Having been a member of this organization for twelve years, :\Ir. Daniel has been mention<'d at the past three national conventions as a nomi- 1wc for '\alional Commander. During the interview questions were fired at :\Ir. Daniel by a panel of reporters made up of :\Jr. L. Edgar Prina. 'Vasliington Er.;rning Star. and ,\Ir. Jim Lucas, Scripps-Howard news- Page 16 "Marching orders" for the coming year issued at the recent National Con· vention of the American Legion assure a continuation of that organization's strong anti-Communist position. Interviewed on Reporters' Roundup, the newly-elected National Commander of the American Legion, The Honorable W. C. (Dan) Daniel, pledges full support to the convention's mandates. papers, under the moderation of :\Ir. Hobert F. Hurleigh, director of \Vash­ington operations of the :\lutual Broadcasting System. "Can you tell us, Commander Dan­iel," asked \Jr. Prina, "just what y0u propose doing about the elimination of subversion mentioned in your ac­ceptance speech?" "It's no secret, of course, that our government and other institutions have been infiltrated from time to time by subversive elements," J\lr. Daniel replied. "The present line of the Communist Part), of course, is peaceful competitive coexistence. This line, of course, is being put forth h} the Communists in an effort to lull the American peoplt• into a sense of false security, and it would be our purpose to go after those elements, wherever they appear, with every medium at our command." "\Yell, for instance, taking the re­cent Supreme Court decision, which in effect limited the government's employee-security program to scnsi­ti\ C jobs," inquired \Ir. Prina, "do you think that that decision weakened or strengthened our internal security?'' . .\Ir. Daniel's opinion was that this decision had unquestionably weak· encd the national security. The Legion, he felt, would first ask what constitutes a "sensitive" job. "So far as we arc concerned," he explained, "all government jobs arc sensitive jobs." "Mr. Daniel, I think the Legion has called for a congressional investiga· tion of tlw Fund for the Republic. hasn't it?" asked J\lr. Lucas. "What do you feel could he accomplished by such an investigation?" "Well, ~Ir. Lucas, we look upon th~ Fund for the Republic as an anti-~1nt1 • Communist organization," replied \Ir Daniel. "\Vc've never accused thC Fund for thC' Hepublic of being f Communist organization, or even ° being dominated by Communists. Bt'.t we do feel that they arc an anti-anU· Communist organization. In oth~f words, it seems that their purpose 1 ' . 1t to be against thosr who arc again communism." FACTS Fonr'r '\Jn\·s, Drcrml1cr, ]956 " . • • a "It WOl thcv can·• I think . might cit, sylvania. R.cpuhlic library hi rmploy<' Amenrlm1 vestigativ that that L: nited St \Ir. L1 Daniel c1 niu nis t I \!;roup. "\\'('II, to thc .. sr ganda, r "\fr. D Who too Pointed < Your opi1 the l<'ifth their corn that tlw should IH Why Hid "I do n ing in th1 States, b1 to hide, should t~ in our C< flowevr shouldn't thrm." AskPcl lnti-com PrPssccl t to sa\ " take i)osi h<· agree< Pcfn<'ss," ' Prettv cl Yo;ir p P1111cl fo~ evil," n·m So chara Ir. D I Con· Jtion's >, the >rable dates. icd or ty?" ~t this weak· ThC ; what cl," he os are on has esti!ZW 1ubJiC. hat do ed b) on the ti-;lllti· ~d \Jr. ' cl thC ~in!Z 3 ven of ts. )3ot ti-anti· other pose is lgainst " ••. a Communist is a Communist, whether he lives in Belgrade, in Moscow, or whether he lives in Danville, Virginia, or Washington, D. C." says . "How far do you think thl'\ earn their anti-anti~communism?" \I~. Lucas inquired. "It would be difficult to sav how far they carry it," replied ~Ir. D,{niel, "hut I think a specific e'\amplc that I might cite is the library case in P<•nn­sylvania. There the Fund for the R.epuhlie made a $5,000 grant to a library ])('cause th<'} refused to fin• an rmploy<'c who had taken the Fifth \menrlnl<'nt ])('for<' a congr<'~sional in­vestigatin• h()(h. \\ <' clo not b<•li<·,·e that that is in th<' lwst inll'n•st of the United States." \Ir. l ucas inquired whcthl'r \Ir. Daniel eonsidl'red an anti-anti-Com­munist organization a suhn•rsin• group. "Wcll, it C<'rtainh would ll'nd itsl'lf to the spread of Communist propa­ganda," replied Mr. Daniel. "\Ir. Daniel, you cited this woman Who took the Fifth Amendment." Pointed out ~Ir. Prina, asking, "Ts it Your opinion that anyone who takes the °Fifth Amendment, who relics on their constitutional rights, is a person that the L<•gion and other '\nwrieans should havl' nothing to do with?" Why Hide Behind the Fifth? "I do not ])(')il'V<' that th<') are act­ing in the best interest of the nited States, hccausc if they han• nothing to hide, I sec no n•ason why they should take advantage of that elause in our Constitution," said \Ir. Danicl. "fiowen•r, I wouldn't sa\ that \\(' shouldn't han• an\ thing io do "ith them." · .\sJ..ccl what hl' [cit inspin•d anti­anti- cornmunism, \Ir. Danil•I l'~ Prcssecl th<• opinion that it is clifficult lo say what moti\ates indidduals to lakt• iJositions on any issue, altho11gh hp agreed that thl' tcrm "fuzzy-mind­rc] n<•ss, · snggl'st<"cl h) \Ir. Lueas, was Pretty dl'S<Tiptive. Your pr('d<'<'<'ssor eharadl•rin•cl thl' P1111d for th(' lfrpu hlic as a for('(' for ~vii," remindl'd \Ir. Prina. "\\'ould you Sri characlt•rize it?" Ir Da11i(•I agn•('d that h<• l'('rtainly r.· ... <'I s Fom \I '\I \\ s. Dcce111l1cr, 19.56 would. Ile added that the Fund for the Hepublic is not only soft on com­munism, but, in his opinion, promotes the Communist conspiracy in this C'011ntn. "Jn °othcr words," interpreted \Ir. Prina, "you don't agree with Paul I Ioffman, Chairman of the Board for the Fund, who said that it was con­ceived as a weapon against commu­nism?" fund Job Pleases Soviets " o," replied Ir. Daniel, "and I think good proof of that is the fact that just yesterday an item came to my att(•ntion which was published in one of the official publications of the Sovict Union, International Affairs, in "hieh they said, among other things, that the Fund for the Republic - and they mentioned Mr. Robert Maynard Hutchins - had done an outstanding job in the protection of civil liberties. "I don't know exactly what they mean by 'an outstanding job,'" be continued, "but I would assume they meant a good job for the Communists. Ccrtainly I don't think this Commu­nist publication would praise them if they were doing a good job for \ 111erica." \Ir. Prina referred to \ Ir. Hutchins' statl'ml'nt some time after the Legion began nJtacking the Fund regarding "hystl'rical misrepresentation against the Fund by a few individuals and groups whose vociferousness exceeds their influence and intelligenc<'." "Do ,·ou have an\ eomnwnt on that?" h.e inquired. · In replying, \Ir. Daniel pointed out that tlw Ameriean Legion comprises a cross-section of the nation's pop11la­t1011, including some three million nwmhl'rs, and that tlwir all\ilian is a million-member organization. · "Tht• Legion's charg<'S made against the Fund for the Hepuhlic W<'l'l' sub­stantiatl'd and approved by the \ml'r­iea11 Ll'gion Convention," he pointed out, "as well as by their Eweuth e Committee. I do not helien- \Ir. 11 uchins proper!) characterized those Legion Commander W. C. Doniel who took these actions." "Commander Daniel, I seem to re­call that your service in the :"l!avy in \Vorl<l \Var II was of very brief dura­tion," mentioned ~Ir. Lucas. "As a matter of fact, that it was about eighty-eight <lays. Isn't it rather strange that a veterans' organization the size of the -\merican Legion would choose as its national leader a man with so brief a service in the military?" "I don't think so, ~Ir. Lucas,'' :\Ir. Daniel replied, "if you consider the nature and makeup of the organiza­tion. Time magazine quoted that state­ment, I believe, and as is character­istic of many of their quotations, they were a little on the liberal side. As a matter of fact, I only served sixty­seven <lays in the aimed forces. "I was very proud, frankly, of those si\t)-seven <lays," he continued, "be­eause I \\·as not blessed with such good health at that time, and after fi, e attempts to enlist in all branches of the service I was finally selected and sent out to the aval Training Station at Great Lakes. However, American Legion membership is not contingent upon an) specific length of service. \Ve arc chartered by the Con­gress of the U. S., and the on!) quali­fication necessary is that a man must han' served at least a day during the period of national cmcrg<'ncy in a shooting war." ~fr. Daniel also point<'d out that there had been some r<'ports that the \mcrican Legion is a S<'lfish organiza­tion in that many of their programs arc promoted for selfish interests. He stressed that under no condition (Continued on page 42) Page 17 I Be in the "Nick" of Time to enter the FACTS FORUM NEWS ESSAY CONTEST ON "How America Can Best Fight Communism" Join the Christmas Rush Contest Closes Midnight, December 1 S CONTEST RULES *ANYONE FROM AGE 14 THROUGH 18 MAY ENTER 1. The essay muse be written on the subject "llOW AMERICA CAN BEST FIGHT COMMUNISM." 2. The essay may be handwritten or typed on standard size white theme or t) ping paper. Enter your printed name and address on the top of each page and number the pages. It is suggested that no more than 1500 words be used in the essay. You may submic more chan one entry; howe\-er, each encry muH be accompanied by an entry blank. 3. Essa)·s will be judged on logic and prese11tatio11. 4. Essais should be mailed as soon as completed to FACT FORUM, I C., Dept. E. C., 17 10 Jackson t., Dallas I, Texas. All Entries Must Be Postmarked Prior to Midnight, December 15 I04 AWARDS! $l,OOO.oo S<l1olarship _ $S 1 Grand Award 00.oo Savings Bond _ $ .S First Places 100.00 Savings Bo d $5 n - I 0 Second Pfoco1 0.00 Savings Bo d n - 20 Thi d $25 OO Sa • r Pfoco1 • v1ngs Bond - 20 Fourth Peno r· Places na •red Plaque ·u.so S - 41 State Winners <oll •etch .. rnesrer u ... •r university :°,"., '•tillrolion to " • 'N1nn•r'i diolu~ 0«rffitod ......................................... ....... .. ......................... ENTRY BLANK ..................... ........... .. ........................................ . ./ - ~--1 __ "P"--"' t_ '?" - -- Western Regi.on _t-:::- -·t----- ... -- '¥ I T ~-. I I I I, I I Name ( Plca"-C Print) Street or R.F .O. --- Post Office State --- Parent or Guardian Date of Birth Age Last Birthday This will certify that I persona lly composed the enclo sed essay. Date Signature Be •ure to check region in which you live - ALL PRIZES AWARDED BY REGION EXCEPT GRAND AWARD O New Englond O Eost Central '=:J Southern Centro) Western Page 18 E ····· -- he Bl\AlNWASBlNO TllE sTOR'f 01' MEN WllO DEl'lEl> lT INTRODUCTION Edward Hunter, a native of New York, has based this excellent book upon thirty years' experience in writing, editing, gathering pertinent facts in remote places, frequently far off the main-traveled roads. Thoroughly al home in Japan, China, and Manchuria, he wrote, in the early 1930's, the only accounts of the massacres of Manchurian vi l­lages which were incorporated into the records of United Nations. He later covered the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, then the Civil War in Spain. From Pearl Harbor to V-J Day, he served with U. S. forces in the China-Burma -India theatre. Since then, he ha s fo llowed the news as it happened in Korea, Hong-Kong, Singapore, and elsewhere; is currently studying the si tuation in Afghanistan. Mr. Hu nter's analysis of the almost incredible phenomenon of "brainwashing" is regarded by ma ny American leaders as being of d ecisive importance to our survival. At the co nclusion of his testimony befo re the McCle llan Committee in J une, 1956, Senator McClellan commented: "I am sure your books and your writings and your experience will be very valuable if we can get all that befo re the American people." BRAINWASHING A CO ND ENS A TI O N THE new word braimrnshing entered our minds and dictionaries in a phenomenally short time. This sin­ister political expression had never been seen in print anywhere until a few years ago. The reason the word was picked up so quickly was that it was not just a clever synonym for something already known, but described a strategy that yet had no name. A vacuum in language existed: No word tied together the various tactics that make up the process b) which the Communists expected to create their "new Soviet man." The words came out of the sufferings of the Chinese people. Put under a terrifying combination of subtle and crude mental and physical pressures and torhITes, they detected a pattern and called it brainu:ashing. The Reds wanted people to lwlieve that it could be amply described by some familiar expression such as education, public rela­tions, pers1wsion - or by some misleading term like mind reform and re-education. 'one of these could define it. The Chinese knew they hadn't just been re-educated or persuaded. Something much more dire had been perpe­trated on them, similar in many ways to a medical treat­ment; more like witchcraft. The Communist hierarchy preferred people to belie,·e that there was no such thing as brainwashing. As long as they could keep it concealed, without a name, opposition could be kept scattered and ine£Fective. Dr. :\kerlo, a psychiatrist, coined the word menticide - murder of the mind - for this atrocious quack science deYised by the Reds to bring about the Yoluntary submission of people to unthinking discipline and rohotlike enslavement; but the popular word remained l>raimcashing. After the exchange of prisoners of war in Korea, I was Page 20 asked a number of times by repatriates, now sadder an~! wiser, "\Vhy wasn't I told? If J had only been told, I don t believe it could have happened to ml>." \ ly first acquaintance with brainwashing came froJll Chinese who had undergone it on the main land. The) were of all occupations, from merchant to teacher, and included some women. I remember one \\hite man comint! out of China, who seemed to S\mholize them all. A Cath­olic priest, he walked feebly, l;is t•yes staring ahead "ith frightful intensity. Ile looked much older than his middle age. Ile could not grasp the fact that he was finally Otlt of reach of the brainwaslwrs. Ile just stood and starl'd· Suddenly, realization broke through - he was in a frcC world. He took a few steps, sat down, and burst into tcn rs. 'one of these white people, and few of the Chinese. would speak to the press during that rarly period. The Heels threatened to punish and even kill the closest asso­ciates of any man who broke the hush-hush. Before lca,•int! Heel China, each person had to dcsignatl' a hostage "ho would sign a guarantee for him. "Please do not talk: in~. life is dependent on it," such persons would beg of thcll departing friends. This was not the first time the Communists had been able to keep a dead ly secret from the free world. T!1c existence of tremendous slave-labor camps in the So'"1'.: Union was kept hidden for manv years. Begun as far Jwc as 1920, a quarter-century and \Vorlcl War II were to p•1'' before these gained fairly widr knowll•dgl'. Yet ten to t\\ enty million people at a time were in these forced-labor camps. Untold millions perished under bestial treattllcnt and merciless overwork. . k The secret police had a simple ml'lhocl. The} could pit up a prospective employee unckr any one of numcro1 " FACTS Font \I >\Fws, Dcccmhcr, J9:5b '\ormi barbariti these V<1 brainwa Comm secret b, an isolat1 Lnion. II another Chinese began to ncr as a 'ccurity n a tn uarded 6ut thro1 A year lrom the 1vho had seen son left the 1 <lfterwar( of analyz was the another l interYiew hrainwas Europe. sponded the stratl America The fn Commun ICorea. B those of 1 UN fore< language carry pur rncnts sai Port of w llism was to boast had deci< to their 1 released \\lashed t they said had been Civilians i had sulfc1 The An · ever be: United S living tha extremely supposed! American ter and n their own .... hy }'Ol er and [don't I froJll The~ r, ;u1d ion1inf! Cath- 1 \\ ith niddk Iv out ;tared. a free 1 tears. iinesc. I. The t ;isso­~ ·1,·in~ ~·"ho k: 111' f their ]Jccn I. The Sod et r h<tC~ o pn's ten to -labor 1tn1cnt regulations that allowed them to arrC'st anyone', put him on trial, and sentence him to any work camp, without publicity. If the individual objected, they could put on the brainwashing screws and exact a confession. :\ormal people in the free world refused to beliC've such barbaritiC's. \Vhat is scarcely appreciated even yet is that these vast slave establishmC'nts are a vital part of the brainwashing strategy. Communist Russia was able to keep brainwashing secret by its thorough control of information, which made an isolated island out of every man and office in the Soviet Union. o individual or bureau dared communicate with another except through approved channels. \Vhen the Chinese mainland fell to the Communists, brainwashing began to he employed in a slipshod and roughhouse man­ner as a national policy against the whole' population. ecurity was sacrificed in this reckless, unskilled use of it on a tremendous scale. The secret that Moscow had uardcd successfully at its front door in Emopc slippPd Ont through the back door in China. A year or so after I began hearing about brainwashing om the Chinese, I began to discuss it with white people' who had gone through the process in Red China. I had seen some brainwashed Americans briefly after they had left the mainland; then again, perhaps more than a year afterward, at home in America. They were' now capable of analyzing what had happened to them. \Vhat struck me Was the similarity of their C'xpericnccs, not only to one another hut to that of the Chinese whom I had previous!) interviewed. Later I met people who had gone through brainwashing in the Communist satellite countries of Europe. Except for the change in locale, details conc­spondcd exactly. There was no doubt about the pattern; the strategy was the same everywhere. America Is Alerted The free world began to hear strange reports from the Communist-operated prisoner-of-war camps in 'orth Korea. Broadcasts were heard in voices recognized a those of normal young men in American, British, and other UN forces. The voices belonged to these men, but the language did not. Pro-Communist publications began to tarry purported confessions and grotesquely-worded state­ments said to have been signed by these soldiers in sup­Port of whatever propaganda appeal international commu­nism was making at the moment. Peking went on the air to boast that a group of UN soldiers, mostly American, had decided to remain inside the Red orbit, not go hack to their respective lands. This, and statements made hy released p.o.w.'s revealing how they had been brain- 1vashed, tore the lid olf, forced facts into the open. \Vhat they said was exactly the same, detail for detail, as what had been related to me by Chinese civilians, b: white ~ivilians in China, and by \mericans and Europeans "ho ~ad suffered the same atrocities in Eastern Europe. The American public had reason for alarm and shock. \:ever before had the citizens of a rich land such as the United States, bcneficiariC's of the highest standard of living that the earth had eV('r seen, elected to stay in an e)(tremely backward, dreadfully impoverished cm1ntr}, Supposedly out of prcfC'rence for its way of life. It led the American people to self-examination of thC'ir own charnc­t~ r and moral defenses. The unbridlt'd denunciation oJ their own eountr} - obviously manufactured and parroted h) young Americans \\horn the Reds had carefull} Ews, December, 1956 Dr. Ivon Petrovich Pavlov ( 1849-1936), Russian physiologist, whose laboratory experi~ ments on dogs were appropriated by Lenin, Stalin, & Co., in attempts to create the "new Soviet man." \\ID£ \\: om.n PHOTO pick<•d from widely separate parts of the United tales, shockt'd till' public out of lethargy. Tll('se young expatriates spoke and acted as if under hypnotic spell. The information I had been gathering con- 1 inced me that some form of mass hypnosis was part of tht' lkd techniqu<'. L met many llll'n 11 ho had stood up marvelously against <''l.Cl'edingh tough blo1,s and had surdwtl honorablv. They fre~11;ently. seenwd at a loss to explain how they h;d done it. Simple, dm1 n-to-earth truths had been their pillars of strength. The fundamental facts "ere the same, whether relatt'd by a cidlian or bv a soldier from China or Korea or by s01{1C'one from East. Europe. .\ly research brought me into contact with some of the 14,000 Chines<' in tlw l·nited :\'ations' p.o.w. camps who steadil) refused repah·iation to Hed China. These stalwart soldiers had succeeded in one of the strangest, most heroic struggles for freedom the world had ever witnessed. They had pitted themselvC's, with only their desperation to support them, against the most cunning and rigorous pressures that obdurate minds could dc\'ise to force them back into the C'mbraee of communism. To be successful, brainwashing depends fundamentally on the subject's ignorance of it. \Vhcn understood, the wcm.t that the Heel laboratories can produeC' may be thwarted hv the character of the free man. \Vhen tech­niques of ·Communist brainwashing become common knoll'ledge, the system 11 ill either be shattered completely or made so difficult and costly to the Hcds that the game 1' ill hard I) be worth the candle. Man and Dog h an Pl'tro\ich Padov, eminent Hussian physiologist, p<'rformed interesting e\periments 1\ ith dogs. Ile con­('(' i1ed of physiology as mankind's Sl'n ant, not its master. His pu11)0Sl', he al11ays insisted, 11 as to discowr basic laws in physiology 11hich \\ ould lwlp medical science heal the afllictions of the human body and work toward the avoid­an(' e ol mental disorders. 1\'~thing he ever said indicated that he entertained any such hideous concept as mind ('Olltroi. .\JoscO\\ academics' reports repeatedly insisted that Pado1 had intended his "strictly objective method of inwstigation" to be applied to man as well as to beast. H<•garding Pavlov's experiments, "there is a growing appre- Page 21 I ) This picture, from an official Chinese Com­munist news service, was published by "The Daily Worker" in London, with caption: "The first botch of American prisoners marches through the streets of Pyongyang, principal town in North Korea." ciation of their value to the science of dialectical materialism." The doctor's clinic here becomes the politician's study! Conditioned, in Pavlov's experi­ments, meant "induced by man, or by outside influences." By uncondi­tioned, he meant "natural," or "in­stincti\' e," such as the eye's involun­tary blinking when an insect Ries close to it. Conditioned-reflex action can be brought about delib­erately; this is what the Communist hierarchy now relics on to make a basic change in human nature, to give birth to the "new Soviet man" in whom the concept of the individual "I" is to be replaced hv the "we" of collcctivitv. In short, the totalitarian State strives toward the insecti~ization of human beings. The central theme of Pavlov's experiments was indicated by a scene from a documentary film, showing a dog in harness, standing on what looked like an operating table, in a room full of mechanical gadgets and curious meters. What immediately attracted attention was the glass con­tainer inserted into the side of the dog's lower jaw. Unsmil­ine?; doctors busied themselves with the experiment. One held the bulbous end of a rubber tube. By squeezing it, air pressure moved a circular tray bringing a bowl of food within reach of the harnessed canine. As soon as this happened, a light Hashed. The dog hungrily eyed the approaching food; saliva began to drip into the test tube attached to its jaw. Each drop was counted and carefully tabulated on a graph. The dog at first paid no attention to the light. Sometimes the rotary table brought an empty bowl to the dog's mouth, but when that happened the light did not go on and there was no saliva. A routine was now established. When the light flashed, food appeared and saliva appeared. \Vhcn an empt} hO\\ I approached, the light did not go on and there was no s,tli\·a. _.\ftcr a while, the dog hardly glanced at the howl. It had iclentifiecl the light ''ith the food. The light was sufficient sign; it had "learned." The crucial point in the experiment was no" reached. ,\ white-gowned doctor pressed a but­ton, the light flashed, but this time the round table did not bring the clog any food. Its sali\'a dripped just the same. The light had replact•cl the food in the mind of the clog, the wa~ a slogan or label can replace a thought in a man's mind. The caption read: "HeAcx caused by flashing light." \\'hat the Padovian doctors had learned from animals could be used to intrndP into the mind and soul of man, to warp and change his brain. Anything could he made into a trigger, or what they calk•d a stimulus. Brain-changing was the culmination of this whole evil process, when actual damagl' was clonp to a man's mind through drugs, hypnotism, or other means, so that ( 1) a memorv of what had actualh happened could he wiped out of 0 his mind, and (2) a 'new memory of \\hat never Page 22 ring tht• Kore• an intcn·ic\\ '-.larlin appea lf an hour w<1 ly and contr - c rean people th disarming rfare attack nitcly sad. r pticism. What partic1 v ~farlin am ·hesitancy. ~ d engaged i ey had the 1 • umerous c adcrs that su Side. The edit ladn't it been Oadc of the i1 J ~oups at part , WIDE WOllLD rnOTO Outsith1rs d 1arecl," rigoro happened would be inserted. htcrvie\\. Another Russian film about Pavlov and his conditioned- D reflex experiments portrayed him as a ruthless dialeeticnl 2. \ :\l 1 :\larxist, which he never was. Indeed, if Pavlov had •am Dt'al.., w known his simple findings were to become the basis of .a•~Y yearr a· modern brainwashing, he would have recoiled in horror. ictim to tfie f the con cs~ Newly-Devised Torment Applied For months 'ons, and or i\Iarx had expected communism to change human ver}thing hi nature. Lenin had found out that it would never happen ionc. Ile wa naturally. Ile saw in the Pavlovian technique the ferment 'nterrogators which could bring it about, despite the opposition it natu· '.nutc. !hfn rally aroused. He told Pavlov that he had "saved the :nmcs, me u Hcvolution." Lenin, the practical dictator, betrayed Pavlov. haYe .the During the Inst six months of Pavlov's life, the settings he~· said ti were already being planned for the liquidation of all the f h'.s ag~ th Old Bolsheviks within the Kremlin's reach, except one: II1s wife Stalin. Each of the defendants in those three gigantic trials was held, like the "isolated animal" of the training film, for from six months to a year, while his public per· formancc was being rehearsed in the Pavlovian manner. The chief of almost every branch of government joined in his own indictment, pleading for his own prompt extermination. The pressures of the mind - atrocities called brainwash· ing - were as modern and as devastating an advance in war as nuclear fission. Few in the free world fully realized that the Heels had erased tlw lint• between war and peace. that for them peace merely called for a change in tactics. Few could conceive that the missionary in prison in ·the Chinese interior, the business man in an interrogatioil center in Eastern Europe, the militaiy officer in a caYe i11 '\orth Korea were being asked the same questions, were subjected to the same humiliating pressmPs, cndmecl the same tortures, sulfered alike in the gigantic war against pt•ople's minds. [At this point in tht' hook \fr. Ilunler, tlH' author, gives a numbt•r of dPlail!'d cast' histories. a few of which arc here rt'duc!'d to bril'f sketches.] l. MAHLI'\ . .\n mcrican offict'r, a pilot in the U. . Air Foret', whom we shall call i\larlin, was, whik a prisoner F AC:Ts Fonl 'r u1 s. Dcl'nnhcr, J9.5/! roper envi1 levotion to hysical hea "They tra 'heir line." 3. Jon"! ytic man, 1 knew of P1 didn't drea relate to hi tclease fron he lud und lie was t it. When h ;igony that in his eyes. \Ve met to present by subtle < had never he took all The Heels ring the Korean war, submitted by the Heels to reporters an intcn·iew. \farlin appeared worn and strained. In his tense state, fan hour was all the press co11ld have. He spoke carn­ly and contritely. Jlc said he hoped the Chinese and • 4 rcan people would forgive his misdeeds, and e'<plained th disarming frankness how he had engaged in germ­rfarc attacks against the i)('asantr}. His eyes lookccl nitcly sad. The fast flow of his answers removed any pticism. \Vhat particularly impressed rcportt'rs was the frank y \larlin answered their to11ghest questions. IIc showed h(•sitancy. ow they had the final proof that America cl engaged in cowardly and loathsome germ warfare. hey had the details from a man who had clone ill _ umcrous editors all over the world informed their adcrs that such disclosures could not he brushed lightly ide. The editors said they were being objective. After all, dn"t it been a group interview? Sound films had been Oadc of the interview. The films were shown to selected :roups at parties given by Heel diplomats. 0 rnOTo Outsidrrs did not know that l\Iarlin had been "pre- 1arrd," rigorously and at great length, for that "scoop" . 1 litcrvic\\. 10nec - ectical 2. \'\l DEAN. An elderly American engineer named v had am Deat., who had been a college teacher in hina for 1sis of an} years and had had nothing to do with politics, fell 1orror. ictim to the Communist invaders and felt the full weight f the confession technique. For months they bombarded him with questions, accusa- ~ons, and orders to write, write, and keep on writing iuman Verything he had ever known, everything he had ever appcn lone. He was deprived of food and rest. Teams of fresh •rment ntcrrogators came in relays, hammering at him every : natu- liinutc. Then they told him that he had confessed to many ~cl the Times, including that of being a spy. He was too dazed avlov. 'O have the least iclea of what he had said or written. ttings they said they ought to punish him more hut because all the if his age they wo11lcl let him leave China. one: His wife brought him home to America. For a long gantic imc lw was practically unconscious of all that went on aining ro11nd him. :\lost distressing was his loss of memory. c per- roper environment in America, loving care, and steady anner. levotion to work gradually restored Sam to mental and joined hysical health. Uc says: 1rompt "They trap you like a rat. Finally, you have to take heir line." 1wash· nee in mlizecl peace. actics. ·the gatioJl ,1ve in were the 1gainst !\if isoner 3. Jou D. H AYES. Hayes was a highly educated, ana­}' tic man, a missionary. He had studied psychology and knew of Pavlov's theories although, when arrested, he didn't dream that the physiologist's experiments would relate to his case. I met him about half a year after his release from a Communist prison in central China, where lie had undergone intense brainwashing. Ile was then able to give only a smattering account of it. \Vhen he searched his mind for details, it hurt. The •tgony that brainwashing imposes on its victims was still in his eyes. \\'e met ne'<t more than a year later. Ifr was now able to present an integrated account of how he had been led hy subtle and brutal pressures to believe and admit what had never taken place. l\1ost important was the fact that he took all the Heels dealt him, wt b('at them in the end. l'he Heels "<'re ncv('r able to acl1ieve their primary ohjec- FAcrs FoRL'\l '\'1-.ws, Decc111/Jer, 1956 th(' "ith him. His mind kept slipping a" a) from them. Ilis experiences exposed the fatal limitations of brain­washing. Hayes was constantly hungry. Ile felt drugged from lack of sleep. The brainwashing chamber was a down­stairs room in the prison, about nvelvc by eighteen fret, where he faced from one to seven inquisitors and torh1rcrs. Brainwashing victims from East Europe have described similar courts to me, with hypnotists and psychiatrists on the staff. The court informed Hayes he was head spy for all Southwest China and demanded he fill in the details for them b} confessions. They insisted he reveal his connec­tions with the FBI; they pro\ ided what they called proof and spent ten steady clays pounding on this. They gave . him thinking assignments on which he had to write and report. The tension was like a drill piercing his mind, worse than physical suffering. They gave him l\fao's books to study in his cell; they had him write a long auto­biography; they wore him down with insane, repetitious questioning. They would get him all wound up and bewil­dered over nothing. He realized that there was a devilish consistency and persistence about all this n·eatmcnt from the Heels. Finally, after three-quarters of a year of uninterrupted, intensive drilling away at his mind, he was in no shape to reason things out. Hallucination took possession of him. He became whollv unconcerned over what the Reds might do to him. Their objccti\ e was to "convert" him, to indoctrinate him into their ideology, actually to win his Jo,·altv, on the firm conviction that environment, if the p1:ess;1re is sufficient, will not only break a man but remake him. He defeated them at their own tactics. After that, he felt sure they would either release or murder him. It happened to be, for Hayes, release. Later, much later, Haves could analvzc his little battle in the brain warfare that is being ;vaged around the world. "The more I think of it," he said to me, "the surer I am that the mind is infl11c11ced to a great extent by environment and training, hut that the rrnlly decisive, controlling element is the spirit. You can't crack that if it is sound." \Vhen Jiayes discussed this \\ith medical men in Amer­ica, a San F~ancisco psycho-analyst told him: "Your mind gave way when yoi1 hacl your hallucination. That saved vou. You were intact. onlv your mind had cracked. Th~ Heels couldn't do any n;or~ to you. Your spirit had escaped them." This was a medical man's analvsis, uninfluenced bv mis­sionary thought. Yet on this field of battle of the .mind, these two men saw eye to eye. 4. T 1rn NEGRO AS P.O.W. Tn the prisoner-of-war camps in North Korea, the dark-skinned American was put on his mettle racially because the Communists insisted on appealing to him as a 'egro. The color of his skin was constantly emphasized as his all-important characteristic. IIc was pitted agaimt his country, symbolized in the person of the wltitc man. But they foiled to gain the great propaganda victory they had counted on, to win the minds of non-white peoples of the world. Out of thou­sands of egroes taken prisoner, only three were among the cowed and upset lads who said they did not want to return home to America. I asked a newspaperman just back from the Korean Page 23 \ ) Air Force Captain Zoch Deon, who was shot down in Korea, embraces his wife at airbase in Japan, fol­lowing his repatri­ation in the final exchange of sick and wounded war pris­oners at Panmunjom. While her husband was held prisoner, Mrs. Dean did Red Crass work in Tokyo. WIDE WORl.0 PHOTO front: "How did the colored man come out in comparison \dth the whites?" "Fine," he replied. Others told me the same. I did some investigating on my own, and discovered that the Reds had dismally failed in their attempts to squeeze racist propaganda out of their colored captives. Talking to repatriated :-\egroes, I found that they had seen through the enemy right from the start; they could detect racist cheese by its smell, no matter how it was camouflaged. A quality that stood them in great stead is exemplified in :\egro songs. They are generally without bitterness, without hate. Bitterness and hate are negative reactions, and sour a man. In the long pull, the p.o.w.'s primary objective was to protect his own facilities, to keep hope up. \\'hen this was lost, so was the mind. The Beds kept chisel­ing away at his hope. Therefore, the person to whom hope (optimism) is second nature, is the toughest nut for Commies to crack. 5. IIERB i\I \RLATT. Army Captain Herbert E . .\Iarlatt was a victim of Communist brutalitv. The Reds had often kicked him and beaten him with ciubs, in irritation over his failure to break. On his hack, the jellied Aesh had de,·eloped into a tumor. I 'isited him in the military hos­pital at .\It. Clemens, .\lichigan. Here is part of his story. He had been, for long ~'eeks, in the Death .\larch under \.'orth Korea's "Tiger." Any man who faltered was battered 0\ er the skull and shoved or kicked off the road, to become one more corpse among hundreds. Herb saw men sum­marily executed for the crime of being sick or wounded. \!en marched shoeless, in cotton clothes. All clown the line, limbs were freezing and gangrene spreading un­checked. Why should anyone go on with it? was the state of mind of the remnant who dragged into the first permanent camp. Then spoke up John J. Dunn, who had served in the Burma jungle with .\lerrill's \larauders. His voice was angry - there was no despair in him; he was all rage. "Those so-and-so and so-and-so's!" he cried. "The,·'re completely evil!" (Those were not his exact words.) "TJ1cy will never listen to any reason except force! Their kind of \'iciousncss has to he wiped out on a battlefield. It won't e\·er be soh-cd at a conference table; it can only he cut out, like a cancer! ".\!en, that's why we're here! \\'hen that clay comes, and we meet communism on the battlefield, our country will Page 24 need people who have seen its face and know what it is. That's why we have to survive, so we can go home and Jet our people know. Of course that's why we're here! We must survive - that's our job now!" When the men heard that, Ilcrh told me, it was as if they had been given a shot in the arm. They had a pur­pose; there was meaning to their suffering. Whereas the moment before they had hoped for death, feeling the hopelessness of their plight, now they knew they had to survive - a reason that was incalculably more powerful than the pains they were suffering. The men were now certain that they were in on the ground floor of what was actually a phase of World War III. From that time on, Dunn kept stressing that the men must regard their captivity as a tremendously impor­tant opportunity to understand and interpret the Chinese Communist mind, and to find the most effective ways of reacting to the Reds and their environment. "We can succeed in our job," he kept saying, "only if we get out of here alive." Instead of being discouraged by the enemy's pressures and being caught off balance, the prisoners met each blow with eagerness. They discounted the Red propaganda. Herb was positive that those in his regiment who survived did so because of Dunn's inspiration. 6. ZACH DEA • Captain Zach W. Dean of the U. S. Air Force was an oil-field engineer from Oklahoma, with deep­set eyes. \Vhen I asked how long he had been a prisoner, he said: "Two years and four days." I almost expected hini him to add the hours and minutes. "The Reds brought you to thC' point of death and then revived you," Zach said. "Then again they brought you to death's door, and when you were about to enter, they pulled you back. After the H<'ds did this a few times, you were thankful to them for saving your life." DC'an frequently referred to the way the Communists seemed to know everything that took place in the camps. "\Ve could keep nothing from them!" he exclaimed. Th.e illusion of knowing everything was one of communisms most powerful weapons. Jn some p.o.w. camps the Reels made it more than an illusion - they did find out every­thing. A few of the weaklings made it possible. "You couldn't trust a single person," Zach said. "The way the Beds got hold of almost every scrap of informa­tion was eerie." Yet they didn't know everything. "A small group of ~lasons remained intact during their captivity," he told me. "The Reds never found out. The mere knowledge thnt they were able to keep this group in existence was a tr~­m<' ndous boost to morale. These men, strengthened hy this proof that the Reds WC're not supermen, maintained a good record against crack-ups." 7. ROBEllT WILKINS. Robert \Vilkins was given the works, yet came out intact in body and soul. He was a master technical sergeant, a man whose mind was £lied with details the Reds wanted. Ile came from Detroit, a city the Commies detested because its workers owned their homes and drove their own cars, making them "capi­talists," and turning the conventional Red language of class war into utter nonsense. Bob helped ferry the first American warplanes to Indo­China. Soon he was flying into Korea, sometimes on four or five missions daily, in B-26 light bomber . These were FAc:rs Fo1m'c 'nvs, December, 19.56 all low­or oxyg1 "We were• Ill fighting Commu mission! "Desr in their around our owr selves p justified <lC'rful l have IC', wait un rotten ti After began t rnagazir came to on 'the thev wl rcf;1SC'Ci. "The woulds this WO\ less wo1 coming never C• "Wlw fear. Fn I refuse point, l through Willing!) Bob c their O\I until the ing b h concede rnust, ar 8. DA from pr develop rc•quire1 While that aim kept in of loncli anythin1 evcrythi the ceili matter c Thev dc·ma1;cl \Vas con himself he hims• the U. ~ jail sent( opinion. 'The "for SOil attitude. t it is. ind Jet e! We s as if a pur­as the 1g the ha<l to werful Jn the World 1at the impor­hinese ays of 1 if we ~ssures i blow ganda. rvived S. Air deep­isoner, :d hi!ll d then you to , they :s, you )unists :arnps. J. The nisn1's : Reds every· "The for111<1· 'up of e told ;e thnt a trr· n· this ~eel a •n th<' was a filled roit, a >wned "eapi­f class rndo· 1 four \\'CfC all low-k•vd attacks in mountainous terrain, without radar or oxygen, with only six hours' fuel. "\\'e weren't told anything about the type of war we were fighting," he said. "\Ve had no idea why we were fighting in Korea, and we weren't told anything about the Communists. I had to become a prisom·r of war after fifty missions, to realize why we had to fight them. "Dc•spitP all the lies and twisted facts tlw Heels told us in th<'ir indoctrination lectures, we still got a better all­arouncl picture of the world situation from them than from our O\\n people'! \Vhat we found out from tlw Heels them­selves proved to us that they were our all-out enemy and justified every bit of fighting we were doing. \\That a won­derful boost for morale it would have been if we could have learned that from our own side, instead of having to wait until we were captured by the Heels to find out how rotten they were and how right we were." After many adventures in prison camp, "The Chinese began to indoctrinate us," Bob said. "They gave us Heel magazines and papers and lectures. After a while, they came to me and suggested that
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