Keyword
in
Collection
Date
to
Download Folder

0 items

Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
File 069
File size: 31.97 MB
Citation
MLA
APA
Chicago/Turabian
Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 069. 1956-10. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 21, 2017. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1608.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-10). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1608

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 069, 1956-10, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 21, 2017, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1608.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

URL
Embed Image
Compound Item Description
Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date October 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries Special Collections
  • Energy & Sustainability Research Collection
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript CHIANG KAl-SHEK President of Notionolist China FACTS FORUM NEWS STORY THE Nationwide acceptance of FACTS FOR M NEWS in such an outstanding way during the past five years encourages us to embark on an ambitious program of expansion. FACTS FORUM NEWS is now accepting advertising. This revenue will be used to more fully present to our readers the pro and con analyses of current national and international events, and assist financing our radio and TV programs now heard coast to coast as a public service. The status of a strictly non-profit, non-partisan organization will not change. A vital part 1n our expansion program will be the decision of the American Businessman tO select FACTS FORUM EWS as a NEW and POWERFUL medium to present his products or services to the American people. To assist in our efforts to obtain advertising for FACTS FORUM NEWS the appointment of Adver· tising Sales Representatives is announced. McCLA AHA & CO., 295 Madison Avenue, New York 17, ew York Personnel: Mc. A. B. McClanahan • Mr. Roberc Wicks • Mr. David J. Mann Telephone: LExington 2-1234 JOH R. RUTHERFORD At~D ASSOCIATES, 230 East Ohio Street, Chicago LI, Illinois Personnel: Mr. John R. Rutherford • Mr. William A. Cook • Mr. Charles A. owlen Telephone: WI-I ice hall 4-67 L 5 1710 JACK 0 STREET • DALLAS J, TEXAS • Telef1hone: STcrling 2291 THOMAS W. MASSEY, Advertising Manager YOU a~ a believer in the free cnterpri:,c '}"tcff1 and the principle,!, for which Facts Forum stands can help in our expan~1on program b} encouraging bui;incs~mcn of )'Our acquainrance to ad"crtisc in FACTS FORll\1 EWS. Rates will be sent upon rcc1ucst. IN REo C. "B1c [ llis E: In CAN s Co~nr T11E A1 C< Se!eetic A1 L1 S1 Mosco· A E\\ "I SovuT In SP Condl'1 ,1, l'V A CoNn: \VINNI) CoNTES Es Po Sk Le FAc:-rs I l>oLL Q l>otL R StocA. Pl past five s is no''' and con Jrog rams anizacion co se lect _s co che ,f Advcr· IN TH IS Volume 5 Number 10 October 1956 IU:o cm,\ - U'\ \ 00LC ,,(), John C. Caldtc('/l "B1c D1Tc11" YS. THE H-Bo'rn . . . . llis Exn:LLE,CY G\CA"llt\lu L. \h.HT\ 2 7 IO InterYie11 of the Ambassador of India to tlw U. S. CAl\; St-:Ct"HITY BE Gt"AHA,TEED? . Co,nn "ST-Ow'\ ED C. I. Scuooi.s! T11E 1\1-:\\ \'ETLII ''s' PE'\SIO'\ L"' 12 20 22 Anahzed bv T. 0. Kraabel of Tia• Am<'rican Legion and Congr<'ssmt;n Olin T<'ague of T!'rns Selections from Tim GIIEAT PIIETE,s1; American Communists Begin Their C1md, Frederick \Vollman Let's 'lot Ct•l Complac('nt, ]. Addington Wagner 24 26 27 28 29 Summation, ]. Edgar Ilooc<'T Moscow's \,n-STAL" PunGE, ]OS<'/lh Z. Komfeder A. NE11 Ess·\Y Co,TLST FOH Ym·,c ,-,,11.n1<.A's "llow America Can Best Fight Communism" So\"IFT ESPIO,.\CF I'\ Till-. U.S .. \. . . . . . 32,33 31 Interview of Judge Hol)('rl \!orris, Chi!'f Counsel of the S<'nate Internal Security Subcommittee Con(knsation of AMEllJCA FACES \\'()IILD CO,!\lt1'IS\I, Anthony Trawick Bo111ca1en Tv A'D RADIO Sc11 EDLTLES . Col'\n:s-r Huu;s \VINN"c LETTERS TO 11IE Eo1TOI1S CoNTEST E'nn BLANKS Essav Contest Poll 'Questions Slogan . Lett!'rs to the Editors . f'Ac-rs Fom·" POLL Qt ESTIO'\S l'otL QuLSTIO'\ \ \'l'\,EIIS l'otL RESl LTS FOii At"Gt"ST StOcA!'o; FOii TIIE l\fo,Tll . 39 56 32,33,60 61 62 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 Photo Cn·dih Front coHr, Pn·sicl(•nt Chi;1n~ K.u.sht•k, \Vid<• \Vorld; JlilJ.!:<' J.&, Ahiliti<''• lnc., courfrsy ~tanl<•y Simmon.s, N.Y.U. Hrllevut• Mc>dical Cl·nh'r; pal.(P 2:), Ht·p. Tt·.igm•; pilj.((' 24, l\<·n11dh Colt•J.Crc>H'; pllj.!t' 2.5, l<;nrnil 1~1.{<'; p;\J.!<• 2.'5. Gn•J,!ory l\~imo'; pagt• 25, llarry Schw;irtr.; Jlllj.{t 20, FrNkrick \\'oltm;u1; pOj.tc 27, J. Addrngtnn \\'agn<.'T; paJ.!<' 2H, j. l•:cl~or llooH•r, \\"idt• \Vorld Photo-;. 170fl.-JCIAJ. PUB LT .. \TIO'\ of F.1.<:l"i Fomm, .Inc., ~110 J,\~·k<.on >tn·d, Dall~s 1, :l<-:\.:l\, P1!h!1\ht•d tl). fllhly tn tlw mh-rt'\h _of F ~1cb J: omm p.~rtu: 1pants ~ d tJth, T\ (.'Oll<:t·rrwd \Hlh d1spt·lhnJ.C puhhc op.1thy. oJjrt'<l a st·cond cln'iS mutter at tht• Post Offi<.'I', ~~ ;~(·:h~· u~s~·t~ tlw \ct of .\l.1r<·h :l, 1879. J>,80ARD OF D!HECTOHS, Hohnt 11. Dodmnn, .\ 1d!'rlt; John L. Da.1t', \"ice-Prr~idt·nt ; \\.'1tnl'n ~~ Ct~bnt, Jr., SN:rdi1ry; Joe ;\ ,1sh, Trt·.1 un·r; i. Co E~t:'" Lamb<·rth, \lrs. Su<• .\lcCrary, Hohert ~OVJSOHY BOAllD. Major B. A. I!nrdoy, Ch<1ir­P. s; Pr. Arthur A. Smith, Llo>·d E. Skinn('r, D.n id ktt lt1cklt·r, Harry E. HogiN, \Villiam X. Blanton, \'CJU' U, ?-.i. Hms<'ll, Jr., Mrs. \Vallac<• Sn,a).!<'. \\.'. C. .\U11 ll'ler, Do,1k \Valk<•r, E. E. McOuillt•n, Con·rnor r:;;n Shiv<·rs, Gt•1wral Alhrrt \' \Vt•dt•nwyt•r, W,;~:~ Holwrt E. \Vood, I lanforcl \1c:\id1·r, John '~'l~'tC 1' rS FORl!M is n nati<mwide public t·duc~­orliC: ani1:at1on ch•dicatt•d to arousinK puhhc.· ~C'_t i~ curr('nt evc>nl'i and stimul~ting i_ndividu.11 Cl(>llbon in the shaping 0£ public poh<:y. ..:~C'!S FORUM is non11ro6t and nonparficrnn, lTttn5( no politic.11 candicl;H<' or party. F;.1cts ~· <\(l's Font ' I I\'1-:ws, October, 1956 1\·orum\ ach\'ities are dC'sil.::ned to prt·st·nt not just Oil(' \ iew of a contro\ ersiul hsut', hut OPJXlsinl! "it•\\-;, lwlit·\ in.i.:: that it i\ tJa: ril!hl and tht• nbli­$.!• ltion of tht· Anwric.111 pt•oplt• tht•mst•h<•s to h.trn ;.tll the f;Kt 11ncl c.·omt• to tht'ir 0\\ n (.'(11l(_·l11,im1s. FACTS FOHU~f is unalt<-r.1hly oppost•d to the> Communtsl con'ipiracy, and u'i('S t.·H·n· nw.ln'i '' ith­in it'i 1>0wt•r to kt·c:p tht.• Americ.m pt·op]e ;l\\ilT(' or lhl• d:lllJ.WTS of <."Ommuni~m . SJG'.\.ED ARTJCLES app<';.tring in FACTS FOHU~l :'\E\VS do not m·ct·ss.1rily n·prt•wnt the> opinion of the editor<;. \!ANUSCRIPTS •uhmiltod to FACTS FORU\! '.\ FWS o:,hould lw acc.·ompanit·d hy -;t.unped, !Wll­adcln ·'i'il'd t•nn•lo1ws. Puhli~lwr a'isumt·s no n·'ipon· sihility for n·turn of umolicited m.111u-;<.·ripb. SUllSCHIPTl0'1 HATES in tho U.S. nnd U.S. pO'ist.•ssions, $.') P<'r year, s.5 for two )'C'<tr'i, and S7 for :) w:lr'i. All otlwr countril'S, $·1 per y<.·nr, To suhsc:rihe, sec pngc 19. CllA:\"CE OF ADDRESS: SP1HI old addrt·ss ( ex.wtly as imprintt•d on mailini! lahel or your c.·c>py of tht• maJ.?:1vine) and n<·w ndclrt"'is to FACl'S FOHU\f :'\EWS, D<'1rnrtnwnt C.\, D.1ll.1s 1. Texas. Plt·<t\(' allow thn•e we<· ks for chanJ.?:l'O\ er. Don't Miss ••• II THE NeKf/$9111 I OF Facfg Fotum Newg New Era for Indian Americans? General Cu ''"'" :JI Lillle Big Horn, nial lwn~ Jo..,t to t hp I nrl ian ... , but th<' India n s a~ a "ho le lu1'e been Io~ing <' ' <'r '"i ill C"<'. 1\10" , to tt•rm inat(' or not to termina te? - that i"l the tfu <' ... tion regarrli n ~ ~o , er nm <' nt a l su pcni'-ion of Indian alf:rj,.,, Sh o uld the L n ited S ta t e~ go\ ('r1111u•n1 C'Ont inue it ... '-uper­' i"ion , o r i~ tl l<' rerl man read) to " p a ddle hi~ O\\n ('a llol•?" R f'nd th<' ('Omplt-.1" 11ro a nd ('On n n a ) ~ ... i ~ in the 1'o , C'mber issu e. Postponed Attractions T he edit or~ a re ra th er ehugrined o ' er th<" ll ('C"t·~.; it~ to 110 .;tpone until the 10\ C'mbe r i.;.;uc t" o a rticles sd1ed· ulcd to a pp<'nr this month , "hich ha, e been unu, o idahll d e la,ed . \'\'c be lie'e )OU "ill a g ree these are "tteU \-\ Orth "ait ing for: Interview of A.D.A.'s Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. and Status of Forces Treaty Pro and Con by Rep. Frank T. Bow (R-Ohio) Rep. James P. S. Devereux (R-Md.) .\D\" E RTISING HE.\ DQl".\llTERS 1710 Ja<'k!!on St reel Dallas, Texn1; _\ DVERTISING SALE RE PR ESENT.\ TJVES EAST COAST McClanahan .._t Compnn) 29:i l\tadi .. on Aanue New York 17, !\c" York 'tI D-WEST J ohn R. Rut lu.•1· ford & As&0cialt's 230 East Ohio Strut ChicaKo 11, lllinoi" Page 1 RED CHINA, THE U. N. VOLCANO is anxiously watched by Freedom's Fortress and Chiang Kai-shek By JOHN C. CALDWELL Coast line of Formosa y; ~ tlusion trips t1 from 11 F'ormo: and ea and Im itself cl <leterio the si~ lanuar Ncui hired Who h. favor a With h ~Ong . . 1ng fca ~scat Oat dur ·\sscml· 1957, The trade n ~en ts ateJy I IVho sta n· ~sm P' • 1a. It 'natic n ~Cd Ch ~atic g acked lh inese 1~.Jl'Ili~ -\nc1 th4 i; that , nisrn' s ~g}'pt the p~ baeus, Formoso Nationalist soldier on Quemoy Island r 11nou.11ol'T Asia people arc jumping on the neutralist band­wagon. This is my unhappy con­clusion, based on two recent extended trips to the Far East, covering Asia from Korea and japan south through F'ormosa, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and eastward to the borders of Tibet ~nd India. The growth of neutralism is Itself disturbing; even more so is the deterioration in morale observed in 1he six months between one trip in January and another in June and July. Neutralism is being carefully nur­ltirccl b} the Chinese Communists, ~ho h<l\C given up sabre-rattling in a~or of a gigantic "smile" campaign, kith headquarters in British Hong . ong. And it is inspired bv the chill­bng fear that Communist ·China will seated in the United Nations - if not during the sessions of tlw General .\sscmbly this November, certainly in 19,)7. It The fear grows with talk of casing ade restrictions, with the pronouncc­~ ents of men like David \!arshall, \\>tely Chief :\linistcr of Singapore, n·ho stated in Hong Kong that commu­\ 15.m poses no menace for Southeast s1a. It increases through such diplo­~< ttic moves as Egypt's recognition of med. China. Certainly the major diplo- 1 atic goal of the Communist world, lh~kccl by India, is admission of the ~ ll]cse Reds to the United ations. ltd the fear in non-Communist Asia n· that with the assistance of commu­~ tsrn' s newly-acquired errand boy, tligYpt, the goal can be achic,·cd. For be people of Asia do not need an acus, much less an adding machine, ~ ~r-rs Font 'r "\'1·;\\s, October, 195(i Free China's government building, T oipei, Formosa lo realize that the Communist bloc, plus the neutrals, plus the Arab bloc and some of the uncommitted nations, can ease Red China into the United 'ations. Some observers believe the first step may he a complicated maneuver to substitute India for ationalist China on the Security Council, thus giving the Beds one more vital vote and influ­encing the uncommitted nations. It matters little what method is used. \Vhat is important is for the Free \ Vorld to understand the consequen­ces and move swiftlv to block Hcd China's admission in '1956. The unanimous resolutions of the Jlo11sc and Senate against admitting Hl•d China to the helped dispel some of the fear of Asians, and mav even cause some nations now incline~! to vote for Red China to hold oU for another year. But the danger remains; the fear is still there. The cUect of this fear can he seen in Bangkok, where the Chinese language press, anti-Communist nine months ago, has made an almost complete shift to neutralism or outright support of Peiping. Or it is seen in the near dcfl•at of the pro-\ Vest government of Japan in recent elections. It can be J ohn (;. Ca ld ,. t• ll , " ~ 11 -k n o"n 11(' \\ Spapcr co lu mnis t, hus IJern "riting a rt icles and booke a bo u l (;hina since the age o f e ighteen. An Am e rican c il izc n , bo rn in China a nd parll :> cducat (•d th <'rc, he has scn ·c<I the Unil ed ta les Go' ernnten l for ) ears as an experl on Far Easte rn affa irs. noted in the sudden emergence of fully-organized Bed cadres among the Chinese population of Sarawak, in British North Borneo. And it can he seen in the deterioration of morale on Formosa, in the increased anxietv of the Free Chinese. For if Commt;nist China is admitted to the United :'\a­tions, the "Two China" idea will be­come reality; trade restrictions will be lifted, recognition of Peiping b\ other nations will inevitably follo", and Free China's remaining influence in Asia will be lost. Every move made by Red China in recent months has been aimed at cre­ating a neutralism that will fa\'or its goal of attaining the prestige and rcspectabilit) that nited ;\ations membership will give. The latest in these mo,·cs was the invitation to a number of American newsmen to \'isit Communist China. The Communists have placed the United States in .a difficult position. If we refuse permis­sion for American writers to visit Heel China, "·e will be damned b,· the Communists and even by some of our allies. And if "e wai\ e present pass­port restrictions, "e also run a risk. For man\' of the men "ho would ,-isit Commu~ist China arP the same men whose dismal reporting have created the mess we .u·e in today. How can \H' be sure that men "ho called the Com­munists mere reformers less than a decade ago, who did not understand the nature of Nationalist China's prob­lems on the mainland, will not again be deceived? Thus once again, as has so often been the case during the past decade. Page 3 Formosan farmer applying fertilizer, gift from u. s. " ·c find the en e m~ holding tlw trumps. But our hands are not tied in Asia. There is action that can be taken, par­ticnlarlv if the seating of RC'd China is defeatc"d this war and we ha,·e a vear of grace . .\ncl as important as it ls to block this mo,·e, it is equally important to de,elop positive action, to provide an antidote for the poison of Red neutralism. \\'hile all the nations of Asia are involved in the struggle that lies ahead. it can be properly evaluated only if the historical importance of the overseas Chinese is understood. These are the 12-million-odd Chinese who li,·e, neither on Formosa nor in Red China, but arc scattered in vast com­munities and isolated farms all through Asia from Hong Kong south­ward. It is against these Chinese that the Communists have directed their programs of propaganda and terror­ism. It is among these Chinese that the Reds have made most progress. And it is by understanding how this has been accomplished that the Free \Vorld mav be able to block the further ex-pa1~ ion of communism in Asia. . Industrious Character of Chinese For centuries the Chinese from the two south coastal provinces of Fukien ,md K wangtung ht\\"e been adventu­rers and seafarers. In the tenth century South China junks penetrated as far east as the Arabian and Red Seas. The native populations of Southeast Asia, made up of ~Ialays and numerous aboriginal tribes, have never been kno\\·n for industrv or business acu­men. It was the i~migrant Chinese, sometimes merely exploring, or per- Page 4 haps escaping from a revolution in China, or moving because of flood or famine, who began the development of the area. \\'hen the British began to develop Singapore in the early nineteenth cen­tury, they sent n•crniters northward to find Chinese. When the H.ajah Brooke on Sarawak wanted to develop his little kingdom in the jungles of Borneo, he found a Chinese who had been resi­dent for some years, and sent him hack home to the Fukicn coast to get colonists. \\'hen the Buddhist leaders of Thailand wished to build a great city of gleaming temples in Bangkok, they sent to China, and Chinese arti­sans did tlw job. And thus it is that there arc 893.000 Chinese among Singapore's present population of 1,100,000. In Sarawak there arc 260,000 Chinese, making up nearly 30 per cent of the total popula­tion, and in complete control of busi­ness life. Altogether tlwre are 12,500,000 over­seas Chinese. '\early 50 per cent of the population of thC' Federated ~Ialay States is Chi1wse; there are three mil­lion Chinese in Indonesia, one million in Vict-l\am, and three million in Thailand. Of Hong Kong's 2,400,000 people, 2,225,000 are Chinese. All through Asia, from the borders of China southward through India and eastward to Bumm, the Chinese con­trol business; they publish Chinese language nt•wspapers, operate Chinese language schools, and worship in Chi­nese language churches. Industry Plus Wealth Equals Jealousy Human nature being what it is, native peopll's were frequently jeal­ous of the industrious and frequently wealthy Chinese. And even though frequently invited to settle in South­east Asia, the ovt•rseas Chinese was often discriminated against. In British­controlled areas there was no school­ing provided for the overseas Chinese for many years. In British Sarawak there was no high school at all until 1948! Verv few ChinC'se cared to attend the British-operated public schools which, to this dm , have a curriculum aimed at prcpari1~g a youth to pass the Cambridge ernminations. Children in }-!alaya, 'orth Borneo and Singapore sh1dy the same fairy talcs and chil­dren's tales read hv British children. In geography they learn the names of all the members of the commonwealth and colonies. In a part of the world where snow is never seen, childrc11 read about snow and ice skating. Thus, not being assimilated in hi' adopted country, the overseas Chinese has always looked north to China. Th<' old-sh le families want their children to go hack to China, at least for a visit. And the old folks want to be buri<'cl in the good earth of China. nablc to properly educate their children in tht f l'W schools provided by the British. Dutch, French, and Thais, the Chinese communities began to establish their own schools. The Revolution of 1911· 12 in China, overthrowing the ~lanch11 throne and establishing a republic gave the overseas Chinese new prid<' in their homeland, and gave tremen­dous impetus to education and th• establishment of Chinese langua!!< newspapers. It is onlv natural that the ovcrsc•1 ' Chinese h<;vc always looked to Chi11•1 Discriminated against by the British Dutch, and French rulers of Southcnst Asia, they were forced to keep their home ties, and were forced to eductitr their children as Chinese children. Red Campaign Bars No Holds The Chinese Communists, wh~ moved into Southeast Asia even bcfoJ"I they had defeated the ationalist' for over a decade have clcvcrh ,111 ' thoroughly exploited the oversea·s Cl~1 nese. o holds have been barred 11 this H.cd campaign. The Reds h•11 ', I moved swiftly to control the Chine'' language press, to infi ltrate the nct1rl~ I 1,800 Chinese schools, and to cstabh' I control of labor unions in predol111 nantly Chinese Singapore. They h•11 ' spent young China the sa areas opium In t the Ct the th Pers; Chine~ Sin gar and t 100,00 he cal Strike, of lab< nated inajor loss of Cance The Pore h for hu tion. ( Pore, COmpl Britisl· Operat contra ing, , throu~ the tri truth: 11llmec nese 1 to c~n By ere nesc \ial~y Thais neutr; to ano infectt life of Let Comrr Sevt•n encrgi Und t Sou~h1 are1 Rec Fre hav clw 1 rec.~ ing FA<~rs Fonuc NEws, October, J95b f\c:rs spent millions of dollars in persuading young owrscas Chinese to go to Rl'd China for their college education. At the same time they have also done everything possible to corrupt and Weaken the oversea Chinese. Singa­Pore, \falaya, and North Borneo have been flooded with opium, and these 1 areas have now the highest rate of opium addiction in the world. the world 1, children eating. ttccl in his as Chinese :::hina. Thr ir children · for a visit. e buril'd in Unabll' to Jrcn in thr I he British. he Chinese 1blish their I m of 1911· I he .'.\lanch11 l repubJic. new pridt' ve trcrnen· n and thl' langua~<' ie overse•1s d to Chin•1 the British· •f Southeast keep their to educatr ·hildrcn. 'folds nists, wh0 even bcfort' I) a tionaJisld lcverh •111 terse<;S Chi· i barred il Reds h•11 ' I the Chinesl' o the ncM1' I ~to estabJisl· n prcdol111 • They h•11 In the important city of Singapore the Communists now control two of the three Chinese language newspa­pers; their inRltration of the private Chinese schools (there are 370 in Singapore) has been almost complete, and the Reds boast an "army" of 100,000 Chinese teen-agers, which can he called out at a moment's notice to Strike, riot, and demonstrate. Control of labor is almost complete, Red-domi-nated unions causing a total of 575 major strikes in 1955, representing a loss of 969,000 man-days of work. Cancer Threatens Southeast Asia The Communist cancer in Singa­pore has spread out, infecting Chinese for hundreds of miles in even direc­tion. Operating from bases ii~ Singa­pore, Hed agents have now almost completed the inflltration of schools in British orth Borneo. And in these Operations the kl'y weapon has bN'n ~ontrol of the press, of book publish­ing, and of all information nwdia through which the people might learn the truth about communism and the truth about Free China. But "hile the immediate target is the overseas Chi­nese, the ultimate aim of the Heels is to control the whole of Southeast \sia. By creating neutralism among the Chi­nese, the Reds plan to infect the \talays, the Dyak tribes people, the Thais, Loatians, and Cambodians. For neutralism spills over from one group ~o another, especially if the group first infected also is in control of economic life of a nation. Let us see just how successful the Communists have been during thC' 1even years they han• directed their energies against the overseas ChinC'se and, through them, the peoples of all Southeast Asia: Indonesia, the 13ritish-controllecl areas, and Burma either recognize' Red China or prohibit any pro­Free China activity. These areas have a population of 108 million, in­cluding over six million hinesC'. Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos recognize Free China, but arc mov­ing steadily toward ncutrali'>m. The ·tober, ]9·7' F' Ac:rs Fo11L xi 1 "s, October, 19.56 population is 25 million including approximately four million Chinese. \'iet-Nam and the Philippines recognize Free China, and arc anti­Communist. The population is 31 million including 1,200,000 Chinese. It is obvious that the Communists are winning Southeast Asia. Givl'n the enhanced prestige that United ations membership will provide, she can complete the neutralization of Thai­land and Laos, \\hich arc especially vulnerable becausl' of proximity to Red China. Both Singapore and the Federated Malay States are moving toward independence. H.ememher that 80 per cent of the population of Singa­pore is Chinese, and 80 per cent of the Chinese are under twenty-one - many of them students in the Communist­dominated schools. There is still a chance that Singapore might bC' smnl, hut can anyone helic\·e the Chinese will not go Communist, legally and in an election, if H.ed China becomes a "r ·spected" member of world soc:iety? l lun·e emphasized the thn•atened loss of Southeast Asia hut it is oil\ ious that Japan and Formosa \\ill he equal­h thn•atencd if the Communists arc ,{JJowed to pursue their acth itiC's. In this summer's Diet elections, the 1wu­tralists in Japan made impressive gains. H.earmament will he increasing­!} difficult, and it will be equally diffi­cult to prohibit the Japam'St' from trading with Communist China. Japan has he<'n cnm ling with cultural cklc•- gations from China, and has sent its O\\n quota of delegations to visit \Iao's Utopia. There can be no doubt but that morale on Formosa has deteriorated as the threat of Hcd China's acceptance and further recognition becomes more and more apparent. The Nationalist government, ne,·cr too good at public relations, is increasingly putting its foot in its mouth, is becoming sus­picious and plain cantankerous. \Vhile desperately wooing the overseas Chi­nese, Nationalist China is continualk alienating the people of Southeast Asi~ by its fearful application of security regulations. Chinese from Singapore, Hong Kong, or Bangkok who would like to visit Formosa, perhaps to invest • in the island's healthy economy, must cool their heels for weeks before get­ting a visa. Every foreigner, including Ameri­cans, who carries a camera is increas­ingly suspect. A few months ago then• occurred a typical example of poor public relations caus('(J bv Free China's fears, and her incrca;ing iso­lation from the rest of Asia. A British-owned airliner, unable to land at Hong Kong's frequrntly fog­bound Kaitak airport, llC'w on to Tai­nan, an International Emergency Air­field in South Formosa. \\'hen the plane landed, fuel exhausted, it was surrounded hy Chinese soldiers ,,·ith drawn guns. For several hours the passengers \\ere forced to remain in the plane, which became hot as an Typical prosperous forming village in Formoso Page 5 A new East-West highway is being built through Formosa's mountains. O\·en. Finallv the\ were allowed to dis­embark, ag,;in at gun point, and were herded into the tiny waiting room of a local airline, where they spent the night sleeping on tables. This unforhmate episode occurred first, because the plane was British, and Britain recognizes Red China. Second, among the passengers were businessmen from all over Southeast Asia, and who knows hut that there were Communists among the lot? The fact that there also were people - British, Chinese and Southeast Asians - who might very well he impressed by courteous treatment, entirely es­caped the triggcr-happ} '\,ttionalists. Fear Alienates Friends It is obviously a part of Communist strategy to isolate Frc•c China, and this aim is being accomplished. Free China has but few friends in Southeast Asia, in spite of the magnificent stof} it has to tell. Yet the :--lationalist gO\·ernment spent the better part of June wrangling with the Philippines, one of its few remaining friends. The cause? .-\ Fili­pino had landed on an unmhabited island in the South China ea, and remo\·ed a Chinese flag. :\o one lives on the island, and no one ever will live there. But because she is frightened, because "face" is still important, the go\·ernment of Free China engaged in "·eeks of stupid controversy with one of the few safr·ly anti-Communist gov­ernments in ,\sia. Page 6 There is an interesting sidelight to this episode. An American radio net­work had asked President Chiang Kai­shek for a feature interview which would have been carried by several hundred stations. But the Chinese For­eign :\linistry was so husy writing and translating indignant notes for trans­mission to the government of the Phil­ippines that it could not spare a single man to translate the questions for the interview into Chinese. Stakes Extremely High It must be obvious that the stakes in Asia arc extremely high, that nitecl l\ations membership for Reel China cannot be allowed on the basis of America's national interest. At the very best it will mean American pres­tige will sink to a new low. And, at \\·orst, it will be a long step toward loss of a continc•nt. But this is the negative aspect of the problem. It is not enough mcreh to block the Communists in their efforts to scat Red China. For if the effort fails this year, it will be tried again. And all the while the Communists will be continuing their in.filtration of Southeast Asia and Japan. \Vhat, of a positive nature, can he clone to offset Heel China's growing prestige, her so-far-successful efforts to infiltrate and subvert the people of Asia? Veteran Far East correspondent Rodney Gilbert, in a ncwl; published hook, Compctitii;e Coexistence (Free Enterprise Publications), states that "Hcd China can not only be destroyed from without, but can be destroyed from within; and in a relatively short time." Gilbert sees three ways in which the Chinese Reds might be de· sb·oyed. One would be a spontaneous and reckless popular revolt, in which he believes Communist soldiers would join. The second would be a conspir· acy within the top Red Army com· mand. And the third would be a mo,·e­ment touched off by a Chinese '\;1· tionalist landing on the China coast. Chinese Reds Face Problems There is growing evidence of seri· ous unrest in China. Currently there arc revolts under way in Tibet and in Inner Mongolia. But let us admit thnl Mr. Gilbert is too optimistic, that re· volt of a general nature is not now in sight. Even so, it seems obvious th;1I the Chinese Heels are facing serim1s problems. And if it is an aim of the United States to contain and eventt1· ally force the defeat of communis(ll· 1 it is certainly the height of folly to consider admitting Red China to th<' United 'ations. For, with admissioll· there will come increased trade, wh~ch I the Chinese need badly. AnytlunC which in any way cases the problet!l' of these gangsters is contrary to th•' I best interests of the Free \Vorld ,u1d J of the United States. But even more pertinent than hi1 obser~ations about the ine\·itability of rcrnlt, is a suggestion \Ir. Gilbert makes in his book. To hasten the con1· ing of a massive countcr-re\'oh1tio11· Gilbert suggests the use of the or!(•111" ized expression of anti-Communi> 1 sentiment in all the Chinese cmnrn11· nitics outside Red China. An effccti'' and continuous expression of hostilil' to and contempt for Red tyranny i 11 the homeland of the 12 million o,·er· seas Chinese will, Gilbert believe' ha\'e a devastating effect upon t~1~ morale of millions of Commul11' 1 c:aclres, propagandists, the sh1dl'11 bodies of Chinese schools, and the ofli· C('rs of the Red Army. Gilbert writes, "A small part of tll money tossed into 'neutralist' states;~ I Asia, with a sneer for thanks, wott . finance the organization of articuh 11 '. I anti-communism throughout the ciir nc•sc communities in Southeast j\si·1· Although lw docs not go quite I• I enough, Gilbert has hit the nail on tla head. There is an antidote, which , 1 Continued m1 7iagl' FACTS Font'' '\Lws, Octo/;cr, 1# p ti a v ent Pa s11ggesj en ti re Panam llotenti Plan be now e~ ~reasc·c 4dvanc thermo lrnm Sea Le Its s11p1 I.eve! ( hit· to nee (Free tates that destroved destroyed ively short ways ill ght be de· 1ontanC'ous , in which iers would 1ina tms cc of sC'ri· ~ntly there ibet and in admit that ic, that re· not now in 1vious thnt ing serious aim of thr ommunisrtl· of follv to hina to. the admission. rade, which I . AnythinC 1e problet111 rnry to thl' I \Vorld atld I nt than hi' vitahility of \Ir. Gilbert en the con1· ·-revoh1tio11· f the or!!•1u­ ·Commutli'1 ese comrn11· of hostili!I An effecti'' I tvrann' i11 1iliion c;,er· I ·rt bC'lic-'e'· t upon th Commuoi11 he studc111 and the ofli· part oft~ list' states ;d anks woll Jf a;ticuh11' rnt the c1~; :heast Asi•~ go quite f c nail on ti1~ te which , 4' d ""page "lobcr, 1# "Big Ditch" vs. the H-Bomb Prominent engineers have urged the building of a third locks addition to the Panama Canal to strengthen the canal against atomic attack. The Third locks Project is under fire by supporters of a plan to build a new Sea level Canal through Panama or Nicaragua. Both sides claim their plan is best for safeguarding vital military and commercial shipping from the Atlantic to the Pacific divisions of the hemisphere. WHAT would happen if an enemy atomic attack c:om­pletely devastated our pres­ent Panama Canal? A plan has hec·n si1ggested in Congress to build an entirely new waterway through Panama or Nic:aragua, offsetting this Potential danger. Advocates of this Plan believe the strategic value of the now existing canal has materially dc­~ teas('d because of the tremendous •tlvance in the destructive value of thermonuclear weapons. S ltnmediate construction of the new i e.a Len•! Canal has been suggest'.•cl. 1 ts supporters claim that a modern Sea ·C'\·c·l Canal would he far less \ulner­• hlc• to damage from an enemy attack l',.c:rs Fonu~r 'E\\S, October, 19.)(j than the existing Panama Canal, which was built in a series of lock lc\Tls. The principal aclvantagc•s of the sea level design would he that the canal's struc:tures and foundatio11s would he far more difficult to destroy or damage seriously, and the resull\ of such damage would he ](•ss grm c than similar damage to the old high­lcvC'I loC'k canal. If the loc:ks in the present canal were• ckstro) ed. 'ital naval traffic through the canal, includ­ing airc:raft carriers, battleships, cniis­c ·rs, troop transports, convoys, etc., would have to he completely halted for perhaps an entire year bcfon• the loC'ks could he repaired and Gatun Lake refilled. Jn addition, the ca Lc\'cl Canal \\'Ould he a safeguard against the total destruction of the present canal from an II-bomb attack. However, anotll('r and C'ntireh dif­ferent project has been proposed h' a group of enc;ineers \\'ho suggest im­pro\' ing the present Panama Canal \\'ith a Third Locks Project. The design and purpose of tlw Third Locks Proj­ect is to make it as difficult as possible for an encm\ to inflict serious damagt' and greatly ~lecrcasc the const'<J uences of damage if it occurred. Unusual fea­tures are included in the design of the locks to make them more• resistant to damage by bombing and to facilitate their repair after damage. The engi­neers admit that direct atomic attack Page 7 would wreck an~ type canal in exist­ence either now or in the future, but less damage \\'Ould he inflicted on the lock le\·el canal because of its higher resistance against landslides. Their contention is that the estimate of expenditures for the third locks addition to the canal would be approx­imatelv from $210 million to $360 mil­lion, '~hile the builcling of an entirely new Sea Len•! Canal would cost the ta:-.-payers rough!~ between $5 and $10 billion. In addition, the Third Locks Project can be completed in the short­est time, which would be approxi­matelv four or fh·c vears. The Sea­Levci' Canal would t;1kc quite a few years longer to complete. The basic featmes of the Third Locks Project arc to increase the capacity of the canal in respect to the size and number of wssels that mav be accommodated, ancl also to dccr~ase the probability of interrupted ship traffic due to enetm action. The wider and larger dimensi~ns of the proposed locks will allow the passage of larger ,·cssels, including the largest of mod­em aircraft carriers. Thus, the addi­tional flight of locks to he provided throughout will increaSl' the number of vessels that can transit the canal in a given period, since vessels can be dispatched through the channels at shorter intervals than through the locks. Protection Against Fog One of the project's main purposes is to lessen the effects of fog upon the capacity of the canal. Fogs of such density as to block na,·igation of the cut occur frequently during the rainy season, from :\Iav to December. Dur­ing a fog, the lockage of vessels north­bound at the Pedro :\ligucl cut is im­practicable because they cannot pro­ceed immediately into the cut, and there are at present no adequate berthing or anchorage facilities avail­able above the locks. Fog rarely blank­ets the actual locks thrmselves so as to interfere with their operations, and if berthing space or anchorage were available above the locks, ships could he held and locked up until the fog cleared the cut. After the fog had lift­ed, they could he dispatched at close intervals, and the anchorage could be cleared of vessels in readiness to re­ceive southbound vessels. With the third set of locks in opera­tion, the Panama Canal's capacity could be one ship every thirteen min­utes. Also, it is deemed essential to Page 8 widen the Gaillard cut to permit two­wav traffic of all vessels. The cut can be ~vidcned at a cost of tentativeh· $i0 million for a minimum width of 500 feet. The wider channel resulting would be extremely beneficial in re­ducing surges, decreasing the chances of accidents in the cut, avoiding delays to individual vessels, simplifying dis­patching, and would offer other ad­vantages similar or comparable to those of the anchorage. Also, the increased width and depth would reduce the "suction" effects that would be experienced with large vessels in channels of smaller dimensions. Widening of the channel would allow a reduction in the total time required for a vessel to transit the canal. Delay would be avoided in approaching the locks, attaching the lines of the towing locomotives, and departing from the locks after lockage. The average saving in time would be about half an hour for every vessel passing through the canal. In time of \\'ar this would be a vital factor, par­ticularly in moving an entire battle fleet through the canal. Economically, the elimination of such delays is of tangible value to each vessel, and the total economic value would increase in proportion to the total traffic. Estimating liberally the average value of the savings in time at approximately $75 per vessel, the economic benefit would range from $470,000 annually for the year of highest traffic to date, to about Sl,500,000 for the traffic to be antici­pated one hundred years from now in 2056. Cutting Down Accidents \Vith safer and wider clearance assured, the reduction of physical and mental strain on pilots navigating their vessels through the canal would be beneficial. The decrease in the need for assistance by tugs would be an­other additional advantage towards reducing accidents in passage. Since the Panama Canal first opened, there has been an estimated total of 708 accidents durinq actual transit. The average damage per accident to each vessel has been about $2,100 each time. It is estimated that accidents experienced in approaching and departing from the locks would be reduced by about one-third in number if the Canal is widened. The ratio of accidents would assume great importance during war time. Only recently, an important military vessel struck the hank near Cunetto. and encountered delay for repairs from an accident that might have been avoided in a wider and straighter channel. While it is generally con­ceded that the superior power and maneuverability of war vessels re· duces their liability to accident in the cut, this particular accident furnishes current evidence, if anv is needed, of the desirability of a iJetter channel. \Vith the wi&•r channel in use, the minimum time of transit for war ves· sels would be reduced considcrabl~, and the probability of blocking tht channel by the sinking or damage to a military ship would be diminished substantially. Great Savings in Operating Costs The most important advantage. from the economic viewpoint at least. is the rrduction in the annual opcn1t· ing cost of the Pacific locks. The ulti· male prospective savings would amount to more than $500,000 per year. The incrcasl'd traffic would mctin additional rc\·rnue in canal tolls dur· ing peak periods of merchant shiP traffic. Probably the next most important advantage is the increase in the totJI usable storage in Gatun Lake as J result of the reduction of water surgrs in the cut and the addition of Mint· Hores Lake at the summit level. To· gether, they would increase the usable storage by about 160,000 acre feet. which has an immediate value for power purposes in the neighborhood of $40,000 per year. The ultimate value of this stora~e may be higher, when it is required fod lockage, but that time is remote, an the value could be determined onl~ after detailed study of other possibili· ties that may be better for both po,_-cr and navigation. It has been previoush pointed out that a similar result c•10 be accomplished by either widening or deepening the cut sufficiently to re duce the surges or to permit lo,,·e levels in Gatun Lake, and that ston1 ~' at a higher level than Gatun Lake !' far more valuable. The reduction it' the time of transit by eliminating the delays in approaching and departi~~ from the Pedro Miguel locks wott have a large theoretical value. Mamice II. Thatcher, former govrr· nor of the Canal Zone and head of ~h~ society of more than 2,000 survivJtl. j ·01' engineers, designers, and construct!., workers who actually built the "!31 , (Co11ti11ucd on page 6- I FACTS Fonmi: NEws, October, JfJfl T the fron trl'n c.·on~ nem thm wiel toilc juni can~ l'llgi fron ing com pub thro SOOI mor Pan Can wor lane Egy unh hire tant It Vail ti on <lrai regi mat or h t•d r Cunetto. for repairj t have been straighte1 erally con­power and I vessels rr· dent in the 1t furnishes needed, of ,r channel. in use, the or war ves· msiderabl~ ocking thr lamagc to a diminished Excavations going on in Canal. Note the huge year before the completion of construction on the Panama be dynamited through to permit the dogging of the conol. ing Costs id vantage. int at least. itial open1t· s. The ulti· 1gs would i00,000 pt·r vould mctin 11 tolls dur· ·chant shiP IT STARTED BACK IN 1904 ... : important in the totJI Lake as J rn tcr surge' 111 of Mir•1• : level. 'fo­, the usable acre fre1· value fo; ighborhoo< :his storage ·equircd for ·emote, afld mined onh er possibih· both po"·t'r 1 previoush · result cnJl widening or •ntlv to rr­' rml t lo"·''1 that ston1!!' tun Lake i• eduction ill iinating th~ l departiJIJ ocks wot1l iluc. rmer govrr· head of thC I() survivi11 ' ·onstructi011 lit the "lli l on page I Th<' Panama Canal was built with the blood, sweat, and t<.'ars of peopl<' from many nations. The saga of the tr<'ml'nclous odds encountered in its c·onslruclion still inspir<'S us today, nl'arly half a century later. Untold thousands of laborers, pick and shov<'l widders, section hands, and cngi1wers toiled for man) years in tlH' stt'<11ning jungles of Panama to build the canal. During the late 1870's, the FrC'nch engineer, FC'rdinand de Lt'Sst•ps, fr<'sh from his triumph in succC'ssfully build­ing the Suez Canal, headed a Fr<'nch company given permission by thC' H<'­public of Colombia to dig a canal through th<' Isthmus of Panama. Ile soon found oul that he had hitl<'n off more than he could handle' with the Panama Canal ProjC'ct. His Suez Canal, a beautiful piece of <.'ngin<'C'ring work up lo that tim<', goes through flat land onl\'. \Vhile the wC'ather is hot in Eg) pt. thC' climate is not p.1rticularly unlwaltl11, and workmen could he hired fr~m the neighboring inhabi­tants. In Panama, tropical conditions pre­vail. During the rainy season, vt'geta­tion gro" s up almost in a night, and drainage is difficult. \!oreowr, th<' region was C'\lremely unh<.'althful, and man) m<'n engaged on th<' "ork diC'd or b<•canw seriously ill from lh<' cln•ad­c ·d ) C'llow fever for which th<'r<' \\·as ·tobcr JI# ~ ' >.(Ts Font 'r Ews, October, 19.5() no cure at that lime .... Hocks had to be dynamil<'d. Mountains had to lw dug through. ccdlcss to say, the first attempt to gel the nativ<'s of thP dis­trict lo continue work on the canal was unsucc<.'ssful. De Lesseps finally had to admit def<.'at, and the work on the ~anal was abandoned for several \'C'ars. \1c'an\\hilc, in the U. ., th<.'r~ was mounting intcr<.'st in the can.ii. A growing need existed for a shortC'r water highway between East and \\'<.'st coasts. Much tim<' and moll<')' were lost because ships had to take tlw long, hnd roul<' around th<'. tip of South America. Finallv, after much discussion. th<' Fr<.'nch . compall) \\'aS bought out for $·10 million, and the U. S. took over the building of the canal in I 90.t. Though the actual \\'Ork in digging the canal was stagg<'ring, far surpass­ing anything of tl1<' sort that had <'vc•r lwcn accomplished before', th<' work of tlw U.S. Army ~fedical Corps in mak­ing the isthmus healthful and in taking care of a vast lcgion of laborc'rs \\·as an C'VCll gr<'atcr feat. Activiti<'s in th<' rcgion were virtually paralyz<'d b) yellow fever. After several courageous American soldiers voluntcer<.'d to sub­j<' ct themselves as human guit1C'a pigs to the bite of mosquitoes, it was proven b<'yond a shadow of a doubt that a particular kind of mosquito was the carrier of the dead!) tropical dis- C'asc. Immediate!) tlw :\ll'dical Corps swung into action. A larg<' Sttnit<iry force detachment undcr orders from Dr. \V. C. Gorgas, inslall<'d a system of sewage in the Panamanian cities of Colon and Panama. Ilis orders to pave the streets were carri<'d out, pre­venting the collection of heaps of gar­bage and stagnant \\'<tter in which mosquitoes brecded. They k<'pt the unclcrgro\\th cut do\\·n along tlw canal and spray<'d the clitclws with crude oil, thus killing tll(' young mosquitoes. As a result, ycllo" fever ha. become almost unkn;wn. Bcfore am· actual \\'Ork was done furthC'r on ti;<' canal, 1warly two and half years was s1wnt in making the region healthful and safe from tropical disease. lmmC'cliate con­struction began then and the canal was finally completed in 19lt. If tochl\' W<' would lruh· \'alue the achievcm~nts wrought in· tlw Canal Zonc, wc should keep <.'\·er frc•sh in our hearts and minds ho"· g<tllanth­thc forces of death \\'C'rC' foct·cl and conquered, the difficultic•s of construc­tion ov<.'rcome, and the' equipnwnt, pro­visioning, and housing of "an army in the field" organized. Th<' names of the engineers Go<.'thals, Gaillard, and St<.'v­<' ns and of Dr. Gorgas and ollwrs who \\'Ork<.'d on this gr<'at canal. ha\'C' be<'n aclclcd to the list of thos<' '"ho valianth scr"cd tl1C'ir country and more tha;1 their own country ~ the "ho!<' "·orld. Page 9 A OFFICIAL spokesman for Prime \ linister 'ehru of India, His Excellency, G. L. ~ l ehta, Am­bassador of India to the nitcd States, interviewed on a recent Reporters' Roundup program, was qucstionC'd by \·ctC'ran reporters Ernest K. Lindley of ;vetcsweek magazine, Lyle \Vilson of United Press, and Jim Lucas, of Scripps-Howard Newspapers. \loderator Robert F. Hurleigh, \lutual commentator and Director of Washington Operations for \lutual Broadcasting Svstcm, outlined Ambas­sador \lehta's iong and distinguished career in business and public life. Be­fore his present diplomatic appoint­ment in September, 1952, Ambassador \lehta was a member of thC' Planning Commission of India, and Chairman of the Tariff Commission. Ile was horn in Bombay in 1900, and was educated at the Univcrsitv of Bombm· and the London School of Economics. \Ir. Wibon openC'd the questioning, bringing into immediate focus a sub­ject which is uppermost in the minds of Americans where the Far East is conccrnC'd. "'.\Ir. Ambassador, will the Indian government persist in urging the admission of Communist China into the United Nations?" "It is not a question of the Indian government persisting only," replied _.\mbassador .\lehta. "There arc today in the United :\ations a number of Page 10 REPORTERS' ROUNDUP INTERVIEW OF HIS EXCELLENCY Gaganvihari L. Mehta Ambassador of India to the United States ~dla i Stev C.nadian ' This official spokesman for Prime Min ister Nehru of India indicate! :: right I,' h h t at t e Un i•t e d St ales 1. s not wi.n ni•n g f ri. en d s t h roug h .i ts f ore1. gn a1o•J rgvaerd cuh.a nS policies. India, according to Ambassador Mehta, would prefer direct aid in the fo rm of loans. Other aid, he emphasizes, should bl sador, I channeled through the United Nations, removing any doubt thol the fort "strings" of foreign control are attached. \finistc1 Ambassador Mehta states that Red China's admission to th• '\Vhat s United Nations is not urged by India alone. He feels that "recogni· to take tion of facts" is necessary, pointing out that at least a dozen other by!" countries have recognized the Peiping government of China. w Y?u ~ as ITIVI countries which have recognized the Peiping government. Indeed, some of your allies, among whom are the Brit­ish government, have not only recog­nized them, but want freer trade with China. France also wants freer trade with China. The first country which recognized China (the Peiping gov­ernment) so far as I know, was Burma. Then India and the British came next. There arc several countries which feel that recognition of facts is necessary for a settlement of questions in the Far East. That docs not mean that we approve or disapprove of the policies of a particular country, or of that regime. Indeed, there are many coun­tries in the United ations whose structure of government - of the way it came about or its policies - your government, and our govC'rnment also, disapprove." [Ambassador Mchta's reply ignored the fact that only one government of a country is recognized by the United >lations. 'ationalist China would he disqualified for United -ations membership by recog­nition of the Communist faction as the true representatives of China.] Mr. Lucas said, "Mr. Ambassador, one of the things most vexing in this country is that your people seem to feel there is little choice between us and communism - that they arc equally good or equally had, and we feel that there is considerable more "nhowe1 "Jr so," 1 and he \tr. Dul ~ewD mC'rit on our side of the question. l·I "1d that a fair statement of India's think jent':x~ ing and policy?" · j CQITlc h "I am afraid that is not quite a faV \ [r ~ statement," corrected the Ambassac'.or Co~ntr e "ArC' you referring to this rccogniti I invitatr o f Clu.n a, or a general . . ." I ha ve' .J O Mr. Lucas explained that he ha ll<ith ~~ no reference to China - his qucstiC I '·ins 11 concerned communism as a philosoph i'•-u·a, "t1.oonr or an ideology. Am! "Well, India has, by its own vo~ b~art-:~ tion, got a democratic constitutiott 'llind 0 rcplit'd Ambassador 1chta. "It h~ '.atin s ~; free elections. It has had no ccnsorshl 1 ·1ot cg of the press. It has constitutional oppi tliingom sition functioning. -. l>osa1' c "Even our economic planning 1 "Its: democratic in character," he c0 11 the w;s tinued. "There is nothing to prcvctt ll<hich 10 us from going out of the comrnott l llJrn 2 wealth of nations - the British Cort' they a~ monwcalth - just as Burma did. \\' ~sue \bl arc completely free. But we h•1~ •noth 1 remained within the Commomvt'<l]t desira~ \Ve have said, and our leaders l~u' \ Ir 1 said, time and iigain, that we bcht'' '''!lard. in the fundamental principles 0 •lis,. ir ~usse democracy. •nd p . "There is no question, therefore," )It A nr explained, "of India being in any ''' re tba committed to a Communist philosoph 'n P Y~n£ or ideology." a g. I Mr. Lindley introduced the subj£ tienda of Prime Minister chru's propos1 Sou~, fc visit to the Uni.led tatcs. ".\Ir. Arnb· 1 Viet J , r~ FACTS Fo11v\1 i\'i-:ws, Octo/Jcr, 1 c:rs F "101 WOlll II l'llOTOS ~dlai Stevenson, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., U. S. Ambassador ta United Nations, Lester B. Pearson, tan.ad1on Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and French Foreign Minister Christion Pineau !left lia indicate! 1° right), all of wham, according ta Gaganvihari L. Mehta, Ambassador of India to the United States, foreign aid ,:••r channeling of foreign aid through United Nations. Christian Pineau, visiting here in June, 1956, • _. 9ed U. S. ta lead the West in a new, friendlier policy toward Russia. prefer dire•• ' should bl sador, I would like to come around to doubt th01 the forthcoming visit of your Prime \!inister, Pandit Nehru," he said. ssion to th1 IVhat specifically do you expect him 1at "recogni· 10 take up when he visits this coun­dozen othel lty?" China. kYou know, Mr. Lindley, Mr. Nehru l\las invited last year by President Eis­' 1lhower, as far back as last August 1r so," explained Ambassador l\lehta, \and he was unable to come. \.Vhen ' \Ir. Dulles, Secretary of State, visited t . I' · ew Delhi, he repeated this invitation qdu'e s' wtin i.n k <d!l ld expresse d parh·c u I ar1 y t h e Pr esi·- n ta s 1 enfs desire that Mr. lehru should . .t f,1~ Co\ rne here and meet him. This is not A. q ubi c a dor I • Ir · e h ru ' s fi rst v1.s 1. t. II c was m. l I1 1. s m ass~ti :iuntry in 1949. Ile is coming at the ',, recogni invitation of President Eisenhower to th t h h.1, l 'tave an informal and friendly talk a e ' 11-'th . l . tiO 1 him on various common proh-ush 'qlouseos{ Jh I ie. rns , on a survey of t h e internationa I a P 1 · !itl1ation." 1. , Ambassador 1ehta stated that a ts own vo ·1 ~ Urt-to-h art talk, or a meeting of :onstitutioO· hta. "It h .. 10 censorshiJ 1tional opp<' lliinds was what was hoped for indi­Cating that Prime Minister Neh;u was ~t coming specifically to ask for any­"" ng, or to bargain over any pro- " l'VSUJs plannin!( 1 "I · ·r " he coo· th t is really a question of surveying ~'to preveO \\lhe· whole picture of several problems he comrnorr 1ch affect both the countries," he C .,,. ~1nmarizcd. "That does not mean that British 0"' "I ma did. \\' ~ ey will necessarily agree on every Jt we h,1, a sue, but if tllCy can understand one .itb lno_U1 r a little better, I tl1ink it is nmonweil' es1rable." leaders h~' \ · Ir. Lindley requested infonnation t we belie\ , rinciples O' ~igarding which p~oblems :vould he Scusscd by President Eisenhower •na Prime ~Iinister ehru. \linistc·r went to Soviet Russia last year. Ile has certain dews as to what this shift in policy means." Mr. Mehta indicated that this, and also the admission of [Red] China to the United Nations, would be dis­cussed, predicting that President Eis­enhower and Prime l\!inistcr ehru would discuss not only Indian opinion regarding the admission of [Red] China to the United Nations, but also of Burma, Indonesia, Ceylon, and Pak­istan. One of the areas of discussion, in his opinion, would be the feelings of various countries in that region in regard lo China and the whole prob­lem in the Far East. [It will be noted that throughout this interview, Ambas­sador l\Iehta referred, not to "Red China" or "Communist China," but rather simply to "China," or the "Pei­ping government."] Ile pointed out that Pakistan, to whom this country gi\'es military aid, is hadng trade negotiations wiili So­\ iet Russia. "Their Prime ~Iinister was to visit Peiping recently," he pointed out. "He has twice cancelled his visit because of ill health." It was implied that altl10ugh the United States does not wish to recognize Red China and docs not agree that Heel China should be granted United Nations member­ship, Pakistan, to whom tile U. S. sends military aid, is on terms of con­siderably more friendliness with the Soviets and with Red China's Peiping gO\·ernment. "Then also," he continued, "there are several other questions which have a bearing on India's economic devel­opment which will be discussed. So I think it is really a survey, or an 'across tile table' discussion. The whole idea has been that it should be completely informal, stripped of any diplomatic formalities and so on. They \\•ill get together probably out­side \Vashington, and meet alone for several hours." !\Ir. Lucas asked Ambassador Meh­ta's opinion of the relations between India and tile United States at the present time. "Has there been im­provement, or have relations deterior­ated?" he inquired. "It isn't exhibited often that there is any ill feeling at all," replied Ambas­sador l\Iehta, explaining that he was not saying this simply for the sake of formality or courtesy, and that tile same thing applied boili to India and to the United States. "I have been in this countrv nearlv (Continued on. page si) t Ambassador Mehta stressed that in 1 elllying he was, of course, only gucss­ng. "I don't think tl1at any specific •Renda has been formulated," he said. ~ u~, for example, take this shift in Viet policy. You know, our Prime WlDE WORLD PHOTO India's Prime Minister Jowohorlal Nehru is greeted by Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Ger· many, at Bonn Airport, July 13, 1956. Nehru assailed U. S. foreign policy in speech made at Bann. ~ ... C'ts Fon ~1 ' Ews, October, 1956 Page 11 Con Security Be Guaranteed? WJOE WORl.0 PHOTO Left: Senator Harry F. Byrd (0- Va.1 said that ot has been impos­soble to devise a federal system of disability which would be a buse­proof. Right: Doctor Elmer Hess, President of the American Medical Associa· tion, pointed out that a program of disability benefits will be oil but impossible to administer. security cannot be guaranteed, claim critics of the Social Security system. They maintain that putting the government in the insurance business fore· tells an all-inclusive, socialistic government under which the citizen will of necessity forfeit liberty for security. Such views are expressed below. " S E\.E'-. score and nineteen years ago our fathers hrought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty . . . and then along came Social Security in 1935," was the recent barbed comment of one critic, averring that the entire system was, from the outset, a "declaration of dependence" - of sorts. Then, to add insult to amendment ( 1939, 1946, 1950, and 1954), com­plain other critics, along came House Bill 7225, which embodied additional changes in the Social Security system. President Eisenhower, at a news con­ference before his signing of the bill, stated he thought it "unwise" to saddle the Social Security system with "some­thing I don't think should be there." Opponents of the revised program are saying that too long has Congres been viewing the system as the world's Page 12 best field of political hay. Moreover, critics are saying that an unastigmatic scrutiny of the system will reveal that it is nothing short of a high water mark in a socialistic flood, said flood being pumped out of Washington dis­guised as humanitarianism.1 Having the original Social Security program foisted upon them was bad enough, claim foes of the system, but now the present Big-Brother-knows­best legislation is indeed a bitter '1Jill" to swallow. It has been pointed out that enthusi­astic socialistic centralizers are well aware that Social Security is part and parcel of the Marxian design; and, if the trend continues, that there will be an ever-increasing "compulsory" pro­jection of government into the life of every citizen.2 Few will agree that the phrase, "universal compulsory cover-age for everybody for everything," h3 ' a pleasant and unrC'gimcnted sound· It has been charged that if some the staunch defenders of increase. Social Security benefits have thrtr way, citizens of the United States ~;'.~ soon be federally insured aga111·. I I' everything except nosebleed. t ~ thought by many that hyper-emotion . proponents, smitten with the compJ' sionate aspects of a revised prograJl1o are unable to sec the built-in booroer ang inherent in such a system. . Foes of the revisC'd Social Sccttfl~ system point out that the incre•1 pay-roll tax, which the revised P"'j gram will necessitate, will make a\··'.~ able United States Treasury rno01 (Continued on page J l 1Dc;.rn Clnn·ncc E. Mnnion, "Soci•tl St•curitY J\, Peter to P1ly P11ul," Mutual Broadcasting 5>'> 1 Ft·hntary 5, 19.36. ! Jl1id FACTS FotW'-£ NEws, October, J9J a~ tead so Often 1 the off assistai '!Uite : to am Prop lib era claim boon t are dis \\rill be as yea \Vhe the b e~Presi ad vane Countp lllenw' rything," hJ' ted sound· it if sornc >f increase' have their :l States Jll~1 red again:· >leed. It J' er-emotio!l· the cornP'1'. ed prograil' t-in booJllet' rstem. ·~ cial Seeufl~ 1e inere•1' revised pl'.~ I l make a••11 sury rnonit ,don page)' .-----MAIN POINTS OF NEW SOCIAL SECURITY AMENDMENT----. l. Benefits for individuals aged 50 and aver who are totally disabled . 2. "Primary" benefits, wife's benefits, widow's bene­fits, and parent's benefits payable to women at and a fter age 62, instead of age 65. age 18, if they were totally disabled on attaining age 18 and, except for age, would be eligible for child's benefits. 3. Continuation of child's benefits for child ren a fter 4. Coverage to lawyers, dentists, veterinarians, Chi­ropractors, optometrists, and other professional workers. Left: Congressman Jere Cooper ( 0 -Tenn .J introduced the Socia l Security bill, H. R. 7225. Right : Sen a tor Olin 0 . J o hnston ( 0 - S.C. J st a ted t ha t we should honor a nd toke core of our aged people. WIDE: WOllLD PHOTO security can and must be guaranteed, claim advocates of a liberal Social Security system. They say that changing social conditions make increased Social Security benefits imperative, and that the federal government is the logical dispenser of such benefits. This line of reasoning is outlined below. AVOCATES of a liberaliz<'d Social Security program maintain that if foes of the program could read some of the thousands of pathetic, 0ften tragic, letters which pour into the offices of legislators, pleading for assistance, perhaps they would not be r1uite so adamant in their objections to amendment. . Proponents of II. R. Bill 722.5, "hi ch liberalizes Social Security benPfits, claim that its passage wii'l prove a boon to hundreds of thousands who are disabled, as well as to women who "'ill be able to retire at 62 instead of as years of age. \Vhen President Eisenhower signed 1he bill on August 1, 1956, he e~Pressed the hope that it would advance the economic security of th<' tountrv. Those senators and congress­lllen w.ho have long fought for passage t.\.c:rs Fonnr 'Ews, October, 19.5(j of the hill feel sure that it will inclcccl provide additional sccuritv. Senator H.ichard L. Ne~1bcrgcr ( D­Ore.), speaking before the United , tatcs Senate, stated that older people today constitute more of our present low-income group than ever beforp in history. He said that manv womPn arc widowed in their fifties 01: early sixties, and that a great percentage of them have either ne\'cr " ·orkccl, or have not had recent work experience. There­fore, they find it all but impossible to find jobs. The only alternati\·es arc either being dependent on their chil­dren, or seeking assistance from public or private welfare agencies. • As for unmarried women who have held jobs for long periods of time, they find , when searching for new work, that the policies of new employers n•garding age usual!} preclude their employment. The minorit) of the Sen­ate Finance Committee stat<•d: Any woman who 1oscs lwr job ht:twecn the ages of 62 and (jf) cannot l';isily gl't other cmploymmt. Th<' fact is th,tt the overwlwlming; majority of wonH:n at the ag('S of 60 to 6.'5 art' not g.linfulJv em­ployed. \\'hen this age group is conip;trcd to the agt• group .5.5 to 6 I. "'<' find that women go out of tlw l.thor fore« ,tbout two and one-half tinws faster than mcn.1 Another aspect of the mattl'r is the wi,·es of men over 6.5 years of age ... since \\i\·cs arc gl'nerally sen•ral years younger than their husbands, and since a wife hcretofor could not retire at an early age, the alternati,·cs were to either try to live on the meager retire­ment income of the husband. or to work herself and help augment their income. (Continued 011 page 15) 18·i Congrcft ional Record ( I9.5A ), p. 11887. Page 13 CAN (Continued from page J 2J which the \Vashington free spenders will utilize for whatsoever their gen­erous (with taxpayers' money) hearts desire. The Supreme Court ( llelvering v. Davis, 301 C. S. 619) has already ruled that tax moncv is not earmarked, and that Congres; is at liberty to spend it as it wants. Furthermore, the Court has beat down congressional efforts to earmark taxes and set them aside for special purposes ( United States v. Butler, 297 U. S. Page 1, 1936).3 The Social Security Administration at one time assured the Supreme Court that it was not in the insurance busi­ness. _·ow, however, it seems to want to give the impression that it is in the insurance business.• And, as a matter of fact, many insurance companies 'iew with alarm such federal en­croachment, as well they might. The need to purchase commercial life in­surance is greatly reduced by the e,·cr-expanding compulsory federal insurance. ~loreover, the ability of the average individual to pay for commer­cial life insurance is being drastically reduced by the increased premium he has to pay for the compulsory federal insurance by pay roll deduction. 1$ $$$$$$$$$$ 1 By letting the above area represent the total life insurance needs of on overage family of four, earning around $5,000 yearly, it can be seen that this was the field in which private insurance com­panies had to operate before Social Security encroachment. $$$$$ $ $ $ $ $ The shaded area above reflects the amount of federal compulsory "life insurance," limiting by approximately half the field in which private insurance companies have to operate at present. The ultimate result of the movement will be that insurance companies will he unable to continue adding as many new policy owners, and may be forced to ask the government to take over their liabilities. The government would be in a position at such a time to sa}, "\\'c will gladl} assume the liabilities, but in order to do so we Page 14 SECURITY BE GUARANTEED? I I ~e I N.~~)l~ an am I retirem ever, h' ator O curred, age of Women accept Ponent: be tha I retirem diffieul that he ing to lirnitati 65-year Perh tests fr dcsirahle to some. Examples of personal fortitude, in the face of almost impossible odds, are employees of Abilities, In<. at work in their Coil Winding Department. Here, they turn out electric components for companies such as Remington Rand and Sperry Gyroscope Company. must also take over the assets" - such assets comprising most of the home mortgages in America, office buildings of the companies, stocks, bonds, etc. It is in such a manner as this, warn many insurance companies, that socialistic "Greeks" in a "Trojan" horse arc being dragged into the camp of our republic. Opponents of the Social Security rcdsion state that wclfare-staters and socialist-minded legislators have em­ployed the old tricd-and-trne emo­tional appeal to camouflage the impli­cations of a revised program. For ex­ample, tlw increase in the tax, to finance a revised program, may seem small indeed compared with what the tax will soar to later under the revision in the Social Security Act. Under the bill the tax will jump to nine per cent in 1975. J t appears fairly obvious that a larger and larger percentage of people will be moving into the retirement bracket, and a smaller and smaller group "ill h<' shelling out more and more taxes to support them." The gov­ernment, even with its clever dollar jugglers - past masters at fiscal legc•r­demain - cannot continue taking from today's Peter to pay tomorrow's Paul. Under the new plan women will start drawing Social Security benefits at 62, and disabled workers of both sexes will start drawing benefits at 50 yrnrs of age. This new plan will help breach the gap in the cradle-to-grave sccurityH which, critics say, seems so 'fl1 c rcv1.s 1. on w1· 11 not 1) e so all· I' athrne ednd' 1, inclusive as manv believe, howe,·cr Po' is. · I int c Senator Wallace F. Bennett (R-Uta 1 news , made the following statement: Defu I believe in social security. I also be- lain ti licve we should ht'lp our disabled. But. I lo 1 do not hdicvc this program is either '" th ng-eo accord with th<• fund.11ncntal principles of an th social security or that it will solve thl' !his is problems of all our disabled. Wlwn a s11r· t'Urnula vey of my st;tl<· tells me that this amend· Illa ment would ht'lp less than one out of four ny ... I am more convinc<'d than ewr th.it ~n abili this amendment is not the solution ... · I hrapidly I do not think this amendment clot'' ave ac either <·q11ity or justice.' their lo Senator Harry F. Byrd (D-VH· and be• speaking before the United States c1 ' Costs , ate, stated that private insurance coil' reckon. panics had had unfavorable expcr1 encc with total-disability insur<uic.l legis/a which had resulted in losses of Jl'l1 lions of dollars. Ile stated, furthrr1 that.a public-disability program woul1 most likely have the same expericnc< in case there should come a businl''l recession. The reason for this woul1 he obvious - the tax under the 11c 1 ' amendment might have to he suhst<ll1' tiallv increased at a time when the • 't people would be least able to pa)' 1 · Senator Byrd pointed out that it h•i' been impossible to devise a fcclcr·1 system of disability which would I~ (Co11ti1111cd 011 ,,age 16 1'/IJid. 4/bid. 'The llouflon C11ronide, March 19, 19.56. 1' t"Wlut About the Pinn to Pemion thf' Di~.1hl~ U. S, \:(·u:t and World Report (\lay lH. 19 (>. 82 . -r~t Conr.rc Iona( Record (19.'56), p. 118.5·'3· FACTS Font '1 i'\F\\·s, October, J9' l\.1isfc ay ad1 Securil) b-i1ck had an kind of illany l iisabilit they h the 50 72is. · Senat ~inted 1 paid ~this e hu1 'eceivin hanty. J:' .\Cfs l CAN SECURITY BE GUARANTEED? (Continued from poge 13) Senator Herbert II. Lehman (D­. Y.) stated that he preferred to see an amendment which lowered lhe retirement age of women to 60; how­ever, he was willing to accept 62. Sen­ator Olin D. Johnston (D-S.C.) con­curred, stating that he had favored the age of 60 as a retirement basis for Women, but that he was willing to accept 62. The consensus among pro­Ponents of the amendment seemed to be that the age of 60 was a better I retirement age for women, due to their difficulty in finding employment, hut ~at he and other legislators were will­Abilities, Inc., lllg to "go along with" the 62-ycar for componie• limitation as an improvement over the 65-year previous limitation.z Perhaps the greatest storm of pro­tests from foes of the Social Security b all· amendment has resulted because of eh so '.er I the disability benefits. This is the focal t (R o-wUeta\ h Po" f h . . . f I l I int o t c many cntic1sms o t 1e new system. ent: I Defenders of the amendment main- 1 also be- ta· bled. But J I In that the hardships of total and is either i11 °ng-continucd disability arc worse Jrinciplcs of than those of old age. The reason for 1 solve th< lhis is that the aged usually have ac- Nthhise na ma esnudr~· I cum u Ia t c cl more o f a reserve; a Is o, out of four many of them have retained, in part, m e'er th••t ln ability to earn. The totally disabled 1tion ... · rapidly exhaust what little reserve they dmcnt do«' have accumulated, if anv, bccaus<' of l ( D-\'n. States Sr11 1rance co111 hie cxpcr1 insurancf .scs of Jllil· •cl furth<'1· ~r;m woi1ld cxperic11c< a busincd this wo11l er the nc'' be suhst•ll1· • when th< e to pa)" jt t that it hJ' ~ a fcclcr•1 1 would I" l ori page 16 their long-continued inal;ility to work •nd because of the medical care and l'Osts with which they must need 1Cckon. legislators Compromise Misfortune is no respecter of age, ty advocates of the revised Social ecurity system. A person may he hbi1ck down early in life, before lw has k~d an opportunity to accumulate any 1nd of cash reserve. For this reason ~any legislators arc in fa,·or of paying thsability benefits at any age; howC\'CI', they have compromised thus far on , e 50-year-old limitation in 11. R. '225. ~enator Paul IL Douglas (D-111.) ~tnted out that disability benefits will l Paid as a right, not as a gratuity. 1~ this way the recipient will a\'oid J.th~9 ~~~•h'~,.. e humiliating stigma attached to 1., 18. 19> rl'eeiving what might otherwise be . p. 1185-~- I hanty. Under this program the dis- ·tobcr, J9JD ~"crs FoRu:--1 'Ews, October, 1956 a bled person will rccei\ c aid before he is destitute, so that he and his depC'ndents can he spared such worry and hardship." In eITect the> amend­ment will replace assistance with in­surance. Senator Douglas stated that the American people wanted sclf­rcspecting insurance rather than pub­lic relief. Senator Douglas pointed out that as the new system begins to CO\'Cr more and more people o\·er a period Willi WllHJ U l'llOTO Scnotor Poul H. Douglos !D- 111.l stoled thot the American people wonted sc lf·respecting insur· once rather than public relief. of time, the ta,payers of the nation will be helped directly because, in lieu of the welfare-assistance payments currently being paid to the disabled, such people will begin to receive insurance benefits instcad.4 Senator Lehman stated that there has been an argument raised over the proposal to pay disability insurance at a certain age. Ile said he found this hard to understand, for many insur­ance companies practice this, even though the insured is younger than 65 years of age. As for this being some­thing new or socialistic, he main­tained that such things had been prac­ticed by insurance companies as far hack at he could remember." The principal objections to insur­ance against disability arc approxi­mately four in number, according to Senator Douglas. The first objection is that medical determination of the degree of disabi lity will be extremely difficult, thus placing an undue strain on doctors; also, that this will lead to abuses. Second, the very nature of the benefit will invite malingering on the part of those who long for the cer­tainty of a benefit check rather than a facin.g of the uncertainty of a competi­tive world. Third, the paym<'nt of benefits will hinder the rehabilitation of the disabled. Fourth, it has been charged that the program will cost too much. Proponents of the Social Sccuritv amendment refute the first objc>ctio~ by pointing out that the determina­tion of disability has been and is being made> in hundrc>ds of thousands of cases - for example, those> in federal employ, veterans, and those employed by private companies. '.\!any of these have been adjudged disabled and have been drawing benefits. Almost half a million people are g<'tting dis­ability benefits from pu blicly-admin­istered funds; thousands arc b<'ing paid under pri\'ate plans; and, addi­tionally, workmen's compensation for industrial accidents creat<'s a large caseload. So it would seem that the objection regarding . the difficulty of disability determination is a relati\'ely minor one. ~Ir. Nelson IL Cruikshank, director of the Department of Social Security, AFL-CIO, remarked: Persons who sa~ that tht• go,·crnment cannot administt'r a dis,1bilit\ program apparently shut thdr e~ cs to the fact that it is [already] administering a number of such progmms.' As for the objection relati\'e to malingering (opponents of the am<'nd­ment claim that there is both a subjec­tive and an objccti,·e factor in dis­ability), some people de\ elop psycho­somatic ailments which may disable them, it is tr·uc. These people ma)', in all sincerity, helic"e themselves aillict­ecl with nondiagnosablc ills such as headaches, backaches. etc. The ques­tion arises, then, whether a doctor would certify applicants as being dis­abled when, in actuality, they may not be. It has been pointed out that if doctors do not certif) them, the doc­tors may acquire a reputation for being "tough," and may lose many patients. '.\Ieanwhik, tlw patients would beat a path to the lloor of those doctors who handt•cl out disability papers wholesale. St•nator Douglas, ~ lbicl., p. 11888. 1/Jid., p. 9601. 4/bid.7 p. 9606 . 11bid. 8lbld .• p. 9602. (Continued mi page 17') Page 15 CAN SECURITY BE GUARANTEED? (Continued from page 14) abuse-proof. ~loreovcr, it has been ex­tremeh' difficult to define total dis­abili~: For example, a person may be physically disabled, hut still capable of making economic contributions, as well as social ones. Too, he may be disabled in one capacit}, hut not dis­abled in anothc'r - for instance, dis­abled as a machinist, hut not disabkd as a watchman. Disability, then, is a relati\·e matter. Again, a person may be a clever malingerer - ckdicated to exploiting the government. There is much evi­dence to the effect that disahilitv rises and falls with the prosperi~· cy~le. In timps of recession disability figures run high. .-\.lso, who would attempt to define the dis,1bilitv status of a married wom­an. disabled for outside employment, but perfectly capable of doing house­work at home?' Medics Disapprove Senator Bvrd stated that eminent physicians and surgeons have ap­peared before the Senate Finance Committee in regard to Social Secu­rit\. Doctor F. J. L. Blasingname, rep­re~ enting the American \ lcdical Asso­ciation. testified that the medical pro­fession was concerned because thev may he placed in the roles of polic~­mcn, stating that the majority of his profession felt that the determination of disabilit\ would he both hazardous and difficuit. For example, there will he the individual, faced with the pros­pect of either receiving or not receiv­ing a disability benc>fit - depending on the doctor's "verdict" - who may develop a neurosis as completely dis­abling as an actual pathological con­dition." Doctor Elmer Hess, President of the .\merican \ledical -\.ssociation, in a letter to Senator Byrd on :\lav 2.5, 1956. told of the gr~wing conc~rn of doctors e\ erywhcre over the new legislation. Doctor Hess wrote that the enate Finance Committee had, after two months of careful hearings, lis­tened to over 100 witnesses, which in­cluded many wpll-qualificd persons, and that those people testified against the disabilit} factor in the Social Secu­ri~ · bill. l'nder the dPfinition in IT. R. 722.5, Page 16 a program of disability benefits will he all hut impossible' to administer, averred Doctor Hess. Ile wrote: . . . Tlw prohkm of determining wh!'llwr and to what '''lt'nt a person is dis.tblt-cl involws not only physical ail­ml'nts and hanclic:.1ps, hut also 1nental and emotional factors, including such int;.m­gihks as ('h•tracttr, will power, and per­sonal n1oth·ation. \lany p(·rsons \\:ith st·\Trt' handicaps. including parapkgics, multipll' ,uuputl'l'S, and the blind, arc mak­ing their way ~ts sdf-sufficit·nt individuals. On till' othl'r hand m,my persons with far l(.'SS s(·rious impairments, hut without the will to work, \vould welcome early pensions at thl' (•\pt·nst• of the taxpayers." It has been proposed that the posi­ti\' e approach to disability is rehabili­tation rather than cash benefits, for Alex Alozroki, with more than o dozen men in his charge at Abilities, Inc., was born with only half arms and half legs. Married and self-suffi ­cient, Alex drives his own car with controls he designed himself. anything less than rehabilitation is in reality not humanitarian. The disabled person really needs the incentive and dignity of a productive occupation, not pension and pity. '\'ot only will a do](' retard a rehabilitation program, hut it will have an ach·ersc effect psychologi­cally. 11 It is a matter of record that tlw country is presently making great progress in rehabilitating the disabled through programs already in effect. Such programs arc federal and state aid under 19.50 amendments to tlw Social Security Act, workmen's com­pensation, Vocational Rehabilitation Act, private insurance plans, Veterans' Administration rehabilitation services, etc. It is ~encrally conceded, amon~ foes of the Social Seeuritv revision, that it would be feasible to ·follow and subsequently improrn pre-c~isting programs rather than to inaugurate • I new venture which might proH dangerously unpredictable. Doctor Hess, in his letter to Semi· tor Byrd, pointed out that if a disahil· ity benefit became a statutory right. pressures for further liberalization of Social Security might prove irrcsisl· ible. He wrote that many supporters of JI. R. 7225 had made clear that their I aim was to have disability hcnPfits ,it an} age. sing this as a precedent, the door would he open for a rash of wrl· far proposals which might change th< entire philosophy of the Act. 12 speaki1 I ha1 cal pro rescnta ing ma arc sen I do nc will d, profess lions , them .. Sena resenta AssociH System Endangered I 0that cllo n w 1c Informed persons state that in an 6ts. Sw actuarial sense there is no n•liahlc ;uid tors wi factual information on the many prob· rnation !ems of rehabilitation and disahilitY· Will th~ Tlwrcfore it necessarily follows th.ii after ar it would iw all hut impossible to .ir· informi riH' at a cost for such a program. Pr<'' IVill be viding he1wfits to cover evC'r} possiblt One of neC'd might necessitate such a t<LX b1lf' Associa dC'n that thC' structure of the cntir< some\\'! Social Security system could be ci.i· I a state dangered. One aspect of the amendment is th·11 bisab/i it may do much to discourage reh;1bih· . tation of disabled citizens. One Jienfl I S 1 n c Viscardi, tcstif} ing before the Senate I Illa Ji 111 Finance Committee, was cspecia11' tel~ahil . . . . ,.,.,. allied 11npress1ve 111 this respect. \Ir. · ~ h • cardi is president of a remarkable' con- inet ~r. CC'rn, Abilities, Inc., of Long Ish1ntl as g ('fl N, cw Yo rk . Tlu .s orgam.z a ti' on \\'•1' suscuhr c1c estahlislwd and is being run by ped ~heck:.; sons considered permanent!} '111. lecting totally disablecl. 13 l\!r. Viscardi's ~,:i his situ, sensitive description of his disab1ht1 As f< is as follows: llledical I was born a crippled child, horrihh than 2.5 tkformed, with no lower limbs, and I spe''1 ~re ok the first S<·ven yl'ars of my life, consccuti' restorec years, in one hospital. f rn And when I was a child, I rcmemh< an sti asking my mother, "Why, me?" And sht ~Cars 0 told me that it was time for anoth<t fare Cc cnppkd boy to he horn into the "orl< · ~~Peri'c the Lord and his counselors held a nll'<'t· ing to dt•cidt• when' lw should be sent, no~ lated t the Lord s.dd, "I think th,1t the V1sc.tr<IJ the Cor \\Oulcl he a good family for a crippl< ts a ba hoy."" I~ liandic J\,lr. Viscardi, testifying before t, I States, committee, stated that he was aPP\ <dtied t (Continued on page 1 \tean /l,id ., p. J 186:). i h \V ''Ilnd e abih 1,~t:~: Srnal "ll>itl lllony fi :.:?,;~." t 1864. I ~ducat F AC-CS Font \! Fws, October, lg!/' CAN SECURITY BE GUARANTEED? 1auguratc • 1 "7~ A,.,/ ght pron' "f' ~ (Continued from page 15) er to SeM· if a disabil· Jtory right alization of 1ve irresisl· I 1pportcrs of r that their I bendits ,ii •cedcnt. tht ·ash of \\'cl· change the l.ct.12 speaking in regard to this, stated: I have ... a higher opinion of the medi­cal profession than many of its' official rq>­rcscntatives. I believe that the ovcrwhdm­ing majority of the doctors of the country arc scrupulously honest in their diagnosis. I do not believe them to b., venal, and I will defend their characters and their professional integrity against the implica­tions which have been l<:'vclcd against them ... .' Senator Douglas remarked that rep­resentatives of the American :\1cdical Association seemed to have the idea I that doctors will be the men who pass on whether a claimant receives hene-that in an fits. Such is not the case, for the doc­reliahle and tors will merely furnish medical infor­many prob· l'rlation to a state board. This hoard I disahilit~ Will then make the final determination 'ollows th·11 after analyzing both medical and other sihle to nr· 1 1nformation. In this wav the doctors ogram. Pr<'' wi!J be under little pres~tir(', which is ery possible One of the principal objections of the h a tax bur· Association for the doctor will be the entir< Ornewhat ~f a consultant rather than 1ukl be cw I :i st,1tc functionary. ment is th·11 Disabled Will Be Checked tge rchahili . One Jlcntl I Since the objections charging the Sena!• 1 rna]j n gcri ng and i m peel i men t of 1 especial1' re~abilitation arc somewhat closely t. :\Ir. Yi» alhed, they may be considered to­nkahlc con ~ether. For one thing, a person draw­. ong Jshu1d ing benefits for being disabled is not f ,,·;1' assured that he will continue to draw za 10 ; per· 1Uch benefits indefinitely. Ile will he run 1 Y and t1 ·heckl'd. And, if he appears to be neg- ·nccanrdt i'}s • ecr . . f . 0,,.11 h· 1~g o~portu111hes or improvement, '. . . b'lit" is situation can be reassessed. is disa 1 · t\s for rehabilitation, competent 1 thilledical opinion reveals that not more 1ild horrih' an 2.5 per cent of the disabled who ,, a;1d I spc11t ar 11 I fif 1 , consl'cuti'" e o c er t rnn ty years can 1c testored to self-support. Senator Lch­illan stated that he served for man\ rears Oil the Labor and Public WC'i­are ommittce, and had had much experience \\ ith rehabilitation. IIC' t~ted that testimony was gin•n bC'fore •1e Committee to the eilect that there h a backlog of two mill ion cases of Sandicappcd people in the United tates, and that the number is being I rcmc1nhrf c ;~: Aann~l~;~ :> thl' "orltl· held a nll~·d he sent, ~o the \'iscar<1~ r a crippl< before tlil was apP~· don page l ~ddecl to by at least 250,000 each year. · leanwhile onlv 50 000 or so arc being tehahilitat;d. · ' Senator Lehman stated that testi­ion} from the Department of Health, I ducation, and \\'clfare, and from rjf ctober, 1 r "C."fs Font.''>r 'E\\'S, October, 1956 mcm hers of his O\\·n staff, re,·calcd that for every dollar spent in rehabili­tation, five dollars was returned to the country hy enabling the person to be self-supporting and thus assume his share of the tax burden.8 Advocates of the Social Security amendment admit that since President Eisenhower signed the bill into law, there is, understandably enough, a need to finance the extra benefits; so it will be necessary for Social Security taxes to be raised by about $850 mil­lion annually, beginning January 1, 1957. Benefits Cheap at the Price As for the objection to the high cost of the measures included in the Social Security amendment, it has been point­ed out by proponents that the over-all benefits derived will be cheap at the price. Senator H.usscll B. Long ( D­La.) stated that when the costs were actually worked out, he believed that a person would be paying approximately sevcnt,·-fivc cents each month to in­sure <;gainst disabilit~, and that his employer would he paying a similar amount. Senator Long stated that the idea of preserving a man's pride - by hav­ing him pay for the insurance which he receives later - appealed to him. J fr pointed out, howewr, that the man in the upper brackets, salary-\\'ise, "ill receive the smallest percentage' return \\'ith regard to the amount lw paid. For example, the man "ho earns $·1,200 or more each year will rcccin• disability payments of about thirtv-one per cent of his earnings. On the 'otlwr hand a person earning $100 each month will receive about fifty-five per cent of his earnings." Senator Douglas stated that not only would the amendment be insur­ance - it would be social insurance. His opinion was that in social insur­ance it is possible to have some shar­ing of benefits and some allocation of costs, whereas this is not possible in private insurance. He made the fol­lowing statement: Social Sl'Curity is good for everyone in most circumstances. Its broackr dkct is to give a greater proportional<' bcnl'fit to those who arc most in need, on the Chris­tian principle of "Share yP with one an­other your hurdcns."10 Senator Long, calling attention to the vigorous opposition from a mnn­bcr of sources, stated that he had in mind, specifically, the American .\led­ical Association. He mentioned that it had been only a year ago when a spokesman for the Association had asked the legislature to pass a bill giY­ing doctors a tax deduction which would help in insuring themselves against disability. Senator Long stated: In other words lhl' doctor recognizes that if he should go blind, for instance, he could not continue his prc1cticc as a doc­tor. So the,· caml' before the committee and asked for <I ta' dedudion. \lost doc­tors arc in a relati\'C'ly high income-ta' bracket. If we had aclopt<'d that proposal. it would have meant th.it Uncle Sam was picking up about fifty per cent of the chl'ck .... " "The working man wants what the doctors want," said Long. "If it is good enough for the doctors, it should he good enough for the working man."1 ~ Additionally, President of AFL-CIO George .\lcany denounced the Ameri­can .\lcdical Association for "false and malicious" attacks on the Social Secu­rity bill. The A.\fA's campaign against the disability part of the bill, accord­ing to .\fcany, "violates the humane traditions of medical practice and brings discredit to the spokesmen of a prof~ssion sworn to the good of the sick. :\lcanv stated that the hill contained "adeqw{te safeguards against chisel­ing," and added tha.t it was "shocking to hear spokesmen for an organization which professes the highest ethical standards accuse its own members of a willingness to engage in conspiracies to defraud the government. "Labor," said \[eany, "apparently has more faith in the integrity of tlw indvidual physician than docs the A.\fA.''13 Ills Are Determinable Those who defend the new Social Securitv revision state that while it is ti·ue th,~t many psychosomatic ills will be difficult to determine, there arc multitudinous ills which are casih­detcrmina ble. Take, for cxampl~, arteriosclerosis. This is a thickening of the walls of the arteries, and it accounts for O\'Cr fifteen per cent of disability cases. Then again there is paralysis, or (Continued ori page 18) 'Ibid. .,Ibid \l[bicl., p. 960·1. 1 '/bid. 11 lbill. lZJIJid. 13AFL-CIO Scu:s, Ja.nuo.ry 28, 1956. Page 17 CAN "'"'I'°A''- / . (Continued from page 16) hensive about a program providing benefits for disabled people. He said he had great faith in solutions ob­tained in the competith·e free enter­prise of today. Abilities, Inc., was on~anized b~ handicapped people almost four years ago. Their basic principle was that they would accept no charity. Borrowing $8,000 from local citizens at interest, and paying a prevailing wage, th.is unique organi­zation began to compete for contracts in the electronics field. In its third vcar of operation Abilities, Inc., had gr~wn to 169 employees, and its gross sales exceeded $600,000. It might be added that represented in its group of em­ployees, all severely disabled, is every known static and progressive illness. It is estimated that 20 per cent of the employees could qualify for retire­ment and also disahilit\· benefits. Some employees are as mu.ch as 82 years old.1;; ~Ir. Viscardi commented, further: I come to indicate my appr<'hension that we may stigmatiZ<' th<' cliS<ihkcl by this legislation; we may condone the i,gnorancc and the rnisunderstanding which exists; and we might tlwn dl'priH' millions of our citizl'ns of the right to know a productive life and havt• them n·sigrwd to suhsi<h, which is not tlwir lwritage as Ame~i­eans. 1• There is a growing concern among authorities on the subject about em­phasis being placed on continuing dis­abilitv rather than on rehabilitation. The Task Force Report on the Handi­capped, of the Office of Defense \lobihzation, in 19.'52, concluded: . . . The term "tot.illy disabled" is a tC"rm we arc tod.1y b(.•ginning: to feel ap­plies to \'t'IJ' frw people .... Any benefit which diminisht·s tlw incentivt• toward r('hahilitation and sdf support is soci,dh undesirable." · \\'aync B. \\'arrington, commis­sioner of the Arizona State Depart­ment of Public Welfare, pointed to the dangers invoh·ed in a disabilitv bene­fits program. His opinion w:is that H. R. 722.5 will do much to dcstrov the self-sufficiency of our citizenn: He cited, as a case in point, a hypothetical man of the future who, at age 50, de­cides he has a physical impairment which will be of long duration. Inas­much as he has, OH'r a period of manv years, paid a considerable sum of hi.s income to the federal i:;o,crnment as Page 18 SECURITY BE GUARANTEED? an .. insurance premium," he may well feel that the gO\-crnment has a great deal of his money - money to which he• is entitled." Senator Bvrd stated that later dis­ability hen('Bts may doubtless he paid for partial disability, and when the health of 70 million persons is dealt with, a vast field will be opened, one of such magnitude that no one can tell where it will end. He said that he has seen many an aid program start at the mouse stage and grow to elephantine proportions. Senator Carl T. Curtis ( R-Ncb.), speaking in opposition to an amend­ment proposed by Senator George, had this to say: \\'hatc,·er differences there arc in the language of the Georg<• Amendment and the dis.ibility prO\isions of ... 11. R. 7225 arc of very littl<· t·ons('(1m·nc<•. Both pro­posals would put th<• Unit<'cl States gov­c ·rnll'H.'nt into tlw husint'ss of paying c:ash h<'nt·fits for ph) sical disability .... It is a bro.id ... step in tlw fi<'ld of social legisla­tion. It ffi<lY l><' argu<'cl that this is ,, modest program .... Ld no on<• be decdvccl by that approadi. It is hut the begin­ning ... . 1 ' Senator Curtis went on to point out that legislation of short duration was not being dealt with; rather, the Social Security system had been set up to nm in pcrpebiity, and future costs must be reckoned "'ith - costs of from ten vears to 100 years. Ile stated, fur­ther: that clectiv~ public office holders sometimes erreel in their ideas as to what their constituents wanted. Jie said that if it \\'t're possible to get tht• mathematics of the proposition across to the majorit} of the people, clouht­less the Social Security revision would have little support. . \!any forward-looking Americans - 1f e,a,/ (Continued from page 17) cerebral thrombosis. It accounts for perhaps ten per cent of disability cases. Then comes hypertension, or high blood pressure. Also, there is arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. All these diseases arc eas­ily determinable by doctors in so far as disabilitv is concerned. Senator \Villiam Langer ( R-:'11.D.) stated that he had received letters from doctors who claim the door has representing those both for and against Social Security changes - realize that in addition to reckoning with the hun­dreds of millions of dollars which will be the immcdiat(' cash outlav for a new, lihcralized program, thc~c must be considcrC'd, additionally, those per­sons who will go from doctor to doctor until they can secure the necessar) mNlical evidence to support their dis­abilitv claims.20 Op[)oncnts of the changes in the Social St•curitv svstcm warn that the pcopl<' would ~lo -well to examine ALL chang<'s in the round, pointing out that tlw new, revised program commits posterity. And, conceivably, it may be that posterity, busy with weightier prohlC'ms of unemployment, inflation. and overpopulation, will he unahlc to pick up tlw tah for future liberal Social Security l)('nefits. Also, critic~ claim, one should not lose sight of the fact that the value of the American dollar has long been on th<' wane, and that no matter what bem•fits arc provided, doubtless the~ will lose value through the years. therchy contributing to a most inse­cure security. At anv rate someone will have to pay for. the revised program. The "gimme" group and the "somethin~· for-nothing" clique have not yet seem<'d to grasp the fact that soJlle· boeh, somewhere, some time, will ha,·c to a·nte up the necessary wherewith<11. That "somebody" is the taxpayer his children, and his children's chil­dren. E:>D •·/hid. 11l/11id. 17/hid 111ll1id., p. 1 urn.i;. 111/bid., J>. 11867. 211/hid., 1>. 11870. ht'en opened to socialized medicinl' Ile said that he did not agree with thcm. 11 Senator \Valtcr F. George ( V Ga.), speaking in this respect alsO· said it was his personal conviction th•1t the door to socialized medicine hnd not been opened. Ile stated, further: ... So long as wt• retain our prc:scnt frcezt• system an<l our free c<.'Ono1n' • soc:ializc:d medicine can be hrou~ht into !his wuntry only by the doctors thc1W sdvf.'S. Sonwone should have the cour1.1~f to say to tlwm that if they ('011tllllll' .''' make trifling ohjettions, they 111;.1y in\ltr something had .... The doctors alone t•"' 1181 Crmμrc \imwl Rc(·orll ( HH6). p. 11837 F CTS Fo11nr Nt:ws, Octo/JC'r, 19.Jfi hring 01 \ staks.u Senat I that he lllent w inal Soc that it I that it , Which \ I era! ret that it 1 Prope lions re charges •tion fc 1nvesb11 tern inc I each ye ·tnd the l'ral go Paid fc t'Ontrib1 Pants ir Billions Senat ·ountrv thl' age ltlilizati tial!y in try had j hil!ion I during \ Ian\ j l•ction. I ilid not ~vcrag I ny age •nd tot: that of 1t·r of f: ·if the ~ave m hied i 'lluch ir I ;t fifty Some Securit) 1fi.1t the 'n the ri ·~ttt•r ti than no "'ith th •111e h / 62 ye hat the i~ty; he llent at Bng the I ~~e. Th me., b1 Phi1oso1 It is , hp rn~s' I ~>rters, f ~<is F 1d against alize that the hun- 1hich will lay for a 1crc must hose pcr­to doctor ncccssa0 their dis- ~s in the that the nine ALL gout th<1t commits it may be weightier inflation, unable to ·e lihernl 1ould not ~value of 'been on ttcr what tlcss they he years. nost inse-l have to ram. Thr :imethintl· not yet hat some­will ha,·c ~rcwith<1I. taxpayer, rcn's chil· E:O.D -medicine grcc with corge (V pcct als0• iction th•1t licinc hnd 1, further; ur present econonl\• Jught iol<I :ors the11l' 1c cour•t~t' ontimu.· t11 111av indtr , afonc c..·.u1 >. ltli'57 hring on socializt·d medicine in the Unikd >t,1t(·s.' Senator Olin D. Johnston remarked that he recalled the unfavorable com­ilJent which arose concerning the orig­inal Social Security hill. Some declared that it was socialistic; others charged that it was the beginning of a program IVhich would put everyone on the fed­eral retirement program; others held that it would break the countr\'."' Proponents claim that there ;ire mil­lions retired todav who refute such charges. The systc~ has been in opcr­• tion for twenty years, and resen cs, 10\ cstmcnts, and earnings of the sys­tem increase each vcar. ~lillions retire I ach year and sta~t drawing benefits, .ind the program has not cost the fecl- 1 l·rat government a cent; _tlie cost. is Pa id for out of the Social Sccunty contributions of the 5.'3,400,000 partici­Pants in tlw program. Billions for Foreign Relief Senator Johnston remarked that the I 'Ount11 could hardly justify denying I the aged and disabled workers tlw 1tilization of their own sa\'ings, csp('- 1 ially in view of the fact that the coun-try had giH•n away in e'\ccss of 811 ~ I hillion for the relief of foreign people during the last 30 years. \ [an} legislators expressed dissatis- 1 1•ction to the end with a hill which lid not prodde more liberal disahilit) ~vcrage - one broadened to include tny age group which was permanent!) ;nd totalh disabled - not necessarih that of .50. years or upward. As ,t mat­ter of fact, numerous other adn>cates of the new-type disabilit) lwnefits ~ave made it clear that a person dis­blcd in his thirties, sav, is full\' as 1lluch in need of help as· one disabled I •t fifty years. 17 . Some legislators favoring the Social Security amendment agreed, however, , that the fifty-year limitation "as a step 1 1\ the right dirc•ction; and, since it was ricttt•r to take one step at a tinw rather than no step at all, they were in accord ll'tth the proposed amendment. This am(• holds true for the retirement age• ~f 62 years for women. Some thought that the age limit should he placed at 1 ~ty; however, they agreed that retire­~ ent at si:IJy-two was hctter than Im' - I big the person wait until she was si,ty­. \e. This is more of the on(•-step-at-a- 1'rne, but a step-in-the-right-direction ~hilosophy. I It is generally agreed, even among ~l' inost enthusiastic amendment sup- / l~itt(•rs, that pc•rfcction will not he ~ ~c:rs Fonu-.1 'i;"·s, October, 19.56 ad1i('\ eel in the administration of a liberal Social Security program; hut, thanks to the untiring efforts of a number of legislators, all of the pros­pecti, ·c recipients of benefits will not he penalized because of such imper­fection. in imagination and theory. Too few of the disabled are really qualified to do work of a technical nature. This being the case, who is going to hire a para­plegic, or an arthritic invalid, or a blind man? Some say that it is extremely easy for those persons not disabled in any way to he negative regarding a dis­ability provision in a Social ccurity amendment. But as for those hope­lessly crippled or otherwise disabled with cancer, multiple sclerosis, arthri­tis, or any of the scores of other dis­eases - they can't he negath·e and objective ... their problems arc very real. Critics of the amendment cite iso­lated cases where, in the case of rehabilitation, personal initiative tri­umphed over handicap. Such rehabili­tation is the ideal situation, of course. L;nfortunatclv, claim aeh·ocates of the amendment, ~uch opportunities for the majority of the handicapped e\ist on!) Advocates of a more liberal Social Securit) program arc jubilant over the• presidential signing of the bill. They claim that a new day of hope dawned for hundreds of thousands of unfor­tunate people when the President wrote his signature on the bill, lower­ing the sixty-five-year retirement age for women to sixty-two, and permit­ting permanent!) -disabled workers to start drawing benefits at the age of fifty vcars . .:Ti1is," they say, 1s humanitarian legislation. It provides a new milestone in security for the people of America ... EXl> ·Ibid. t lbul., p. l lb.58. 1 ~"What \bout tlw Plan to P('nsion the Disahkd?" 1~~ . ~2-~.~~- arid World Report (\lay 18, 19.56), Here's How You Can Help THE CAUSE OF FREEDOM! 'tr Tell your friends to tune in whenever Facts Forum is on the air. Make a list of the radio and television stations serving the home communities of your out-of-town friends and mail the list to them. '{:( Write a letter of appreciation to the stations on which you can hear Facts Forum programs. A favorable audience response will insure their continuing to carry these programs. ff Check your local newsstands for displays of Facts Forum News. If you do not find it, tell the manager he can secure copies each month from the International Circulation Distributors' local wholesale branch. "{::{ Write your informed opinions on problems which must be answered for the future of America to editors, columnists, and commentators. Send clippings of all your published letters (containing ISO words or less) for entry in Facts Forum's "Letters to the Editor" contest. '{:( Suggest that your local merchants and business friends promote Patriotism in their advertising. Facts Forum will gladly send suggestions on request. '{:( Use the material in Facts Forum News to stimulate interesting debates and discussions in your club meetings. Tell presidents or the finance chairmen of all organizations that they can add to their treasury by using the Facts Forum Fund Raising Plan. Full details will be sent upon request. T::r Pass your copy of Facts Forum News along to friends so they may become acquainted with it and subscribe. f:l Make Facts Forum your organization ... help enlarge its activities ... with your contributions. Donations from Sl to $1000 (or more) will help immeasurably to further this important work. By a U. S. Treasury ruling, all donations to Facts Forum can be deducted from your Income Tax. FACTS FORUM, INC. Dallas, Texas D I enclose $3 for a 1-year subscription to Facts Forum News. D Enclosed is my voluntary contribution in the amount S---- for the support of Facts Forum . Name (please print) Address City Zone State ................................................................................................................ Page 19 THE SHOCKING TRUTH ABOUT Communist- Owned G. I. Schools! The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations charges that for years, known Communi ts have actually been running and operatin g G. I. training chools for veteran , subsidized with the U. S. taxpayer' money ... Do YOU appro,·c of veterans attending schools owned and operated by Communists? Do you want your tax dollars spent financ­ing Communist-dominated G. I. schools? This is precisely the sort of thing that is being investigated by the Sen­ate's Permanent Subcommittee on In­vestigations. According to their recent report, over three million dollars has been taken from the lJ. S. Treasurv to subsidize four allegedly Commu~ist­owned and operated schools attended by veterans under the G. I. Bill since 1945. The three schools specifically men­tioned in this report that are controlled by alleged Communists, arc the Car­toonist's and Illustrator's School, 1 ew York Citv; the Radio and Television Technical School, Allentown, Pennsyl­vania, and the California Labor School, San Francisco, California. The fourth school mentioned, the Robert Louis Stevenson School, New York City, has been previously under al­leged Communist ownership. According to the Subcommittee's report, the Veterans' Administration received information from a reliable source during 1951 indicating two per­sons connected with the Cartoonist's and Illustrator's School may possibly have communistic backgrounds or Page 20 leanings. Finally after three years had elapsed by October 7, 195-1, the Veter­ans' Administration decided that no further Public Law 16 and 894 veter­ans would be sent to the Cartoonist's and Illustrator's School. It was also determined by the Veterans' Admin­istration that new enrollments of dis­abled veterans would oppose good public policy until all facts would be presented regarding the associations and activities of the "two persons" allegedly having Communist sym­pathies. Important testimony was presented to the Subcommittee by John J. Huber, an FBI undercover agent who was assigned to join the Communist Party as a member from 1944 until 1947. Under oath, Huber testified he first was introduced to Burne Hogarth, (part owner and the current vice-pres­ident of the Cartoonist's and Illus­trator's School) in 1914 at a confiden­tial meeting of the James Connally branch of the Communist Party in New York City. Huber disclosed that Hogarth's name was definitely on the membership rolls of that particular branch of the Communist Party from 1939 until 1947. Part of Huber's testimony consisted of reading condensations of reports made by him to the FBL Huber stated that Burne Hog,1rth was nominated to WIDE won1.o r1rn'rv I "NOW, LOOK HERE!! YOU" ... Silas Rhodes, co-owner of the Cartoonists and Illustrators School, points his finger and shouts at Senator McCarthy during a public hearing al the Senatt Investigations Subcommittee. The clash with Mc­Carthy stemmed from Rhodes' refusal to Sol whether he was ever a Communist. The Subcom· mittee has been looking into charges that schools now or formerly owned by Communists ho"' · received millions of dollars from the governme"t I for training veterans. the position of mass organization rep· I rcscntativc of the Unity Center of tht I Communist Party. SubsequentlY Hogarth was then nominated ant1 elected to a position as delegate to th~ county council of the Unity Center o the Party on January 30, 1945. Tht; former undercover agent also charg('( that the Robert Louis Stevenso1 ' School of New York City predotisl~ was the temporary headquarters for a Communist controlled organizati0 11 called the West Side Legislative Co1 ; ference. The name of Burne Ilogart' was designated as executive sccretn1"'1 I of the committee. Huber idcn~fit~I I Hogarth as the individual describe< in his testimony. Following Huber's testimony, pr. Bella V. Dodd appeared before nJl' other hearing of the Subcommitt('(' Dr. Dodd, an active Communist foi sewral years, broke with the Part)'. i(. 1948 because her own personal behl' clashed with the Communist do<' trinc. 0 Dr. Dodd declared on the witnr'' 1 stand that it became the policy of ti' Communist Party at a meeting in eJ' I ·I tember, 19·15, to try and organize \·t erans' schools being fonned. 1 In her testimony before the St! 1 committee, Dr. Dodd stated that sl1 ' 0 11t-r hook, "Sc.:hool of D.uknt"'i~," \\l.l!i rt·dt:~ / in tlH' St·pkmht.•r, 19:.>6, iswe of Fact.r Forum ·' " FAers Fonuc 1hWS, October, Jg.'i! he ca Hoga ist's a work( struct pictec for tli As Hoga ht'fort 18, H decla1 no jt areas lions rnent denie• Cornn rneml 1947 I lion, i Com1 floga1 rncnt · of no· sc•lf. J hound tlw St grade When tc•c• po Possih for me• he firs still l .\nwn• In : I WOltt.O p1t<tf 1 I Silas Rhodes, ~ 1 llustratorl its at Senator of the Senot• :lash with Mc· efusal to Sol The Subcoin· es that schools tmunists h01' 1e governmerit ization rep· mtcr of th< I sequentl)j natccl ant ~gate to thf J y Center 0 j HMS. 'fh~ ]so charizc< I Stevcns011 prcviousil 1uarters for n-ganizati011 ·lative CoJl' I ti• ne Ilogar 1c sccretaf' ·ficd r idcnh 11 1 describe< imony, pr. before aJl' >committct 1m1111is.t. .. fo,,r, :he Pan! f :onal belie' mnist doC' the witnc'' 1oliey of t!~ ting in ti I rganize'" "' ·cl. ·e the St1l1 eel that sl became acquainted with Burne Hogarth, part owner of the Cartoon­ist's and Illustrator's School. She tlwn worked with him concerning Party structure and Partv decisions. Sh<' ck­picted Hogarth as a "militant fightt•r For the Party position." As a result of this testimony, Hogarth was subpoenaed to appear hc•fore the Subcommittee on January 18, 1956. After taking oath, Hogarth declared that the Subcommittee had no jurisdiction for inquiring about areas not related to contractual rC'la­tions between the school and gel\ <'1'11- rncnt before August 20, 19-17. He also denied present mcmb<'rship in thC' Communist Party and past e\isting rncm])('rship dating from August 20, 1947 to 1956. In answering the qm•s­tion, if he had been a member of the Communist Party pl·ior to 19-17, Hogarth invoked the Fifth Anwnd­rnc• nt which allowC'd him thC' pri\ ilegc of not hearing witness against him­\ c•lf. But Hogarth overst('ppcd tlwse hounds when llC' n•fused to l'\'C'n tC'll th(' Subcommittee ''here he went to l(raclc school at the age of fivC' or si\! \Vhcn SC'nator Ervin on the commit­tee pointC'd out that Hogarth couldn't Possibl\ lw incriminated or prosc•eutecl for mc·1:ch telling the committc•c• ''hen• he· first c·;1terC'cl kindergarten, IIogarth \till continuC'd to invokt• the Fifth \mc·ndnH'nt. In .1ddition, Hogarth also invok('d the Fifth Amendment in not replying to the follO\\ing questions from the Subcommittee: \\as hl' a nwmlwr of thl' Unit\ Center of the Communist Part\' in "t'\\' ).ml dur­in!( \on·mhcr of HJ 1.J? \\'as hl' nominakd for tlw t.'\.t•eutivc t·ommilll'l' of tlw l7nil\ C<'ntt'r of the Communist Party on J•tni1ar) H, IH1.5? IIadn'l I\(' h<'<'n Ew('t1tiH' Sc('rd,1n of tht> CitiZl'lls Cornmith·l', l'ppl'r \\('St Si<k? \\.asn't hl' a mt•mlwr of thl' Communist Party on A11!(11St HJ, J9.J7? The Subcommittt•c• also !ward the sworn tcstimom of '\c•" York Police Licutc•nant Th~mrns \lcGuire. The lin1tC'nant joinc•cl th<' Communist Party from 1940 until HJ12 as an undc•rcm·C'r agt•nt for the l'\('w York Police• DC'part­mcnt. Boutin(' rC'ports werC' regularly made hy \lcGuir<' dming this period. LiC'utmant \lcGuire's reports indieat­C'd that he had met Silas TT. Hhodes, prc•sident of the Cartoonist's and lllus­trator's Sehool on SC'\eral occasions. These mC'etings were primarily in con­n<' ction '' ith thC' Anwrican Pt•ace \lohilization, an organization listNI in tlw U. S. Attorne) General's file on suhversin• acti\ ities. Silas TI. Hhocles also appeart•d lJC'­for<' the Su hcommittl'c for cross-<"><lm­ination on the witness stand. Ik took the same line of dcfC'nsc• as ITogarth previously relied on, maintaining tht• Subcommittee had no jmisdiction to inquire• into any of his actions or asso­ciations prior to August 20, 19-17, the Ex-G I students ottend moss meeting to discuss veterans' problems ~t Tex.as. A&M Colle~.: The Subcommittee's report indicated that the Communish tried t.o 1nf1ltratc the smaller C. I. trade schools. So far there has been_ no evidence 1mpltcat1ng the larger univers·i t·i es teoc h'm g th e d cmocr atic way of ltle • such as Texas A&M. \\Jn~: wom.11 l'llllTO Dr. Annette T. Rubenstein, whose private school collected two million dollars from the government for training ex-G. l.s, appears before the Senate Investigations Subcommittee. The former owner of the Robert Louis Stevenson school in New York City invoked the Fifth Amendment when asked whether she is a Communist or ever has been. date the school was originally licensed h\' the :'\cw York State Board of Edu­c; 1tion. \\'hen asked if he had memlwr­ship in the Communist Party prior to that date, IH' invoked the Fifth \mendrnent. Hhodes again invoked the Fifth ,\nwndnlC'nt to a query on whether it was necessary for him to l'ml his mc•mlJC'rship in tllC' Party prior to establishing the school. \\·hen the Subcommittee tried to clisco,·er Hhodes' competence as an C'ducator and dirl'ctor of a school that trains 'cterans, ht• was asked specific questions about his educational back­ground. Ik absolutely refused by in­, ·oking the Fifth '\nlC'ndment, to dis­closl' ,, herl' llC' ,,·ent to high school or collegl' and '' hetlH'r lw had any C'l:pe­ri<' nce in tcachin!!; before \ugust 20, 1917. Hegarding the acti' ities of the Hadio and TeleYision Technical School in \lien town. Penns\ h ania, testirnon~ ''as gi\ en h) Jicrn~an E. Thoma · of _\llcntown, an underco,·er FBI ac;cnt inside the Communist Party for on•r ten n•ars. Thomas related that he was intr~>duced in 19.'j! to \lichacl Fn·ed­land administrator and half owner of the lbdio and Tek•\ ision Technical School, h) lning Hiskin, a member of the Communist Part\. He soon learned that Communist Pa;tv leaders in the an•a had met and sta~ eel O\'ernight as guests at Frcedland's. home in Allen­town. At one of the meetings held at Frecdland's house, Thomas re\'caled (Co111i1111cd 011 page 60) Page 21 Do Vets Need . •• The New Veterans' Pension Law The bill signed into law on August 1 by President Eisenhower will ... ELIMINATE ... $10,000 free life insurance formerly provided to all service personnel. Inequity which allowed more to dependents of reserv­ists killed on active duty than to dependents of "regular" servicemen killed under same circum­stances. DECREASE ... Veterans' low cost government life insurance - will be available only to disabled veterans. INCREASE ... Benefits for widows and beneficiaries. Veterans Administration death compensation - will be based upon rank of deceased. (Increases range from 75% to 175%.) SUPPLEMENT ... Benefits for widows' dependent children when Sociol Security benefits are too low or lacking. Places oll servicemen under the Social Security system, with the government paying part of the serviceman's credits. Discussions which preceded adoption of this leg islation are of interest to Mr. John Q . Public, who will foot the bill, or benefit from resultant saving s. fits. Ar )'ear 01 eran: •· disabil rneet tl income ice." I that to and ev nizes a Oppon congre: cials, a have c gion fa ans ov Veterar dation. In t I Legion for dis; Ors of c by anv earlv i1 \m~ric fJf esse1 death , the inc Mr. T. 0. Kraabel, Director of the National Rehabilitation Department of the American legion, discusses affirmatively the American legion­sponsored War Veterans ' Security bill . ... he prcsunwd to he permanent]} and totalh disabled and automatically eli­gible. for a $90.00 monthly benefit, if they meet existing income limitations of $1400 a year for veterans without dependents, $2700 a year for veterans with dqJendents. Those who served O\'erseas for thirty· clays or more in \Vorld \Var I would receive 10 per I b<'fore cent additional. Eligible• \'C'terans 11'\' \!fairs than 6.5 would receive $75.00 a month ly the instead of the present $66.15, and I months those so helpless or blind as to nerd tant in aid or attendance he granted $150 '1 Legion month instead of the present $13.5..15· I IVar VE That's our hill. ln substance>, it prw out by vides a modest cost-of-liYing adjust I to prov mcnt in the amount of e'\isting hen<" 1 T the slig HE question of veterans' benefits is current!} the subject of more publicity, attention, and discus­sion than at am time in recC'nt years. To a great e;tent, the Ame;ican Legion has been in the spotlight because of our effort to provide a mod­est measure of securitv for disabled and aging \'eterans thr~ugh our \Var Veterans Security Bill, H. R. 7886. \Ve welcome the opportunity to pre­sent the facts about this bill and about the American Legion's position con­cerning increased benefits for service­connccted disabled veterans and the sunfrors of deceased veterans for this reason. \Vhen they know the facts, the American people acting through the Congress, will continue to c-,;press the nation's gratih1de to its defenders by <tpproving the necessary moderate vet­erans' benefits which we ask. The House of Representatives pro\'ed this when it passed by an overn helming vote of 36-1 to 51 the _\merican Legion's \Var Veterans Bill. This hill is not a general p •nsion pro­posal. It would merely liberalize exist­ing benefits to this extent. World War l ,·etcrans, on reaching age 6.5, would Page 22 American Legionnaires T. 0 . Kroobel (stand ing, left) of Washington , D. C., and Robert W Sisson (stand ing, right) of Little Rock, Arkansas, watch three Medol of Honor holders dig into hearty meal at the servicemen's center in Chicago, Illinois FA("I'S fonl 'I! .NL\\ S, October, ]9 11 theAm nncerr •eteran: <tnd Slll \Ve I these i benefits 1'here's them. A Rts and ~re for ~l uch ~eteran •rom th 'tlated c ~ti t out na so nd. 1 ·hieh c ~ram s 1llrpose 'OsaJ. " ~on p 1l"Vivor ·~vors. ( [IW fits. And it savs, in effect, to the 65- year or older ~ccdy World War I vet-eran: ''You are not required to prove disability and unemployability. Just meet the requirements of limited or no income, length and type of war serv­ice." I need not point out of course that today private industry generally and even the government itself recog­nizes age 65 as the age for retirement. I Opponents of our hill, including a few congressmen, certain government offi­cials, and some segments of the press have charged that the American Lc­ion - will gion favors older \Vorld \Var I vcter­ases range ans over service-connected disabled ·hen Social . Places all stem, with rviceman's l"etcrans. This charge is without foun­dation. In the first place, the American I Legion's record in the flckl of benefits for disahkd veterans and the surviv­ors of deceased veterans is unequalled by any other organization. Secondly, <'arly in this session of Congress the \rncrican Legion testified in support rif essential increases in disahilitv and death compensation benefits. In. fact, the increases now proposed in hills before the House and the Veterans •tcr.llls It''' \lfairs Committee reflect almost exact­[)() a montl; ly the amounts we recommended 66.15, ~''.\ I lllonths a~o. Third, . and most impor­as to nctl tant rn this connect10n, the Amcrtcan tcd $1~0 ;1 Legion supported amendments to our •nt $13.? . .J.J. I IVar Veterans Security Bi ll as reported nee, it prW ~lit hy the Veterans Affairs Committee ing adjtt>~ I to provide these increases. There's not sting hctl' the slightest justification for charging the American Legion with being more 'Oncerned with older \Vorld \Var I I •etcrans than with the scrvicc-disahlc<l and survivors. ~II Deserve Needed Benefits \Ve arc determined that each of 'hesc individuals shall receive the ~eneflts which he needs and deserves. there's no question of choosing among ~hern. All arc entitled to needed hcm'­qts and our nation can well afford to t'are for all of them. :\fuch of the opposition to the War ieterans Security Bill stems directly torn the fantastic amounts of esti­' llated costs which the government has 'lit out for the first year, the fifth year, lld so on, up to the year two thou­~ lld. This is the scare technique 'hich opponents to any benefit pro­~ tam sometimes invoke for the 11llrposc of stopping or killing the pro­' OsaJ. \Ve have not seen much public- 1}' on projected cost estimates of the 1tvivor ' bill which the government '•Vors. One of the projections against t "Crs Fonu:--r '1·:ws, October, 1956 our bill, namclv, the $148 billion is an estimated cum~1lative cost by the year two thousand. And this covers all pro­visions of the enlarged bill as reported by Veterans Affairs Committee on June 9, 1956. It docs not pertain to the original bill nor to the one which finally passed the House. Time docs not permit me to develop this subject of cost in the detailed manner which it deserves. I would urge the American people, however, to remember this. The American Le­gion's \Var Veterans Security Bill to grant needy \Vorkl \Var I veterans a modest measure of sccurit\ in their declining years is in the ·nature of emergency legislation. It is designed to do an immediate job for a segment of * * * * * * * * * * Congressman Olin Teague (D­Tex. J. a veteran and Chairman of the Veterans Affairs Committee, gives his reasons for opposing the War Vet­erans Security Bill . ... T11F11E arc approxi­mately twenty-two million veterans today. By 1985, ac­cording to the Cen­sus Bureau, we will have approximately 221 million people in our eountrv with 110 REP. TEAGUE million being either veterans, their families, or their de­pendents. This year we arc spending approximately two and a half billion dollars for compensation and pensions. And, according to the Veterans Ad­ministration, if our present laws arc not changed, this amount will become five billion dollars within approxi­mately forty years. Today we have approximately two million on compensation rolls, and 582,000 on pension rolls. \Ve arc add­ing 5,000 per month to the pension rolls. ow this means that within five years over a million vl'tcrans will he ;·ccciving either $66.00 or $78.00 per month in addition to their social security. Now, today, under existing law, any man with 90 days honorable service, less than age 55, if he has a single per­manent disability o[ 60 per cent or two or more permanent disabilities, one of which is 40 per cent in degree, com­bined with other permanent disabili­ties to a total of 70 per cent and who our population which is rapidly grow­ing older, which is in need of help, and which cannot he taken care of by existing government programs or by the type of benefits made available by private industry within the past few years. The average \Vorld \Var IT and Korea war veteran may not need vet­erans' pensions when he reaches ·age 65 because he will benefit from social security and private industry retire­ment programs. Thus, the program we advocate now for \\'orld \Var I veterans is self­liquidating. It will han' ser\'ed its essential purpost> \\ ithin a few short years as a generation of Americans who ddended our nation in \Vorld \\'ar I passes out of existence. * * * * * * * * * is unemployable, will receive $66.15. A man aged 55 who has a single per­manent disability or a combination of permanent disabilities rated 60 per cent and unemployable will receive $66.00. At age 60, a man with a 50 per cent rating for single or two or more permanent disabilities and unemploy­able, will receive $66.00. At age 65, with a 10 per cent rating for single or two or more permanent disabilities and unemployable, a man with an in­come of less than $1400, if single, and $2700, if married, will receive $78.00 a month. Now, under the American Ll'gion leaders' plan, a \Vorld \Var I veteran with only a short period of service - and bear in mind that more than 365,000 World War I veterans had less than six months service and half did not go overseas - a veteran with only 90 days o[ service would be handed $90.00 a month, despite the fact that he may have nothing wrong with him and he may have a job or income of up to $2700 if married and $1400 if single. In other words, a vet­eran could have a combined income of $3780 a year from his pension and other sources, have nothing whatever wrong with him, and have served 90 days or more and be called a "needs" case by the American Legion Bill. Tow, I have objected to this kind of legislation, since nearly every dollar we put into non-service-connected pensions on such a liberal basis must come from the war-disabled veteran. Today a war veteran who suffered a serious disability in combat and is now (Continued Oil page 54) Page 23 A Symposium on Anti-Stalinism and the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, published by the Committee on Un-American In a foreword to the 173-page Symposium, Congressman Francis E. Walter, Chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee, points out that this report was organized "in an endeavor to provide an adequate explanation and an indication of what the world may expect from the Soviet Union's new course." The selections from the Symposium will conclude in this issue with the Summation by J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Ranging over a broad area of Soviet-Communist policies and their origins, the contributors to the Symposium stand together on these three major conclusions: l . The current policy and tactics of the Soviet Union present the greatest danger ever to confront the West; 2. The current developments in the Soviet Union are a reflection of growing strength and confidence rather than weakness; 3. The policy of anti-Stalinism proclaimed by Khrushchev does not denote any abandonment of the messianic Soviet program of universal conquest . Page 24 • • • • Kenneth Colegrove is professor emeritus of political science at North ­western University and has taught also at Oberlin College , Syracuse Uni­versity, and the University of California. He is the author of "Militarism
File Name uhlib_1352973_v005_n010_069.pdf