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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 010. 1956-10. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 22, 2017. http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1549.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-10). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 010. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1549

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956 - File 010, 1956-10, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 22, 2017, http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/1609/show/1549.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date October 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries Special Collections
  • Energy & Sustainability Research Collection
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 010
Transcript ' "■ - would wreck any type canal in existence either now or in the future, but less damage would be inflicted on the lock level canal because of its higher resistance against landslides. Their contention is that the estimate of expenditures for the third locks addition to the canal would be approximately from $210 million to $360 million, while the building of an entirely new Sea Level Canal would cost the taxpayers roughly between $5 and $10 billion. In addition, the Third Locks Project can be completed in the shortest time, which would be approximately four or five years. The Sea- Level Canal would take quite a few years longer to complete. The basic features of the Third Locks Project are to increase the capacity of the canal in respect to the size and number of vessels that may be accommodated, and also to decrease the probability of interrupted ship traffic due to enemy action. The wider ancl larger dimensions of the proposed locks will allow the passage of larger vessels, including the largest of modern aircraft carriers. Thus, the additional flight of locks to be provided throughout will increase the number of vessels that can transit the canal in a given period, since vessels can be dispatched through the channels at shorter intervals than through thc locks. Protection Against Fog One of the project's main purposes is to lessen the effects of fog upon the capacity of the canal. Fogs of such density as to block navigation of the cut occur frequently during the rainy season, from May to December. During a fog, the lockage of vessels northbound at the Pedro Miguel cut is impracticable because they cannot proceed immediately into the cut, and there are at present no adequate berthing or anchorage facilities available above the locks. Fog rarely blankets the actual locks themselves so as to interfere with their operations, and if berthing space or anchorage were available above the locks, ships could be held ancl locked up until the fog cleared the cut. After the fog had lifted, they could be dispatched at close intervals, anel the anchorage could be cleared of vessels in readiness to receive southbound vessels. With the third set of locks in operation, the Panama Canal's capacity could be one ship every thirteen minutes. Also, it is deemed essential to Page 8 widen the Gaillard cut to permit two- way traffic of all vessels. The cut can be widened at a cost of tentatively $70 million for a minimum width of 500 feet. The wider channel resulting would be extremely beneficial in reducing surges, decreasing the chances of accidents in the cut, avoiding delays to individual vessels, simplifying dispatching, and would offer Other advantages similar or comparable to those of the anchorage. Also, the increased width ancl depth would reduce the "suction" effects that would be experienced with large vessels in channels of smaller dimensions. Widening of the channel would allow a reduction in the total time required for a vessel to transit the canal. Delay would be avoided in approaching the locks, attaching the lines of the towing locomotives, and departing from the locks after lockage. The average saving in time would be about half an hour for every vessel passing through the canal. In time of war this would be a vital factor, particularly in moving an entire battle fleet through the canal. Economically, the elimination of such delays is of tangible value to each vessel, and the total economic value would increase in proportion to the total traffic. Estimating liberally the average value of the savings in time at approximately $75 per vessel, the economic benefit would range from $470,000 annually for the year of highest traffic to date, to about $1,500,000 for the traffic to be anticipated one hundred years from now in 2056. Cutting Down Accidents With safer and wider clearance assured, the reduction of physical and mental strain on pilots navigating their vessels through the canal would be beneficial. The decrease in the need for assistance by tugs would be another additional advantage towards reducing accidents in passage. Since the Panama Canal first opened, there has been an estimated total of 708 accidents during actual transit. The average damage per accident to each vessel has been about $2,100 each time. It is estimated that accidents experienced in approaching and departing from the locks would be reduced by about one-third in number if the Canal is widened. The ratio of accidents would assume great importance during war time. Only recently, an important military vessel struck the bank near Cunetto, and encountered delay for repairs from an accident that might have been avoided in a wider ancl straights channel. While it is generally conceded that the superior power and maneuverability of war vessels reduces their liability to accident in the cut, this particular accident furnishes current evidence, if any is needed, i» the desirability of a better channel- With the wider channel in use. the minimum time of transit for war vessels would be reduced considerable's and the probability of blocking the channel by the sinking or damage to a military ship would be diminished substantially. Great Savings in Operating Costs The most important advantage, from the economic viewpoint at least, is the reduction in the annual operating cost of the Pacific locks. The nl"' mate prospective savings would amount to more than $500,000 pet year. The increased traffic would mean additional revenue in canal tolls dufl ing peak periods of merchant sli'P traffic. Probably the next most important advantage is the increase in the total usable storage in Gatun Lake- as '■> result of the reduction of water sxxtm in the cut and the addition of Mil"'1' flores Lake at the summit level. Together, they would increase the usablj storage by about 160,000 acre ft*] which has an immediate value f"' power purposes in the neighborhood of $40,000 per year. The ultimate value of this .storage may be higher, when it is required f°' lockage, but that time i.s remote, 3° the- value could be determined oflfl after detailed study eil other possib"' ties that may be better for both p"xV'( and navigation. It has been previous pointed out that a similar result C*j be accomplished by either widening'' deepening the cut sufficiently to i* duce the surges e>r to permit lo*J levels in Gatun Lake, and that storaffl at a higher level than Gatun Lake '- far more valuable. The reduction ' the time of transit by eliminating y1 delays in approaching and depart"*!] from the Pedro Miguel locks wo"' have a large theoretical value. Maurice H. Thatcher, former go*'1', nor of the Canal Zone ancl head of * . in'- society of more than 2,000 surviv)' engineers, designers, and construe1 workers who actually built the (Continued on page *-^ Facts Foiu-m News, October, 1™
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