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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
File 044
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 044. 1956-10. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 25, 2017. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1583.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-10). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 044. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1583

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 044, 1956-10, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 25, 2017, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1583.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date October 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries Special Collections
  • Energy & Sustainability Research Collection
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 044
Transcript the side of the class enemy — American monopoly capital."" The break with the united front saw the beginning of the end of the honeymoon in union circles. Communists had been influential in the CIO, but in 1946 Philip Murray charged that a "well-organized ancl financed conspiracy" was trying "to undermine anel even destroy the labor movement." Slowly but surely Communists ancl Communist-dominated unions began to be expelled from the CIO. Communist-front groups continued to operate in the traditionally fertile "intellectual" fields, with considerable success. In 1948, Foster led the Communists and their allies into a coalition with the Progressive Party of Henry Wallace, which polled over a million votes, most of them in New York City, secondarily in California. Evidence of Soviet espionage in the United States mounted steadily after World War II. Americans were shocked. Although the story of Soviet espionage in Canada had forewarned the United States, it was clear from the cases of Gerhart Eisler, Alger Hiss, the atomic spies, and others, that the United States was unprepared, even after having had the benefit of Canada's experience. In 1933, the Soviet Government replaced George Williams, alias Mikhailox, with Gerhart Eisler, alias Edwards, as coordinator of Comintern policies. According to the FBI, Eisler "was responsible for anel instrumental in the determination of American Communist police, and the control and direction of American Communist operations." Eisler arrived in the United States in 1941 ostensible as a refugee. He wrote under the- name of Hans Berger in the Daily Worker and Political Affairs. Sentence-el to a year in jail, in June, 1947, for contempt of Congress, Eisler was found guilty on August 15, 1947, of passport hand. Released on bail, Eisler slipped aboard the Polish liner Baton/ and escaped to East Germany, where he became a propagandist for the Communist regime. THE ARROGANT ALGER HISS The Alger Hiss ease- shook the complacency of many Americans for the first time. On July 31, 1948, Elizabeth Bentley told the House Committee on Un-American Activities an amazing story of Soxiet espionage, listing many prominent persons. Whittaker Chambers, called as a witness on August 3, said he had been a Communist between 1934 ancl 1937, with the- assigned task of working with a Communist spy ring in American government. He named, as members of the ring, Alger ancl Donald Hiss of the State Department; Lee Pressman, former CIO general counsel; Nathan Witt, former secretary of the National Labor Relations Hoard: John Abt. former Labor Department attorney; Henry Collins of the State Department; Harry Dexter White, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. By this time Alger Hiss was president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Hiss told the Committee on August 5 that, in effect, he had never been a Communist, and had never known a man named Whittaker Chambers, even when shown his picture. Public opinion ancl most of the Committee were so impressed by his testimony that the case would probably have been dropped had it not been for certain doubts entertained by Committee Counsel Robert Stripling and "ED.'s NOTE: The reader may find it interesting to compare this account of Browder's dethronement with the report given hy Bella V. Dodef in her hook, School of Darkness, ev-hieli appeared in eiin- densed form in Facts Forum News, September, 1956. Page 42 Senator Richard Nixon."° The Committee decided to press Chambers for details of the spy ring and of Hiss, details he had previously given to Adolph Berle of the State Department, in 1939. The Committee then asked Hiss the same questions they had asked Chambers, and received the same answers. When the Committee told Hiss he must have known Chambers, Hiss said he once knew a man named George Crosley who answered to the description of Chambers. When confronted by Chambers, Hiss finally admitted he knew him, but under the name of Crosley, ancl not as a Communist. He also steadfastly denied all Chambers' charges. Others in the story — Pressman, Witt, Abt, and Collins — refused to answer questions of the Committee on grounds of self-incrimination. Goaded by the pro-Hiss forces to call Hiss a Communist or former Communist in public for which he might be sued, Chambers did so on a radio program, on August 27. Hiss was sloxv to sue, but when pressed by the Washington Post ancl other pro-Hiss elements, Hiss' lawyers asked Chambers to produce any documents he might have which would establish that he and Hiss were Communists in the same spy ring (November 17, 1948). Chambers immediately produced a thick envelope containing four pages in Hiss' handwriting and a great number of typewritten documents which he said had been typed on Hiss' typewriter. These documents contained excerpts ancl summaries of scores of confidential ancl secret State Department messages. The Justice Department, after two weeks of inaction, was repute-die planning to drop tbe whole case for lack of evidence. This spurred Senator Nixon ancl Counsel Stripling to go to Chambers, advise him of the turn of events, ancl ask if he bad any other information. Chambers then turned over to the Committee the famous "pumpkin papers" — five rolls of microfilm containing photostat copies of scores of confidential and secret documents from the State Department and the Bureau of Standards. The Committee told the Justice- Department that unless it proceeded with its investigation the Committee would conduct its own. Hiss was indicted on December 15, 1948. Th first trial ended in a hung jure'. The- second trial resulted in the- conviction of Alger Hiss as guilty of perjury in denying that he had turned over confidential government documents to Whittaker Chambers. ESPIONAGE ON A GRAND SCALE What was important was not so much the fact that Hiss hail been convicted on the technical ground of perjury, as the fact that wide-scale assaults on American security were uncovered. The Hiss-Chambers spy ring had been able to infiltrate into vital positions in government and industry! four in the State Department; two in the Treasury Department; two in the Bureau of Standards; one in the Aberdeen arsenal; one- as general counsel of the ICO; two in the Electric Boat Company; and so on. Hiss was the most important, due to his key State Department post, his participation in the Yalta Conference, and his leadership at the UN Conference in San Francisco. The story of atomic spies is yet another in the annals of Soviet operations in the United States. The Klaus Fuel*1 ••ED.'s NOTE: For a parallel and fuller account of the Hiss Case, see chapter 6 in the book, Nixon, by Hulpli de Toleelano, published by Henry Holt and Co., 1956. Facts Forum News, October, 1956
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